Titanium powder was deposited onto steel specimens using four thermal spray technologies: plasma spray, low-pressure cold spray, portable cold spray, and warm spray. The specimens were then subjected to strain-controlled cyclic bending test in a dedicated in-house built device. The crack propagation was monitored by observing the changes in the resonance frequency of the samples. For each series, the number of cycles corresponding to a pre-defined specimen cross-section damage was used as a performance indicator. It was found that the grit-blasting procedure did not alter the fatigue properties of the steel specimens (1% increase as compared to as-received set), while the deposition of coatings via all four thermal spray technologies significantly increased the measured fatigue lives. The three high-velocity technologies led to an increase of relative lives to 234% (low-pressure cold spray), 210% (portable cold spray), and 355% (warm spray) and the deposition using plasma spray led to an increase of relative lives to 303%. The observed increase of high-velocity technologies (cold and warm spray) could be attributed to a combination of homogeneous fatigue-resistant coatings and induction of peening stresses into the substrates via the impingement of the high-kinetic energy particles. Given the intrinsic character of the plasma jet (low-velocity impact of semi/molten particles) and the mostly ceramic character of the coating (oxides, nitrides), a hypothesis based on non-linear coatings behavior is provided in the paper.
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The present work has been carried out in NETME Centre, and the authors acknowledge the financial support of European Regional Development Fund under the Operational Programme Research and Development for Innovation. The presented results have been obtained in Netme Centre Plus (LO1202) project co-funded by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports in the support programme “National Sustainability Programme I”. The support of Czech Science Foundation projects GACR 13-35890S (sample preparation and evaluation) and GACR 108/12/1872 (fatigue testing) is further acknowledged. The main author would like to thank Michal Cizek for providing the schematics of the fatigue test device.
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Cizek, J., Matejkova, M., Dlouhy, I. et al. Influence of Cold-Sprayed, Warm-Sprayed, and Plasma-Sprayed Layers Deposition on Fatigue Properties of Steel Specimens. J Therm Spray Tech 24, 758–768 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11666-015-0240-4
- cold spray
- plasma spray
- residual stresses
- warm spray