, Volume 69, Issue 2, pp 135–143 | Cite as

Microstructure and Failure Analysis of Flash Butt Welded HSLA 590CL Steel Joints in Wheel Rims

  • Ping LuEmail author
  • Zhixin Xu
  • Yang Shu
  • Feng Ma


The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the microstructures, mechanical properties and failure behavior of flash butt welded high strength low alloy 590CL steel joints. Acicular ferrite, Widmanstatten ferrite and granular bainite were observed in the weld. The micro-hardness values of the welded joints varied between 250 HV and 310 HV. The tensile strength of the welded joints met the strength standard of the wheel steel. The Charpy V-notch impact absorbing energy of the welded joints was higher than the base metal, and the impact fracture of the welded joints was composed of shearing and equiaxed dimples. The fracture mode of the wheel rim in the flaring and expanding process was brittle fracture and ductile fracture, respectively. A limited deviation was found in the terminal of the crack for the wheel in the flaring process. A transition from the weld to the Heat Affected Zone was observed for the wheel in the expanding process.


Ferrite Flare Base Metal Bainite Weld Metal 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors would like to acknowledge financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation, China (No. 51305144), Fujian Provincial Natural Science Foundation (No. 2015J01203), Science and Technology Planning Project of Xiamen City under grant (No. 3502Z20113020), Promotion Program for Young and Middle-aged Teacher in Science and Technology Research of Huaqiao University (No. ZQN-PY203) and breeding programs supported by Huaqiao University for cultivating scientific research and innovation ability.


  1. 1.
    M. Carboni, S. Beretta, and A. Finzi, Eng. Fail. Anal. 10, 45 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Y. Li, Z. Lin, A. Jiang, and G. Chen, Mater. Des. 24, 177 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    S. Nemat-Nasser and W.-G. Guo, Mech. Mater. 37, 379 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    P. Song and S. Hwang, Constr. Build. Mater. 18, 669 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Y. Zhang, X. Lai, P. Zhu, and W. Wang, Mater. Des. 27, 64 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    F. Zhang, B. Lv, B. Hu, and Y. Li, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 454, 288 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    R. Pamnani, V. Karthik, T. Jayakumar, M. Vasudevan, and T. Sakthivel, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 651, 214 (2016).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. Sharifitabar and A. Halvaee, Mater. Des. 31, 3044 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    A.S. Kumar, B.R. Kumar, G.L. Datta, and V.R. Ranganath, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 527, 954 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    S. Bhattacharyya, M. Adhikary, M.B. Das, and S. Sarkar, Eng. Fail. Anal. 15, 547 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    O. Elkoca and H. Cengizler, Eng. Fail. Anal. 15, 295 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    X. Yu, L. Feng, S. Qin, Y. Zhang, and Y. He, Case Stud. Eng. Fail. Anal. 4, 20 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Z. Zheng, S. Yuan, T. Sun, and S. Pan, Eng. Fail. Anal. 47, 199 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    N. Farabi, D.L. Chen, and Y. Zhou, Procedia Eng. 2, 835 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    C. Çetinkaya and U.U. Arabaci, Mater. Des. 27, 1187 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Special Energy ManufacturingHuaqiao UniversityXiamenChina
  2. 2.Xiamen Key Laboratory of Digital Vision MeasurementHuaqiao UniversityXiamenChina
  3. 3.Xiamen Sunrise Wheel Group Company LimitedXiamenChina

Personalised recommendations