Food and Bioprocess Technology

, Volume 6, Issue 2, pp 441–455 | Cite as

Optimization of Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Phenolic Antioxidants from Grape Seeds (Vitis vinifera)

  • Kiruba Krishnaswamy
  • Valérie OrsatEmail author
  • Yvan Gariépy
  • K. Thangavel
Original Paper


Grape seeds (Vitis vinifera) are rich in phytochemicals that have antioxidant properties. The influence of independent variables such as microwave power (100, 150, and 200 W), extraction time (2, 4, and 6 min), and solvent concentration (30%, 45%, and 60% ethanol) and their interactions on total phenols and the antioxidant activity (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)) were determined; and the microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) process was optimized using a central composite design. The total phenols that were expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE), catechin equivalents (CAT), and tannic acid equivalents (TAE) were significantly influenced by the solvent concentration and the time of extraction. A numerical optimization was carried out to obtain the overall conditions for MAE of phenolic antioxidants from grape seed. The response variables were maximized for 6 min of MAE of grape seed (GS) with 32.6% ethanol at 121 W with a desirability function of 0.947. The predicted extraction yields were 13 ± 0.89, 21.6 ± 1.59, and 15.9 ± 1.32 mg GAE, CAT, and TAE, respectively per gram of GS. The predicted antioxidant activity per gram of dry weight GS was 80.9% for the inhibition of DPPH and 135 μM ascorbic acid equivalents for FRAP test. The predicted response values were significantly correlated with the observed ones as follows: GAE r = 0.995, CAT r = 0.990, TAE r = 0.996, DPPH r = 0.996, and FRAP r = 0.996.


Gallic acid Catechin Tannic acid Response surface methodology Antioxidant activity FRAP DPPH 



We thank the Dept. of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, Canada for providing the Canadian Commonwealth Scholarship, 2010. Thanks to Simona Nemes and Ashutosh Singh, Dept. of Bioresource Engineering, McGill University for their technical expertise and support.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kiruba Krishnaswamy
    • 1
  • Valérie Orsat
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yvan Gariépy
    • 1
  • K. Thangavel
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Bioresource EngineeringMcGill UniversitySte-Anne-de-BellevueCanada
  2. 2.Department of Food and Agricultural Process EngineeringTamil Nadu Agricultural UniversityCoimbatoreIndia

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