Olthuis JV, Watt MC, Bailey K, Hayden JA, Stewart SH. Therapist-supported Internet cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety disorders in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;3:CD011565.
Remes O, Brayne C, van der Linde R, Lafortune L. A systematic review of reviews on the prevalence of anxiety disorders in adult populations. Brain Behav. 2016;6(7):e00497.
Simpson HB, Neria Y, Lewis-Fernández R, Schneier F. Anxiety disorders: theory, research, and clinical perspectives. In: Simpson HB, Neria Y, Lewis-Fernandez R, Schneier F, editors. Anxiety Disorders: theory, research, and clinical Perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2010. p. 1–378.
Baxter AJ, Vos T, Scott KM, Ferrari AJ, Whiteford HA. The global burden of anxiety disorders in 2010. Psychol Med. 2014;44(11):2363–74.
Whiteford HA, Degenhardt L, Rehm J, Baxter AJ, Ferrari AJ, Erskine HE, et al. Global burden of disease attributable to mental and substance use disorders: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet. 2013;382(9904):1575–86.
Kessler RC, Chiu WT, Demler O, Merikangas KR, Walters EE. Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of 12-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005;62(6):617–27.
Kessler RC, Gruber M, Hettema JM, Hwang I, Sampson N, Yonkers KA. Co-morbid major depression and generalized anxiety disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey follow-up. Psychol Med. 2008;38(3):365–74.
Lai HMX, Cleary M, Sitharthan T, Hunt GE. Prevalence of comorbid substance use, anxiety and mood disorders in epidemiological surveys, 1990–2014: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2015;154:1–13.
Tully PJ, Cosh SM, Baune BT. A review of the affects of worry and generalized anxiety disorder upon cardiovascular health and coronary heart disease. Psychol Health Med. 2013;18(6):627–44.
• Batelaan NM, Seldenrijk A, Bot M, van Balkom AJLM, Penninx BWJH. Anxiety and new onset of cardiovascular disease: critical review and meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry 2016;208(3):223–231. Critically highlights the prevalence of elevated health risks in people with anxiety disorders.
Frasure-Smith N, Lespérance F. Depression and anxiety as predictors of 2-year cardiac events in patients with stable coronary artery disease. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2008;65(1):62.
Janszky I, Ahnve S, Lundberg I, Hemmingsson T. Early-onset depression, anxiety, and risk of subsequent coronary heart disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;56(1):31–7.
Roest AM, Martens EJ, de Jonge P, Denollet J. Anxiety and risk of incident coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;56(1):38–46.
Tully PJ, Baker RA, Knight JL. Anxiety and depression as risk factors for mortality after coronary artery bypass surgery. J Psychosom Res. 2008;64(3):285–90.
Baldwin DS, Anderson IM, Nutt DJ, Bandelow B, Bond A, Davidson JRT, et al. Evidence-based guidelines for the pharmacological treatment of anxiety disorders: recommendations from the British Association for Psychopharmacology. J Psychopharmacol. 2005;19(6):567–96.
Baldwin DS, Waldman S, Allgulander C. Evidence-based pharmacological treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2011;14(5):697–710.
Carpenter JK, Andrews LA, Witcraft SM, Powers MB, Smits JAJ, Hofmann SG. Cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety and related disorders: a meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials. Depress Anxiety. 2018;16
Ori R, Amos T, Bergman H, Soares-Weiser K, Ipser JC, Stein DJ. Augmentation of cognitive and behavioural therapies (CBT) with d-cycloserine for anxiety and related disorders. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;5:CD007803.
de Vries YA, de Jonge P, van den Heuvel E, Turner EH, Roest AM. Influence of baseline severity on antidepressant efficacy for anxiety disorders: meta-analysis and meta-regression. Br J Psychiatry. 2016;208(6):515–21.
Hofmann SG, Smits JAJ. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for adult anxiety disorders: a meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials. J Clin Psychiatry. 2008;69(4):621–32.
Pampallona S, Bollini P, Tibaldi G, Kupelnick B, Munizza C. Patient adherence in the treatment of depression. Br J Psychiatry. 2002;180:104–9.
Hofmann SG, Sawyer AT, Korte KJ, Smits JAJ. Is it beneficial to add pharmacotherapy to cognitive-behavioral therapy when treating anxiety disorders? A meta-analytic review. Int J Cogn Ther. 2009;2(2):160–75.
Gunter RW, Whittal ML. Dissemination of cognitive-behavioral treatments for anxiety disorders: overcoming barriers and improving patient access. Clin Psychol Rev. 2010;30(2):194–202.
• Arjadi R, Nauta MH, Chowdhary N, Bockting CLH. A systematic review of online interventions for mental health in low and middle income countries: a neglected field. Glob Ment Health. 2015;2:e12. An important and critical perspective on the need to develop interventions that can be applied in low-resourced settings.
• Stubbs B, Koyanagi A, Hallgren M, Firth J, Richards J, Schuch F, et al. Physical activity and anxiety: a perspective from the World Health Survey. J Affect Disord. 2017;208:545. This paper takes into account anxiety as a global problem, including often overlooked data from less developed nations.–52.
Strine TW, Mokdad AH, Balluz LS, Gonzalez O, Crider R, Berry JT, et al. Depression and anxiety in the United States: findings from the 2006 behavioral risk factor surveillance system. Psychiatr Serv. 2008;59(12):1383–90.
Thornicroft G. Physical health disparities and mental illness: the scandal of premature mortality. Br J Psychiatry. 2011;199(6):441–2.
Firth J, Cotter J, Elliott R, French P, Yung AR. A systematic review and meta-analysis of exercise interventions in schizophrenia patients. Psychol Med. 2015;45(7):1343–61.
Firth J, Stubbs B, Rosenbaum S, Vancampfort D, Malchow B, Schuch F, et al. Aerobic exercise improves cognitive functioning in people with schizophrenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Schizophr Bull. 2016;43(3):sbw115.
Ahlskog JE, Geda YE, Graff-Radford NR, Petersen RC. Physical exercise as a preventive or disease-modifying treatment of dementia and brain aging. Mayo Clin Proc. 2011;86(9):876–84.
Caspersen CJ, Powell KE, Christenson GM. Physical activity, exercise, and physical fitness: definitions and distinctions for health-related research. Public Health Rep. 100, 2:126–31.
•• Stonerock GL, Hoffman BM, Smith PJ, Blumenthal JA. Exercise as treatment for anxiety: systematic review and analysis. Ann Behav Med 2015;49(4):542–56. A high-quality review on exercise as a treatment for anxiety, which offers a comprehensive summary of the empirical evidence and highlights several key gaps in the literature.
Cooney GM, Dwan K, Greig CA, Lawlor DA, Rimer J, Waugh FR, et al. Exercise for depression. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;(9)
Schuch FB, Vancampfort D, Richards J, Rosenbaum S, Ward PB, Stubbs B. Exercise as a treatment for depression: a meta-analysis adjusting for publication bias. J Psychiatr Res. 2016;77:42–51.
Blumenthal JA, Babyak MA, Doraiswamy PM, Watkins L, Hoffman BM, Barbour KA, et al. Exercise and pharmacotherapy in the treatment of major depressive disorder. Psychosom Med. 2007;69(7):587–96.
Brosse AL, Sheets ES, Lett HS, Blumenthal JA. Exercise and the treatment of clinical depression in adults. Sports Med. 2002;32(12):741–60.
Kvam S, Kleppe CL, Nordhus IH, Hovland A. Exercise as a treatment for depression: a meta-analysis. J Affect Disord. 2016;202:67–86.
Broderick J, Knowles A, Chadwick J, Vancampfort D. Yoga versus standard care for schizophrenia. In: Broderick J, editor. Cochrane Database Syst RevCochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Chichester: Wiley; 2015.
Fiuza-Luces C, Garatachea N, Berger NA, Lucia A. Exercise is the real polypill. Physiology (Bethesda). 2013;28(5):330–58.
Schuch FB, Vasconcelos-Moreno MP, Borowsky C, Zimmermann AB, Rocha NS, Fleck MP. Exercise and severe major depression: effect on symptom severity and quality of life at discharge in an inpatient cohort. J Psychiatr Res. 2015;61:25–32.
Schuch FB, Vancampfort D, Rosenbaum S, Richards J, Ward PB, Stubbs B. Exercise improves physical and psychological quality of life in people with depression: a meta-analysis including the evaluation of control group response. Psychiatry Res. 2016;241:47–54.
Vancampfort D, Probst M, Helvik Skjaerven L, Catalán-Matamoros D, Lundvik-Gyllensten A, Gómez-Conesa A, et al. Systematic review of the benefits of physical therapy within a multidisciplinary care approach for people with schizophrenia. Phys Ther. 2012;92(1):11–23.
Vancampfort D, Rosenbaum S, Ward PB, Stubbs B. Exercise improves cardiorespiratory fitness in people with schizophrenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Schizophr Res. 2015;169(1):453–7.
Greer TL, Grannemann BD, Chansard M, Karim AI, Trivedi MH. Dose-dependent changes in cognitive function with exercise augmentation for major depression: results from the TREAD study. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2015;25(2):248–56.
Oertel-Knochel V, Mehler P, Thiel C, Steinbrecher K, Malchow B, Tesky V, et al. Effects of aerobic exercise on cognitive performance and individual psychopathology in depressive and schizophrenia patients. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2014;264(7):589–604.
•• Stubbs B, Vancampfort D, Rosenbaum S, Firth J, Cosco T, Veronese N, et al. An examination of the anxiolytic effects of exercise for people with anxiety and stress-related disorders: A meta-analysis. Psychiatry Res. 2017;249:102–8. A systematic update on the empirical evidence supporting exercise as a treatment for anxiety and stress-related disorders.
Baumeister SE, Leitzmann MF, Bahls M, Dörr M, Schmid D, Schomerus G, et al. Associations of leisure-time and occupational physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness with incident and recurrent major depressive disorder, depressive symptoms, and incident anxiety in a general population. J Clin Psychiatry. 2017;78(1):e41–7.
Azevedo Da Silva M, Singh-Manoux A, Brunner EJ, Kaffashian S, Shipley MJ, Kivimäki M, et al. Bidirectional association between physical activity and symptoms of anxiety and depression: the Whitehall II study. Eur J Epidemiol. 2012;27(7):537–46.
De Mello MT, Lemos V de A, HKM A, Bittencourt L, Santos-Silva R, Tufik S. Relationship between physical activity and depression and anxiety symptoms: a population study. J Affect Disord. 2013;149(1–3):241–6.
De Moor MHM, Beem AL, Stubbe JH, Boomsma DI, De Geus EJC. Regular exercise, anxiety, depression and personality: a population-based study. Prev Med (Baltim). 2006;42(4):273–9.
Goodwin RD. Association between physical activity and mental disorders among adults in the United States. Prev Med (Baltim). 2003;36(6):698–703.
Lindwall M, Gerber M, Jonsdottir IH, Börjesson M, Ahlborg G. The relationships of change in physical activity with change in depression, anxiety, and burnout: a longitudinal study of Swedish healthcare workers. Health Psychol. 2014;33(11):1309–18.
Teychenne M, Costigan SA, Parker K. The association between sedentary behaviour and risk of anxiety: a systematic review. BMC Public Health. 2015;15(1):513.
Mammen G, Faulkner G. Physical activity and the prevention of depression: a systematic review of prospective studies. Am J Prev Med. 2013;45(5):649–57.
Schuch FB, Vancampfort D, Firth J, Rosenbaum, Ward PB, Silva E, et al. Physical activity and incident depression: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Am J Psychiatry. 2018; (in press)
Teychenne M, Ball K, Salmon J. Sedentary behavior and depression among adults: a review. Int J Behav Med. 2010;17(4):246–54.
Lamers F, van Oppen P, Comijs HC, Smit JH, Spinhoven P, van Balkom AJLM, et al. Comorbidity patterns of anxiety and depressive disorders in a large cohort study. J Clin Psychiatry. 2011;72(3):341–8.
Rebar AL, Stanton R, Rosenbaum S. Comorbidity of depression and anxiety in exercise research. Lancet Psychiatry. 2017;4(7):519.
Bartley CA, Hay M, Bloch MH. Meta-analysis: aerobic exercise for the treatment of anxiety disorders. Prog Neuro-Psychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2013;45:34–9.
Jayakody K, Gunadasa S, Hosker C. Exercise for anxiety disorders: systematic review. Br J Sports Med. 2014;48(3):187–96.
Pedersen BK, Saltin B. Exercise as medicine—evidence for prescribing exercise as therapy in 26 different chronic diseases. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2015;25:1–72.
Conn VS. Anxiety outcomes after physical activity interventions. Nurs Res. 2010;59(3):224–31.
Herring MP, Lindheimer JB, O’Connor PJ. The effects of exercise training on anxiety. Am J Lifestyle Med. 2014;8(6):388–403.
Rebar AL, Stanton R, Geard D, Short C, Duncan MJ, Vandelanotte C. A meta-meta-analysis of the effect of physical activity on depression and anxiety in non-clinical adult populations. Health Psychol Rev. 2015;9(3):366–78.
Wipfli BM, Rethorst CD, Landers DM. The anxiolytic effects of exercise: a meta-analysis of randomized trials and dose-response analysis. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2008;30(4):392–410.
Rosenbaum S, Vancampfort D, Steel Z, Newby J, Ward PB, Stubbs B. Physical activity in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychiatry Res. 2015;230(2):130–6.
Ensari I, Greenlee TA, Motl RW, Petruzzello SJ. Meta-analysis of acute exercise effects on state anxiety: an update of randomized controlled trials over the past 25 years. Depress Anxiety. 2015;32(8):624–34.
Bischoff S, Wieder G, Einsle F, Petzold MB, Janßen C, Mumm JLM, et al. Running for extinction? Aerobic exercise as an augmentation of exposure therapy in panic disorder with agoraphobia. J Psychiatr Res. 2018;101:34–41.
Herring MP, O’Connor PJ, Dishman RK. The effect of exercise training on anxiety symptoms among patients. Arch Intern Med. 2010;170(4):321–31.
O’Connor PJ, Herring MP, Caravalho A. Mental health benefits of strength training in adults. Am J Lifestyle Med. 2010;4(5):377–96.
• Gordon BR, McDowell CP, Lyons M, Herring MP. The effects of resistance exercise training on anxiety: a meta-analysis and meta-regression analysis of randomized controlled trials. Sport Med. 2017;47(12):2521. Highlights the importance of differentiating between resistance and aerobic exercise, which may hold a clinical significance in the treatment of anxiety.–32.
Anderson E, Shivakumar G. Effects of exercise and physical activity on anxiety. Front Psychiatry. 2013;4:27.
Wegner M, Helmich I, Machado S, Nardi AE, Arias-Carrión O, Budde H. Effects of exercise on anxiety and depression disorders: review of meta-analyses and neurobiological mechanisms.
Kandola A, Hendrikse J, Lucassen PJ, Yücel M. Aerobic exercise as a tool to improve hippocampal plasticity and function in humans: practical implications for mental health treatment. Front Hum Neurosci. 2016;10:373.
Voss MW, Vivar C, Kramer AF, Van PH. Bridging animal and human models of exercise-induced brain plasticity. Trends Cogn Sci. 2013:1–20.
Jacobson L, Sapolsky R. The role of the hippocampus in feedback regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Endocr Rev. 1991;12(2):118–34.
McEwen BS. Physiology and neurobiology of stress and adaptation: central role of the brain. Physiol Rev. 2007;87(3):873–904.
Kasai K, Yamasue H, Gilbertson MW, Shenton ME, Rauch SL, Pitman RK. Evidence for acquired pregenual anterior cingulate gray matter loss from a twin study of combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2008;63(6):550–6.
Pavić L, Gregurek R, Radoš M, Brkljačić B, Brajković L, Šimetin-Pavić I, et al. Smaller right hippocampus in war veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder.
Firth J, Stubbs B, Vancampfort D, Schuch F, Lagopoulos J, Rosenbaum S, et al. Effect of aerobic exercise on hippocampal volume in humans: a systematic review and meta-analysis. NeuroImage. 2018;166:230–8.
Vogelzangs N, Beekman ATF, de Jonge P, Penninx BWJH. Anxiety disorders and inflammation in a large adult cohort. Transl Psychiatry. 2013;3(4):e249–9.
Miller GE, Cohen S, Ritchey AK. Chronic psychological stress and the regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines: a glucocorticoid-resistance model. Health Psychol. 2002;21(6):531–41.
Moylan S, Eyre HA, Maes M, Baune BT, Jacka FN, Berk M. Exercising the worry away: how inflammation, oxidative and nitrogen stress mediates the beneficial effect of physical activity on anxiety disorder symptoms and behaviours. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2013;37(4):573–84.
Tantimonaco M, Ceci R, Sabatini S, Catani MV, Rossi A, Gasperi V, et al. Physical activity and the endocannabinoid system: an overview. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2014;71(14):2681–98.
Smits JAJ, Berry AC, Rosenfield D, Powers MB, Behar E, Otto MW. Reducing anxiety sensitivity with exercise. Depress Anxiety. 2008;25(8):689–99.
Ströhle A, Graetz B, Scheel M, Wittmann A, Feller C, Heinz A, et al. The acute antipanic and anxiolytic activity of aerobic exercise in patients with panic disorder and healthy control subjects. J Psychiatr Res. 2009;43(12):1013–7.
Barlow DH. Clinical handbook of psychological disorders: a step-by-step treatment manual. New York: The Guildford Press; 2014. 768 p
Petruzzello SJ, Landers DM, Hatfield BD, Kubitz KA, Salazar W. A meta-analysis on the anxiety-reducing effects of acute and chronic exercise. Outcomes and mechanisms. Sports Med. 1991;11(3):143–82.
Bos AER, Huijding J, Muris P, Vogel LRR, Biesheuvel J. Global, contingent and implicit self-esteem and psychopathological symptoms in adolescents. Pers Individ Dif. 2010;48(3):311–6.
Hendrikse J, Kandola A, Coxon J, Rogasch N, Yücel M. Combining aerobic exercise and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to improve brain function in health and disease. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2017;83:11–20.
Broman-Fulks JJ, Kelso K, Zawilinski L. Effects of a single bout of aerobic exercise versus resistance training on cognitive vulnerabilities for anxiety disorders. Cogn Behav Ther 2015 4;44(4):240–251.
• LeBouthillier DM, Asmundson GJG. The efficacy of aerobic exercise and resistance training as transdiagnostic interventions for anxiety-related disorders and constructs: a randomized controlled trial. J Anxiety Disord. 2017;52:43–52. Highlights and directly compares the differences between aerobic and resistance exercise as treatments for anxiety disorders.
Herring MP, Jacob ML, Suveg C, O’Connor PJ. Effects of short-term exercise training on signs and symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder. Ment Health Phys Act. 2011;4(2):71–7.
Rebar AL, Taylor A. Physical activity and mental health; it is more than just a prescription. Ment Health Phys Act. 2017;13:77–82.
Rosenbaum S, Tiedemann A, Sherrington C, Curtis J, Ward PB. Physical activity interventions for people with mental illness. J Clin Psychiatry. 2014;75(9):964–74.
Esquivel G, Díaz-Galvis J, Schruers K, Berlanga C, Lara-Muñoz C, Griez E. Acute exercise reduces the effects of a 35% CO2 challenge in patients with panic disorder. J Affect Disord. 2008;107(1–3):217–20.
Meyer JD, Koltyn KF, Stegner AJ, Kim J-S, Cook DB. Influence of exercise intensity for improving depressed mood in depression: a dose-response study. Behav Ther. 2016;47(4):527–37.
• Stubbs B, Vancampfort D, Rosenbaum S, Ward PB, Richards J, Soundy A, et al. Dropout from exercise randomized controlled trials among people with depression: a meta-analysis and meta regression. J Affect Disord. 2016;190:457–66. Highlights and quantifies problem of high dropout rates in physical activity research.
• Vancampfort D, Rosenbaum S, Schuch FB, Ward PB, Probst M, Stubbs B. Prevalence and predictors of treatment dropout from physical activity interventions in schizophrenia: a meta-analysis. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2016;39:15–23. Investigates factors that can help to predict dropout from physical activity interventions in people with mental health conditions.
Stanton R, Reaburn P. Exercise and the treatment of depression: a review of the exercise program variables. J Sci Med Sport. 2014;17(2):177–82.
• Vancampfort D, Stubbs B, Sienaert P, Wyckaert S, De Hert M, Rosenbaum S, et al. What are the factors that influence physical activity participation in individuals with depression? A review of physical activity correlates from 59 studies. Psychiatr Danubina Rev. 2015;27(3):210–24. Highlights need to understand and account for factors that influence dropout rates in physical activity interventions.
Kimhy D, Khan S, Ayanrouh L, Chang RW, Hansen MC, Lister A, et al. Use of active-play video games to enhance aerobic fitness in schizophrenia: feasibility, safety, and adherence. Psychiatr Serv. 2016;67(2):240–3.
• LeBouthillier DM, Fetzner MG, Asmundson GJG. Lower cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with greater reduction in PTSD symptoms and anxiety sensitivity following aerobic exercise. Ment Health Phys Act. 2016;10:33–39. One of few empirical studies to include cardiorespiratory fitness as a primary outcome measure in people with anxiety or stress-related conditions.
•• Hayes JF, Marston L, Walters K, King MB, Osborn DPJ. Mortality gap for people with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia: UK-based cohort study 2000-2014. Br J Psychiatry. 2017;211(3):175–81. Clearly and systematically demonstrates the stark physical health inequalities associated with mental illness in the UK.
Laursen TM, Wahlbeck K, Hällgren J, Westman J, Ösby U, Alinaghizadeh H, et al. Life expectancy and death by diseases of the circulatory system in patients with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia in the Nordic countries. Mazza M, editor. PLoS One. 2013;8(6):e67133.
Wahlbeck K, Westman J, Nordentoft M, Gissler M, Laursen TM. Outcomes of Nordic mental health systems: life expectancy of patients with mental disorders. Br J Psychiatry. 2011;199(6):453–8.
Vancampfort D, Firth J, Schuch FB, Rosenbaum S, Mugisha J, Hallgren M, et al. Sedentary behavior and physical activity levels in people with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder: a global systematic review and meta-analysis. World Psychiatry. 2017;16(3):308–15.
•• Stein MB, Craske MG. Treating anxiety in 2017. JAMA. 2017;318(3):235. Offers a practical, step-wise approach of integrating physical activity (and other lifestyle approaches) into the mental healthcare system.
Harvey SB, Øverland S, Hatch SL, Wessely S, Mykletun A, Hotopf M. Exercise and the prevention of depression: results of the HUNT Cohort Study. Am J Psychiatry. 2018;175(1):28–36.