Mortality risk and PM2.5 air pollution in the USA: an analysis of a national prospective cohort
- 559 Downloads
Epidemiologic evidence indicates that exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution (PM2.5) contributes to global burden of disease, primarily because of increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This study evaluates associations between long-term PM2.5 exposure and mortality risk in national, representative cohorts of the US adult population, constructed from public-use National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data. Two cohorts consisting of 392,807 and 162,373 individuals (without and with individual smoking data) were compiled from public-use NHIS survey data (1986–2001) with mortality linkage through 2011. Cohorts included persons who lived in a metropolitan statistical area (MSA) were 18–84 years of age and had individual risk factor information. Modeled PM2.5 exposures were assigned as MSA-level mean ambient concentration for 1999 through 2008. Mortality hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression models, controlling for age, race, sex, income, marital status, education, body mass index, and smoking status. Estimated HRs for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, associated with a 10-μg/m3 exposure increment of PM2.5 were 1.06 (1.01–1.11) and 1.34 (1.21–1.48), respectively, in models that controlled for various individual risk factors, including smoking. This study provides evidence that elevated risks of mortality, especially cardiovascular disease mortality, are associated with long-term exposure to PM2.5 air pollution in US nationwide adult cohorts constructed from public-use NHIS data.
KeywordsAir pollution PM2.5 Mortality Cohort study Cardiovascular mortality
This study was supported in part by grants from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIH ES019217), US Environmental Protection Agency Center for Air, Climate, and Energy Solutions (CACES) (EPA Grant Number R835873), and the Mary Lou Fulton Professorship at Brigham Young University.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflicts of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Adar SD, Sheppard L, Vedal S, Polak JF, Sampson PD, Diez Roux AV, Budoff M, Jacobs DR Jr, Barr RG, Watson K, Kaufman JD (2013) Fine particulate air pollution and the progression of carotid intima-medial thickness: a prospective cohort study from the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis and air pollution. PLoS Med 10(4):e1001430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Crouse DL, Peters PA, van Donkelaar A, Goldberg MS, Villeneuve PJ, Brion O et al (2012) Risk of nonaccidental and cardiovascular mortality in relation to long-term exposure to low concentrations of fine particulate matter: a Canadian national-level cohort study. Environ Health Perspect 120:708–714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Crouse DL, Peters PA, Hystad P, Brook JR, van Donkelaar A, Martin RV, Villeneuve PJ, Jerrett M, Goldberg MS, Pope CA III, Brauer M, Brook RD, Robichaud A, Menard R, Burnett RT (2015) Ambient PM2.5, O3 and NO2 exposures and associations with mortality over 16 years of follow-up in the Canadian census health and environment cohort (CanCHEC). Environ Health Perspect 123:1180–1186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- GBD 2015 Risk factors collaborators (2016) Global, regional and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioral, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks in 195 countries, 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the global burden of disease study 2015. Lancet 388:1459–1544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Jerrett M, Turner MC, Beckerman BS, et al (2017) Comparing the health effects of ambient particulate matter estimated using ground-based versus remote sensing exposure estimates. Environ Health Perspect. 125:552–559Google Scholar
- Kioumourtzoglou MA, Schwartz J, James P, Dominici F, Zanobetti A (2016) PM2.5 and mortality in 207 US cities: modification by temperature and city characteristics. Epidemiology 27:221–227Google Scholar
- Krishnan RM, Adar SD, Szpiro AA, Jorgensen NW, Van Hee VC, Barr RG, O’Neill MS, Herrington DM, Polak JF, Kaufman JD (2012) Vascular responses to long- and short-term exposure to fine particulate matter: MESA air (multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis and air pollution). J Am Coll Cardiol 60:2158–2166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- NHIS (2016a) National Health Interview Survey, about the National Health Interview Survey. National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, Maryland. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of health and human services. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhis/about_nhis.htm. Last accessed on September 22, 2016
- NHIS (2016b) National Health Interview Survey, NHIS data, questionnaires and related documentation. National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, Maryland. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of health and human services. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhis/data-questionnaires-documentation.htm. Last accessed on September 22, 2016
- NHIS (2016c) National Health Interview Survey, data files and data dictionaries, 2011 public-use linked mortality files. National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, Maryland. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U. S. Department of health and human services. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data_access/data_linkage/mortality/data_files_data_dictionaries.htm. Last accessed on September 22, 2016
- NHIS (2016d) National Health Interview Survey, questionnaires, datasets, and related documentation. National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, Maryland. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U. S. Department of health and human services. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhis/tobacco/tobacco_guide.htm. Last accessed on September 22, 2016
- Thurston GD, Ahn J, Cromar KR, Shao Y, Reynolds HR, Jerrett M, Lim CC, Shanley R, Park Y, Hayes RB (2016) Ambient particulate matter air pollution exposure and mortality in the NIH-AARP diet and health cohort. Environ Health Perspect 124:484–490Google Scholar
- United States Census Bureau (2016) Metropolitan and Micropolitan historical statistical area delineations. United States Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/population/metro/data/pastmetro.html. Last accessed on September 22, 2016