Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Considerations of Beta-Lactam Antibiotics in Adult Critically Ill Patients
Purpose of Review
Beta-lactam antibiotics are commonly prescribed in critically ill patients for a variety of infectious conditions. Our understanding of how critical illness alters beta-lactam pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) is rapidly evolving.
There is a growing body of literature in adult patients demonstrating that physiological alterations occurring in critically ill patients may limit our ability to optimally dose beta-lactam antibiotics to reach these PK/PD targets. These alterations include changes in volume of distribution and renal clearance with multiple, often overlapping causative pathways, including hypoalbuminemia, renal replacement therapy, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Strategies to overcome these PK alterations include extended infusions and therapeutic drug monitoring. Combined data has demonstrated a possible survival benefit associated with extending beta-lactam infusions in critically ill adult patients.
This review highlights research on physiological derangements affecting beta-lactam concentrations and strategies to optimize beta-lactam PK/PD in critically ill adults.
KeywordsBeta-lactams Critically ill Pharmacokinetics Pharmacodynamics Renal replacement therapy Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Anne M. Masich, Mojdeh S. Heavner, Jeffrey P. Gonzales, and Kimberly C. Claeys declare they have no conflicts of interests.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance
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