Journal of Molecular Neuroscience

, Volume 67, Issue 3, pp 373–387 | Cite as

The Role of Vitamins in Autism Spectrum Disorder: What Do We Know?

  • Geir BjørklundEmail author
  • Mostafa I. Waly
  • Yahya Al-Farsi
  • Khaled Saad
  • Maryam Dadar
  • Md. Mostafizur Rahman
  • Amira Elhoufey
  • Salvatore Chirumbolo
  • Jagoda Jóźwik-Pruska
  • Joanna Kałużna-Czaplińska


Vitamin or mineral supplementation is considered to be the most commonly used medical treatment for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), in addition to other interventions such as neurological and psychological interventions. There is not much evidence of therapeutic efficacy between vitamin and mineral supplementation and improvements in ASD. However, several researchers have noted that patients with ASD have various metabolic and nutritional abnormalities including issues with sulfation, methylation, glutathione redox imbalances, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction. There is some evidence that vitamin and mineral supplementation may support these basic physiologic processes. Recently, the nutritional status of ASD patients has been gaining focus in this particular area. Pointing out the nutritional status as a potential etiological factor for attention/communication disorders, more importance has been given to this particular point. Moreover, autistic specific considerations like the feature and behavior of ASD might be increased or at least fall in the higher risk due to the sub-optimal nutritional status.


Autism Vitamins Vitamin supplementation Nutrition 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

All authors have read the manuscript and declared no conflict of interests.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Geir Bjørklund
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mostafa I. Waly
    • 2
  • Yahya Al-Farsi
    • 3
  • Khaled Saad
    • 4
    • 5
  • Maryam Dadar
    • 6
  • Md. Mostafizur Rahman
    • 7
    • 8
  • Amira Elhoufey
    • 5
    • 9
  • Salvatore Chirumbolo
    • 10
    • 11
  • Jagoda Jóźwik-Pruska
    • 12
    • 13
  • Joanna Kałużna-Czaplińska
    • 12
    • 13
  1. 1.Council for Nutritional and Environmental Medicine (CONEM)Mo i RanaNorway
  2. 2.Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Agricultural and Marine SciencesSultan Qaboos UniversityMuscatOman
  3. 3.Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, College of Medicine and Health ScienceSultan Qaboos UniversityMuscatOman
  4. 4.Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of MedicineAssiut UniversityAssiutEgypt
  5. 5.CONEM Upper Egypt Pediatric Research GroupAssiut UniversityAssiutEgypt
  6. 6.Razi Vaccine and Serum Research InstituteAgricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO)KarajIran
  7. 7.Department of Environmental SciencesJahangirnagar UniversityDhakaBangladesh
  8. 8.Graduate School of Environmental ScienceHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan
  9. 9.Department of Community Health Nursing, Faculty of NursingAssiut UniversityAssiutEgypt
  10. 10.Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine and Movement SciencesUniversity of VeronaVeronaItaly
  11. 11.CONEM Scientific SecretaryVeronaItaly
  12. 12.Institute of General and Ecological Chemistry, Department of ChemistryTechnical University of LodzLodzPoland
  13. 13.CONEM Poland Chemistry and Nutrition Research GroupLodz University of TechnologyLodzPoland

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