Child Indicators Research

, Volume 9, Issue 1, pp 73–92 | Cite as

Validation of the Social Emotional Health Survey–Secondary for Korean Students

  • Seung-yeon Lee
  • Sukkyung YouEmail author
  • Michael J. Furlong


The Social Emotional Health Survey–Secondary (SEHS-S) was developed to assess adolescent’s core mindsets that are associated with positive psychosocial development. The present study extended SEHS–S research by examining its use with a nonwestern sample of Korean adolescents (Grades 7–12; N = 686) and examined the invariance of the SEHS–S factor structure for males and females. Factor analyses were conducted in two stages. In stage 1, using a split-half of the total sample (S1), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was employed to test the fit of the previously known factor structure of the SEHS–S. In stage 2, using S2, structural equation modeling was used to test two alternative SEHS–S factor structures and invariance across gender groups in a series of multigroup CFAs. Results indicated that the CFA analyses supported the SEHS–S measurement model. The multigroup invariance analysis found that the SEHS–S higher-order structure had full invariance across gender groups, which indicated that the measured latent traits have similar meaning across groups and that the students responded to the items in similar ways. Latent means analysis found that females more strongly (moderate effect size) endorsed belief-in-others items than males. A SEM analysis also found that the SEHS–S measurement model, including the second-order covitality latent trait was a significant positive predictor of subjective wellbeing. Finally, students with higher levels of covitality reported better school achievement and fewer depressive symptoms. Implications for the applied use of the SEHS–S in Korea to assess complete mental health are discussed.


Complete mental health Covitality Social-emotional health Measurement Psychometrics Screener Subjective wellbeing Korean adolescents Social Emotional Health Survey 

Supplementary material

12187_2014_9294_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (93 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 92 kb)


  1. Antaramian, S. P., Heubner, E. S., Hills, K. J., & Valois, R. F. (2010). A dual-factor model of mental health: toward a more comprehensive understanding of youth functioning. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 80, 462–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bentler, P. M. (1990). Comparative fit indices in structural models. Psychological Bulletin, 107, 238–246. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.107.2.238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bentler, P. M. (2006). EQS 6 structural equations program manual. Encino: Multivariate Software.Google Scholar
  4. Borsboom, D. (2006). When does measurement invariance matter? Medical Care, 44, 176–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen, F. (2008). What happens if we compare chopsticks with forks? The impact of making inappropriate comparisons in cross-cultural research. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 95, 1005–1018. doi: 10.1037/a0013193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen, F. F., Sousa, K. H., & West, S. G. (2005). Testing measurement invariance of second order factor models. Structural Equation Modeling, 12, 471–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cheung, G. W., & Rensvold, R. B. (2002). Evaluating goodness-of-fit indexes for testing measurement invariance. Structural Equation Modeling, 9, 233–255. doi: 10.1207/S15328007SEM0902_5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cho, A. (2005). The mediating effect of social support in the relationship between adolescents’ stress and academic achievement. Korean Journal of Educational Research, 9(43), 137–155.Google Scholar
  9. Cho, A., & Bang, H. (2003). The effect of parent, teacher, and friend social support on adolescents’ game addiction. Korean Journal of Youth Studies, 10(1), 249–275.Google Scholar
  10. Cohen, J. (1992). A power primer. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 155–159.Google Scholar
  11. Dowdy, E., Furlong, M. J., Raines, T. C., Price, M., Murdock, J., & Bovery, B. (2014). Enhancing school-based mental health services with a preventive and promotive approach to universal screening for complete mental health. Journal of Educational and Psychology Consultation, 4, 2014. doi: 10.1080/10474412.2014.929951. First published online November.Google Scholar
  12. Eaton, D. A., Kann, L., Kinchen, S., Shanklin, S., Flint, K. H., Hawkins, J. Wechsler, H. (2012). Youth risk behavior surveillance—United States, 2011. MMWR, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 61(4).Google Scholar
  13. Ebesutani, C., Regan, J., Smith, A., Reise, S., Higa-McMillan, C., & Chorpita, B. F. (2012). The 10-item positive and negative affect schedule for children, child and parent shortened versions: application of item response theory for more efficient assessment. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 34, 191–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Eom, T., Kang, M., & Cho, J. (2008). Gender differences of the stress, hopelessness, depression, suicidal ideation, and social support in adolescents. Journal of Human Studies, 22, 5–30.Google Scholar
  15. Furlong, M. J., Ritchey, K. M., & O’Brennan, L. M. (2009). Developing norms for the California resilience youth development module: internal assets and school resources subscales. California School Psychologist, 14, 35–46. doi: 10.1007/BF03340949.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Furlong, M. J., Dowdy, E., Carnazzo, K., Bovery, B., & Kim, E. (2014). Covitality: Fostering the building blocks of complete mental health. NASP Communiqué, (June issue). Also available from
  17. Furlong, M., Froh, J., Muller, M., & Gonzalez, V. (2014b). The role of student engagement in engaged living and psychological and social wellbeing: The centrality of connectedness/relatedness. In D. J. Shernoff & J. Bempechat (Eds.), National Society for the Study of Education yearbook—Engaging youth in schools: Empirically-based models to guide future innovations (Vol. 13, No. 1). New York: Columbia Teachers College.Google Scholar
  18. Furlong, M. J., You, S., Renshaw, T. L., Smith, D. C., & O’Malley, M. D. (2014c). Preliminary development and validation of the social and emotional health survey for secondary students. Social Indicators Research, 117, 1011–1032. doi: 10.1007/s11205-013-0373-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Greenspoon, P. J., & Saklofske, D. H. (2001). Toward an integration of subjective wellbeing and psychopathology. Social Indicators Research, 54, 81–108. doi: 10.1023/A:1007219227883.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hanson, T. L., & Kim, J. O. (2007). Measuring resilience and youth development: The psychometric properties of the Healthy Kids Survey. (Issues & Answers Report, REL 2007–No. 034). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Educational Laboratory West. Retrieved from
  21. Hu, L., & Bentler, P. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1–55. doi: 10.1080/10705519909540118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Huebner, E. S. (1991). Initial development of the Students’ life satisfaction scale. School Psychology International, 12, 231–243. doi: 10.1177/0143034391123010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Huebner, E. S. (1995). The students’ life satisfaction scale: an assessment of psychometric properties with black and white elementary school students. Social Indicators Research, 34, 315–323. doi: 10.1007/BF01078690.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hwang, M. S., & Jo, H. S. (2004). The relationship between developmental assets for young people and health risk behaviors. The Korean Journal of Health Psychology, 9(1), 85–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ju, S., & Lee, Y. (2011). Development and validation of the resilience scale for adolescents (RSA). Korean Journal of Youth Studies, 18, 103–139.Google Scholar
  26. Jung, C. W. (2010). Effects and relationships among developmental assets, locus of control, stress coping styles, and stress on the basis of adolescents’ perception. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Seoul, Korea: Chungnam National University.Google Scholar
  27. Kamphaus, R. W., & Reynolds, C. R. (2007). BASC-2 Behavioral and Emotional Screening System manual. Bloomington: Pearson.Google Scholar
  28. Kelly, R. M., Hills, K. J., Huebner, E. S., & McQuillin, S. D. (2012). The longitudinal stability and dynamics of group membership in the dual-factor model of mental health psychosocial predictors of mental health. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 27, 337–355. doi: 10.1177/0829573512458505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Keyes, C. L. M. (2005). Mental illness and/or mental health? Investigating axioms of the complete state model of health. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 539–548. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.73.3.539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Keyes, C. L. M. (2007). Promoting and protecting mental health as flourishing: a complimentary strategy for improving national mental health. American Psychologist, 62, 95–108. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.62.2.95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kim, K. H. (2011). 2010 report of diagnosing Korean youth key competence. Seoul: National Youth Policy Institute.Google Scholar
  32. Kim, E. A., & Lee, S. Y. (2011). The roles of empathy, self-efficacy, and beliefs in classroom norm in defending behaviors among middle school students. The Korean Journal of Developmental Psychology, 24(1), 59–77.Google Scholar
  33. Korean Center for Disease Control. (2013). The Ninth Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey report. Seoul, Korea: Author.Google Scholar
  34. Korean Foundation for Preventing Youth Violence. (2013). 2012 National survey report on school violence in Korea. Seoul, Korea: Author.Google Scholar
  35. Korean Ministry of Education. (2013). 2012 Report on national student mental health screening. Seoul, Korea: Author.Google Scholar
  36. Lee, S. Y. (2014). The roles of empathy, social-self-efficacy, and perceived norms on defending behaviors to bullying among middle school students. The Korean Journal of Developmental Psychology, 27(3), 89–109.Google Scholar
  37. Lee, H., & Jo, H. (2005). A study for development of the resilience scale of Korean adolescents. Studies on Korean Youth, 16, 161–206.Google Scholar
  38. Lee, H., & Jo, H. (2006). A validation study of the resilience scale in Korean adolescents. The Korean Journal of Counseling and Psychopathology, 18, 353–371.Google Scholar
  39. Lee, H. H., Kim, E. J., & Lee, M. K. (2003). A validation study of Korea positive and negative affect schedule: the PANAS scales. The Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 22(4), 935–946.Google Scholar
  40. McCullough, M. E., Emmons, R. A., & Tsang, J. (2002). A grateful disposition: a conceptual and empirical topography. Journal of Social and Personality Psychology, 8, 112–127. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.82.1.112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Moon, K. (2012). Effects of stress, self-resilience, and depression on suicide ideation among teenagers. Seoul: Korea University.Google Scholar
  42. National Youth Policy Institute. (2013). Korea Children and Youth Panel Study (KCYPS)’s middle school first-grade third-year panel data (2012). Seoul, Korea: Author. Retrieved from
  43. Park, H. S., & Lee, H. E. (2012). Cultural differences in “thank you.”. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 31, 138–156. doi: 10.1177/0261927X12438536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Proramme for International Student Assessment. (2013). PISA 2012 results in focus: What 15-year-olds know and what they do with what they know. Paris: France: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
  45. Scales, P. C., & Leffert, N. (1998). Developmental assets: A synthesis of the scientific research on adolescent development. Minneapolis, MN: Search Institute.Google Scholar
  46. Shin, H. S. (2011). An inquiry into the necessity and sustainability of social and emotional leaning in schools pursuing academic excellence. The Korean Journal of School Psychology, 8, 175–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Steiger, J. H., & Lind, A. (1980). Statistically based tests for the number of common factors. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Psychometric Society, Iowa City, IA.Google Scholar
  48. Suldo, S. M., & Shaffer, E. J. (2008). Looking beyond psychopathology: The dual-factor model of mental health in youth. School Psychology Review, 37, 52–68.Google Scholar
  49. Vandenberg, R. J., & Lance, C. E. (2000). A review and synthesis of the measurement invariance literature: Suggestions, practices, and recommendations for organizational research. Organizational Research Methods, 2, 4–69. doi: 10.1177/109442810031002.
  50. You, S., Furlong, M. J., Dowdy, E., Renshaw, T. L., Smith, D. C., & O’Malley, M. D. (2014a). Further validation of the social and emotional health survey for high school students. Applied Research in Quality of Life, 9, 997–1015. doi: 10.1007/s11482-013-9282-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. You, S., Furlong, M. J., Felix, E. D., & O’Malley, M. D. (2014). Validation of the Social and Emotional Health Survey for five sociocultural groups: Multigroup invariance and latent mean analyses. Psychology in the Schools. Google Scholar
  52. Yuan, K. H., & Bentler, P. M. (2000). Three likelihood-based methods for mean and covariance structure analysis with nonnormal missing data. Sociological Methodology, 30, 165–200. doi: 10.1111/0081-1750.00078.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Seung-yeon Lee
    • 1
  • Sukkyung You
    • 2
    Email author
  • Michael J. Furlong
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyEwha Womans UniversitySeoulSouth Korea
  2. 2.College of EducationHankuk University of Foreign StudiesDongdaemun-GuSouth Korea
  3. 3.Department of Counseling, Clinical, and School PsychologyUniversity of California Santa BarbaraSanta BarbaraUSA

Personalised recommendations