Nutritional, functional, thermal and structural characteristics of Citrullus lanatus and Limonia acidissima seed flours


Seeds from fruits such as Citrullus (C.) lanatus (watermelon) and Limonia (L.) acidissima (wood apple) are not commonly utilized but could be suitable in numerous food formulations. It was shown that the protein content of defatted seed flours was 71.38 and 49.51 % and that these contained considerable amounts of minerals such as Na, Mn, Mg, K, Cu, Fe and Zn. The defatted L. acidissima seed flour was superior to C. lanatus in essential amino acids. The flours obtained from both seeds were also evaluated for functional properties and characterized by X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimeter and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Amorphous nature was observed in defatted C. lanatus and L. acidissima flours due to the low percentage of degree of crystallinity. Spherical morphologies were observed through SEM. The exothermic peak was recorded in defatted C. lanatus and L. acidissima flour.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4


  1. 1.

    M.S. Teotia, P. Ramakrishna, Chemistry and technology of melon seeds. J. Food Sci. Technol. 21, 332–340 (1984)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    I.N.D. Godawa, M. Jalali, Studies on juice making from watermelon fruits. Indian Food Pack. 49(3), 33–41 (1995)

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    A.G. Waghmare, S.S. Arya, Use of fruit by-products in the preparation of hypoglycemic thepla: indian unleavened vegetable flat bread. J. Food Process. Preserv. 38(3), 1198–1206 (2014)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    J. Morton, Wood apple, in Fruits of Warm. (Florida Flare Books, 1987), pp 190–191

  5. 5.

    Y. Saima, A.K. Das, K.K. Sarkar, A.K. Sen, P. Sur, An antitumor pectic polysaccharide from Feronia limonia. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 27(5), 333–335 (2000)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    M.M. Rahman, A.I. Gray, Antimicrobial constituents from the stem bark of Feronia limonia. Phytochemistry 59(1), 73–77 (2002)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    S.M. Ahamed, S.K. Swamy, K.N. Jayaverra, J.V. Rao, S. Kumar, Anti inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic activity of methanolic extract of Feronia limonia. Pharmacology 3, 852–857 (2008)

    Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    D.K. Patel, R. Kumar, D. Laloo, S. Hemalatha, Diabetes mellitus: an overview on its pharmacological aspects and reported medicinal plants having ant diabetic activity. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Biomed. 2(5), 411–420 (2012)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    R. Vidhya, A. Narain, Formulation and evaluation of preserved products utilizing under exploited fruit, wood apple (Limonia acidissima). Am. Eurasian J. Agric. Environ. Sci. 10(1), 112–118 (2011)

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    S. Sonawane, S.S. Arya, Antioxidant activity of jambhul, wood apple, ambadi and ambat chukka: an indigenous lesser known fruits and vegetables of India. Adv. Food Sci. Technol. 5(03), 270–275 (2013)

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    S.K. Sonawane, S.S. Arya, Effect of drying and storage on bioactive components of jambhul and wood apple. J. Food Sci. Technol. 52(5), 2833–2841 (2015)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    AOAC, Official methods of analysis of Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) International 16th edn. (AOAC, Washington, DC, 1995)

  13. 13.

    A. Gratzfeld-Huesgen, Sensitive and reliable amino acid analysis in protein hydrolysates using the Agilent 1100 series HPLC. Technical Note. Agilent Technologies. Publication number 5968–5658 (1998). Available from:

  14. 14.

    M.I. Akpata, P.I. Akubor, Chemical composition and selected functional properties of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) seed flour. Plant Food Hum. Nutr. 54, 353–362 (1999)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    O.J. Olayemi, A.R. Oyi, T.S. Allagh, Comparative evaluation of maize, rice and wheat starch powder as pharmaceutical excipients. Niger. J. Pharm. Sci. 7(1), 131–138 (2008)

    Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    H.W. Leach, L.D. McCowen, T.J. Schoch, Structure of the starch granules. I. Swelling and solubility patterns of various starches. Cereal Chem. 36, 534–544 (1959)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    H.N. Liang, C.H. Tang, pH-dependent emulsifying properties of pea [Pisum sativum (L.)] proteins. Food Hydrocoll. 33, 309–319 (2013)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    A. Jyothi, P. Kaul, Nutritional potential, bioaccessibility of minerals and functionality of watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) seeds. LWT 44(8), 1821–1826 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    B.L. Penuel, E.M. Khan, M.O. Maitera, Properties of proximate composition and elemental analysis of Citrullus vulgaris (Guna) seed. Bull. Environ. Pharmocol. Life Sci. 2(2), 39–46 (2013)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    S.A. Joshi, Nutrition and Dietetics, 2nd edn. (Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd, New Delhi, 2007)

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    D.H. Feyssa, J.T. Njoka, Z. Asfaw, M.M. Nyangito, Wild edible fruits of importance for human nutrition in semi-arid parts of East Shewa Zone, Ethiopia: associated indigenous knowledge and implications to food security. Pak. J. Nutr. 10, 40–50 (2011)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    F.S. El-safy, R.H. Salem, M.E.A. El-ghany, Chemical and nutritional evaluation of different seed flours as novel sources of protein. World J. Dairy Food Sci. 7(1), 59–65 (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    C.S. Lin, J.F. Zayas, Functionality of defatted corn germ proteins in a model system: fat binding and water retention. J. Food Sci. 52, 1308–1311 (1987)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    S.K. Shate, D.K. Salunkhe, Functional properties of the Great Northern bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) proteins: emulsion, foaming, viscosity and gelation properties. J. Food Sci. 46, 71–74 (1981)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    M.S. Butt, R. Batool, Nutritional and functional properties of some promising legumes protein isolates. Pak. J Nutr. 9(4), 373–379 (2010)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    L. Kanig-Joseph, L. Leon, A.L. Herbert, The Theory and Practice of Industrial Pharmacy, 3rd edn. (Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, 1986)

    Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    F.C.K. Ocloo, D. Bansa, R. Boatin, T. Adom, W.S. Agbemavor, P.O.B. Lg, Physico-chemical, functional and pasting characteristics of flour produced from Jackfruits (Artocarpus heterophyllus) seeds. Agric. Biol. J. N. Am. 1(5), 903–908 (2010)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    J.E. Rickard, J.M.V. Blanshard, M. Asaoka, Effects of cultivar and growth season on the gelatinization properties of cassava (Manihot esculenta) starch. J. Sci. Food Agric. 59, 53–58 (1992)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    J.E. Kinsella, S. Damodaran, B. German, Physicochemical and functional properties of oilseed protein with emphasis on protein, in New Protein Food Seed Storage Protein, vol. 5, ed. by A.M. Altschual, H.L. Wilcke (Academic Press, Orlando, 1985), p. 107

    Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    K.A. Athmaselvi, C. Kumar, M. Balsubramanian, I. Roy, Thermal, structural, and physical properties of freeze dried tropical fruit powder. J. Food Process. 2014, 1–28 (2014)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    C. Zhang, X. Liu, H. Qiang, K. Li, J. Wang, D. Chen, Y. Zhuang, Inhibitory effects of rosa roxburghii tratt juice on in vitro oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein and on the macrophage growth and cellular cholesteryl ester accumulation induced by oxidized low density lipoprotein. Clin. Chim. Acta 313(1), 37–43 (2001)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    T. Theivasanthi, M. Alagar, An insight analysis of nano sized powder of jackfruit seed. Nano Biomed. Eng. 3(3), 163–168 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    U. Dharmaraj, P. Parameswara, R. Somashekar, N.G. Malleshi, Effect of processing on the microstructure of finger millet by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. J. Food Sci. Technol. 51(3), 494–502 (2014)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    N. Sharon, H. Lis, Lectins with a sweet tooth: functions in cell recognition. Essays Biochem. 30, 59–75 (1995)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references


This work was supported by University Grant Commission (UGC), Government of India. Authors would like to thank RB-CFBP Lab, SNDT women university, Santracruz, Mumbai and Department of Biochemistry and Cell biology, Sankara Nethralaya, Chennai for providing the facility of mineral and amino acid analysis.

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Shalini S. Arya.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Sonawane, S.K., Bagul, M.B., LeBlanc, J.G. et al. Nutritional, functional, thermal and structural characteristics of Citrullus lanatus and Limonia acidissima seed flours. Food Measure 10, 72–79 (2016).

Download citation


  • Citrullus lanatus
  • Limonia acidissima
  • Functional property
  • SEM
  • XRD