Skip to main content

The Silurian-Devonian boundary in East Yunnan (South China) and the minimum constraint for the lungfish-tetrapod split

Abstract

The Silurian-Devonian interval is an essential period in Earth history for witnessing the rise of sarcopterygian fishes and terrestrial vascular plants. In addition to its implication in global stratigraphic correlation, the precise location of the Silurian-Devonian boundary (SDB) in East Yunnan closely relates to the minimal and maximal estimated dates for the lungfish-tetrapod split. Several geochemical indicators including the values and curves of δ13Corg, δ13Ccarb and TOC are obtained from the continuous SDB sequence in Dahe, Yiliang County, East Yunnan. The results reveal the significant positive δ13Corg shifts in the upper part of the Yulungssu Formation and the lower part of the Xishancun Formation, and the peak value (−20.0‰) in the sample YD-25 from the lowermost of the Xishancun Formation, replicating the δ13Corg variation trend from the uppermost Silurian to the lowermost Devonian worldwide. The δ13Corg variation across the SDB at the Dahe Section resembles the SDB curve from the borehole Klonk-1 drilled at the top of the Klonk GSSP in the Prague Basin, Czech Republic. As such, we place the SDB in the Dahe Area between the samples of YD-17 and YD-18 from the lowermost part of the Xishancun Formation. This SDB assignment is corroborated by new findings of Early Devonian thelodont Parathelodus from the lower part of the Xishancun Formation in Qujing Area. The resolution of the SDB in Dahe, coupled with available paleontological data and the biostratigraphic zonation in East Yunnan, has provided vital data for the geological ages of the fish-bearing strata in East Yunnan. The earliest rhipidistian Youngolepis from the Xishancun Formation (Lochkovian, Devonian) and earliest stem-sarcopterygian Psarolepis from the Kuanti Formation (Ludfordian, Silurian) in East Yunnan indicate that the split between lungfish and tetrapods occurred between 426.5 and 416.0 Ma.

References

  1. Becker R T, Gradstein F M, Hammer O. 2012. The Devonian Period. In: Gradstein F M, Ogg J G, Schmitz M, Ogg G, eds. The Geologic Time Scale 2012. Amsterdam: Elsevier. 559–601

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  2. Benton M J, Donoghue P C J, Vinther J, Asher R J, Friedman M, Near T J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontol Electrona, 18: 1–116

    Google Scholar 

  3. Benton M J, Donoghue P C J, Asher R J. 2009. Calibrating and constraining molecular clocks. In: Hedges S B, Kumar S, eds. The Timetree of Life. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 35–86

    Google Scholar 

  4. Benton M J, Donoghue P C J. 2007. Paleontological evidence to date the Tree of Life. Mol Biol Evol, 24: 26–53

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Buggisch W, Joachimski M M. 2006. Carbon isotope stratigraphy of the Devonian of Central and Southern Europe. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol, 240: 68–88

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Buggisch W, Mann U. 2004. Carbon isotope stratigraphy of Lochkovian to Eifelian limestones from the Devonian of central and southern Europe. Int J Earth Sci-Geol Rundsch, 93: 521–541

    Google Scholar 

  7. Cai C Y, Fang Z J, Li X X, Wang Y, Geng L Y, Gao L D, Wang N Z, Li D Y, Liu Z H. 1994. New advance in the study of biostratigraphy of Lower and Middle Devonian marine-continental transitional strata in East Yunnan (in Chinese with English abstract). Sci China Ser B, 24: 634–639

    Google Scholar 

  8. Cai J C, Zhao W J, Zhu M. 2020. Subdivision and age of the Silurian fish-bearing Kuanti Formation in Qujing, Yunnan Province (in Chinese with English abstract). Vert PalAsiat, 58: 249–266

    Google Scholar 

  9. Carls P, Slavík L, Valenzuela-Ríos J I. 2007. Revisions of conodont biostratigraphy across the Silurian-Devonian boundary. Bull Geosci, 82: 145–164

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Chang M M. 1982. The braincase of Youngolepis, a Lower Devonian crossopterygian from Yunnan, south-western China. Dissertation for Doctoral Degree. Stockholm: GOTAB

    Google Scholar 

  11. Chang M M, Yu X B. 1981. A new crossopterygian, Youngolepis praecursor, gen. et sp. nov., from Lower Devonian of E. Yunnan, China. Sci Sin, 24: 89–97

    Google Scholar 

  12. Chang M M, Yu X B. 1984. Structure and phylogenetic significance of Diabolichthys speratus gen. et sp. nov., a new dipnoan-like form from the Lower Devonian of eastern Yunnan, China. Proc Linn Soc N S W, 107: 171–184

    Google Scholar 

  13. Chang M M, Zhu M. 1993. A new Middle Devonian osteolepidid from Qujing, Yunnan. AAP Memoirs, 15: 183–198

    Google Scholar 

  14. Chlupáč I, Havlíček V, Kříž J, Kukal Z, Štorch P. 1998. Paleozoic of the Barrandian (Cambrian to Devonian). Prague: Czech Geological Survey.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Chlupáč I, Jäger H, Zikmundova J. 1972. The Silurian-Devonian boundary in the Barrandian. Bull Canad Petrol Geol, 20: 104–174

    Google Scholar 

  16. Choo B, Zhu M, Qu Q M, Yu X B, Jia L T, Zhao W J. 2017. A new osteichthyan from the late Silurian of Yunnan, China. PLoS ONE, 12: e0170929

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Choo B, Zhu M, Zhao W J, Jia L T, Zhu Y A. 2014. The largest Silurian vertebrate and its palaeoecological implications. Sci Rep, 4: 5242

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Clément G, Janvier P. 2004. Powichthys spitsbergensis sp. nov., a new member of the Dipnomorpha (Sarcopterygii, lobe-finned fishes) from the Lower Devonian of Spitsbergen, with remarks on basal dipnomorph anatomy. Fossils Strata, 50: 92–112

    Google Scholar 

  19. Cohen K M, Finney S C, Gibbard P L, Fan J X. 2013. Updated. The ICS International Chronostratigraphic Chart. Episodes, 36: 199–204

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Cramer B D, Saltzman M R. 2007. Early Silurian paired δ13Ccarb and δ13Corg analyses from the Midcontinent of North America: Implications for paleoceanography and paleoclimate. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol, 256: 195–203

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Cui X D, Li Q, Qiao T, Zhu M. 2020. New material of thelodonts from Lochkovian (Lower Devonian) of Qujing, Yunnan, China. Vert PalAsiat, 58: 1–15

    Google Scholar 

  22. Des Marais D J. 2001. Isotopic evolution of the biogeochemical carbon cycle during the Precambrian. Rev Mineral Geochem, 43: 555–578

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Dong R S. 1992. Geotectonic evolution and Devonian palaeotectonic framework in South China (in Chinese with English summary). J Chengdu Coll Geol, 19: 58–64

    Google Scholar 

  24. Fan D J, Liu Z H. 1995. Sedimentary environment of the late Silurian to the early Early Devonian in Qujing, East Yunnan Province (in Chinese with English abstract). J Ocean Univ Qingdao, 25: 239–246

    Google Scholar 

  25. Fang R S, Jiang N R, Fan J C, Cao R G, Li D Y. 1985. The Middle Silurian and Early Devonian Stratigraphy and Paleontology in Qujin District, Yunnan (in Chinese with English abstract). Kunming: Yunnan People’s Press. 171

    Google Scholar 

  26. Fang Z J, Cai C Y, Wang Y, Li X X, Wang C Y, Geng L Y, Wang S Q, Gao L D, Wang N Z, Li D Y. 1994. New advance in the study of the Silurian-Devonian Boundary in Qujing, East Yunnan (in Chinese with English abstract). J Stratigr, 18: 81–90

    Google Scholar 

  27. Gao L D. 1981. Devonian spore assemblages of China. Rev Palaeobot Palynol, 34: 11–23

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Giles S, Friedman M, Brazeau M D. 2015. Osteichthyan-like cranial conditions in an Early Devonian stem gnathostome. Nature, 520: 82–85

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Gill B C, Lyons T W, Saltzman M R. 2007. Parallel, high-resolution carbon and sulfur isotope records of the evolving Paleozoic marine sulfur reservoir. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol, 256: 156–173

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Hao S G, Xue J Z, Liu Z F, Wang D M. 2007. Zosterophyllum Penhallow around the Silurian-Devonian Boundary of northeastern Yunnan, China. Int J Plant Sci, 168: 477–489

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Herten U, El Hassani A, Mann U. 2004a. Chemostratigraphy and bioproductivity of the Silurian/Devonian Boundary sequence at Mount Issimour (Anti-Atlas, Morocco). Devonian Neritic-Pelagic Correlation and Events (IUGS Subcommission on Devonian Stratigraphy), Rabat, 2004. 64–66

    Google Scholar 

  32. Herten U, El Hassani A, Mann U. 2004b. Chemostratigraphy and bioproductivity of the Silurian/Devonian Boundary sequence at Bled Dfa and Oued Tiflet (Coastal Meseta, Morocco). Devonian Neritic-Pelagic Correlation and Events (IUGS Subcommission on Devonian Stratigraphy), Rabat, 2004. 67–70

    Google Scholar 

  33. Herten U, Mann U, Yalçin M N. 2004c. Chemostratigraphic localization of the Silurian/Devonian Boundary in the Palaeozoic of Istanbul (Esenyali, Pendik-Istanbul) by stable carbon isotope composition. In: Proceedings of International Symposium on Earth System Sciences. 321–334

  34. Hess A V, Trop J M. 2019. Sedimentology and carbon isotope (δ13C) stratigraphy of Silurian-Devonian boundary interval strata, Appalachian Basin (Pennsylvania, USA). Palaios, 34: 405–423

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Hladiková J, Hladil J, Křıbek B. 1997. Carbon and oxygen isotope record across Pridoli to Givetian stage boundaries in the Barrandian basin (Czech Republic). Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol, 132: 225–241

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Huang B, Rong J Y, Wang Y. 2011. Discovery of Retziella fauna (Late Silurian brachiopod) from Hezhang in western Guizhou and its palaeogeographic significance. J Palaeogeogr, 13: 30–36

    Google Scholar 

  37. Jessen H L. 1975. A new choanate fish, Powichthys thorsteinssoni n.g., n. sp., from the early Lower Devonian of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Colloque International du C N R S, Paris, 218: 213–222

    Google Scholar 

  38. Kaljo D, Martma T, Grytsenko V, Brazauskas A, Kaminskas D. 2012. Přídolí carbon isotope trend and upper Silurian to lowermost Devonian chemostratigraphy based on sections in Podolia (Ukraine) and the East Baltic area. Estonian J Earth Sci, 61: 162–180

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Königshof P. 2003. Conodont deformation patterns and textural alteration in Paleozoic conodonts: Examples from Germany and France. Senckenbergiana Lethaea, 83: 149–156

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Li X X, Cai C Y. 1978. A type-section of Lower Devonian strata in Southwest China with brief notes on the succession and correlation of its plant assemblages (in Chinese with English abstract). Acta Geol Sin, 52: 1–14

    Google Scholar 

  41. Lu J, Giles S, Friedman M, Zhu M. 2017. A new stem sarcopterygian illuminates patterns of character evolution in early bony fishes. Nat Commun, 8: 1932

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Lu J, Zhu M, Ahlberg P E, Qiao T, Zhu Y A, Zhao W J, Jia L T. 2016. A Devonian predatory fish provides insights into the early evolution of modern sarcopterygians. Sci Adv, 2:1–8 (e1600154)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Lu J, Zhu M, Long J A, Zhao W J, Senden T J, Jia L T, Qiao T. 2012. The earliest known stem-tetrapod from the Lower Devonian of China. Nat Commun, 3: 1160

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Lu J, Zhu M. 2010. An onychodont fish (Osteichthyes, Sarcopterygii) from the Early Devonian of China, and the evolution of the Onychodontiformes. Proc R Soc B, 277: 293–299

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Luo H L, Yu J Z, Long P G. 1985. The trilobite sequences from the Upper Silurian and comments on the Silurian-Devonian Boundary in East Yunnan (in Chinese). J Stratigr, 9: 220–223

    Google Scholar 

  46. Małkowski K, Racki G, Drygant D, Szaniawski H. 2009. Carbon isotope stratigraphy across the Silurian-Devonian transition in Podolia, Ukraine: Evidence for a global biogeochemical perturbation. Geol Mag, 146: 674–689

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Małkowski K, Racki G. 2009. A global biogeochemical perturbation across the Silurian-Devonian boundary: Ocean-continent-biosphere feedbacks. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol, 276: 244–254

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Manda Š, Frýda J. 2010. Silurian-Devonian boundary events and their influence on cephalopod evolution: Evolutionary significance of cephalopod egg size during mass extinctions. Bull Geosci, 85: 513–540

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Mann U, Herten U, Kranendonck O, Poelchau H S, Stroetmann J, Vos H, Wilkes H, Suchý V, Brocke R, Wilde V, Muller A, Ebert J, Bozdogan N, Soylu C, El-Hassani A, Yalçin M N. 2001. Dynamics of the Silurian/Devonian boundary sequence: Sedimentary cycles vs. organic matter variation. Terra Nostra, 4: 44–48

    Google Scholar 

  50. Martinsson A. 1977. The Silurian-Devonian Boundary. International Union of Geological Sciences, Series A, No.5. Stuttgart: E. Schweizerbart’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung. 1–349

    Google Scholar 

  51. Mei M X, Zeng P, Chu H M, Liu Z R, Li D H, Meng Q F, Yi D H. 2004. Devonian sequence-stratigraphic framework and its paleogeographical background in the Dianqiangui Basin and its adjacent areas (in Chinese with English abstract). J Jilin Univ-Earth Sci Ed, 34: 546–554

    Google Scholar 

  52. Müller J, Reisz R R. 2005. Four well-constrained calibration points from the vertebrate fossil record for molecular clock estimates. Bioessays, 27: 1069–1075

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Nan J Y, Liu Y Y. 2004. Organic and inorganic carbon-isotope shift and paleoenvironment at the P-T boundary section in Meishan, Zhejiang Province (in Chinese with English abstract). Geochimica, 33: 9–19

    Google Scholar 

  54. Ouyang S, Lu L C, Zhu H C, Liu F. 2017. The Late Paleozoic Spores and Polen of China (in Chinese). Hefei: University of Science and Technology of China Press. 1092

    Google Scholar 

  55. Parham J F, Donoghue P C J, Bell C J, Calway T D, Head J J, Holroyd P A, Inoue J G, Irmis R B, Joyce W G, Ksepka D T, Patané J S L, Smith N D, Tarver J E, van Tuinen M, Yang Z, Angielczyk K D, Greenwood J M, Hipsley C A, Jacobs L, Makovicky P J, Müller J, Smith K T, Theodor J M, Warnock R C M, Benton M J. 2011. Best practices for justifying fossil calibrations. Syst Biol, 61: 346–359

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Qie W K, Ma X P, Xu H H, Qiao L, Liang K, Guo W, Song J J, Chen B, Lu J F. 2019. Devonian integrative stratigraphy and timescale of China. Sci China Earth Sci, 62: 112–134

    Article  Google Scholar 

  57. Rong J Y, Chen X, Su Y Z, Ni Y N, Zhan R B, Chen T E, Fu L P, Li R Y, Fan J X. 2003. Silurian paleogeography of China. In: Landing E, Johnson M E, eds. Silurian Lands and Seas-Paleogeography Outside of Laurentia. NY State Mus Bull, 493: 243–298

    Google Scholar 

  58. Rong J Y, Chen X, Wang C Y, Geng L Y, Wu H J, Deng Z Q, Chen T E, Xu J T. 1990. Some problems on the Silurian correlation in South China (in Chinese with English abstract). J Stratigr, 14: 161–177

    Google Scholar 

  59. Rong J Y, Wang Y, Zhan R B, Fan J X, Huang B, Tang P, Li Y, Zhang X L, Wu R C, Wang G X, Wei X. 2019. Silurian integrative stratigraphy and timescale of China. Sci China Earth Sci, 62: 89–111

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Saltzman M R. 2002. Carbon isotope (δ13C) stratigraphy across the Silurian-Devonian transition in North America: Evidence for a perturbation of the global carbon cycle. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol, 187: 83–100

    Article  Google Scholar 

  61. Shan W G, Luo G, Wu Z G. 1997. Characteristics of the Silurian sequence stratigraphy of Qujing, eastern Yunnan and rediscussion about the chronostratigraphic boundaries (in Chinese with English abstract). J Stratigr, 21: 68–76

    Google Scholar 

  62. Shan W G, Wang M W. 2000. Application of sequence stratigraphical theory to the correlation: Taking the Lower and Middle Devonian of eastern Yunnan for example (in Chinese with English abstract). J Stratigr, 24: 156–162

    Google Scholar 

  63. Tian J J, Zhu H C, Huang M, Liu F. 2011. Late Silurian to Early Devonian palynomorphs from Qujing, Yunnan, Southwest China. Acta Geol Sin-Engl Ed, 85: 559–568

    Article  Google Scholar 

  64. Veizer J, Ala D, Azmy K, Bruckschen P, Buhl D, Bruhn F, Carden G A F, Diener A, Ebneth S, Godderis Y, Jasper T, Korte C, Pawellek F, Podlaha O G, Strauss H. 1999. 87Sr/86Sr, δ13C and δ18O evolution of Phanerozoic seawater. Chem Geol, 161: 59–88

    Article  Google Scholar 

  65. Wang C Y. 1998. The age of the Silurian Red Beds in South China (in Chinese with English abstract). J Stratigr, 22: 127–128

    Google Scholar 

  66. Wang C Y. 1981. The new knowledge on the age of Yulungssu Formation in Qujing, Yunnan (in Chinese). J Stratigr, 5: 240, 196

    Google Scholar 

  67. Wang J Q. 2000. Age of the Yulongsi Formation and the Silurian-Devonian Boundary in East Yunnan (in Chinese with English abstract). J Stratigr, 24: 144–150

    Google Scholar 

  68. Wang J H, Zhao W J, Zhu M, Li Q, Cai J C, Zhang N, Peng L J, Luo Y C. 2020. Microvertebrate remains from Kuanti Formation in Liujiachong Section in Qujing, Yunnan and their stratigraphic significance (in Chinese with English abstract). Earth Sci Front, 27: 329–340

    Google Scholar 

  69. Wang N Z. 1995. Thelodonts from the Cuifengshangroup of East Yunnan; China and its biochronological significance. Geobios, 28: 403–409

    Article  Google Scholar 

  70. Wang N Z. 1997. Restudy of thelodont microfossils from the Lower part of the Cuifengshan Group of Qujing, eastern Yunnan, China (in Chinese with English abstract). Vert PalAsiat, 33: 1–17

    Google Scholar 

  71. Wang S Q, Liu Z M, Li Z B. 1992. Late Silurian and Early Devonian ostracodes from the Qujing area, Yunnan (in Chinese with English abstract). Acta Micropalaeontol Sin, 9: 363–389

    Google Scholar 

  72. Wendler I. 2013. A critical evaluation of carbon isotope stratigraphy and biostratigraphic implications for Late Cretaceous global correlation. Earth-Sci Rev, 126: 116–146

    Article  Google Scholar 

  73. Wu H J. 1977. Comments on new genera and species of Silurian-Devonian trilobites in southwest China and their significance (in Chinese with English abstract). Acta Palaeontol Sin, 16: 95–117

    Google Scholar 

  74. Wu H R. 2000. A discussion on the tectonic palaeogeography related to the Caledonian Movement in Guangxi (in Chinese with English abstract). J Palaeogeogr, 2: 82–88

    Google Scholar 

  75. Yu X B, Zhu M, Zhao W J. 2010. The origin and diversification of osteichthyans and sarcopterygians: Rare Chinese fossil findings advance research on key issues of evolution. Bull Chin Acad Sci, 24: 71–75

    Google Scholar 

  76. Yu X B. 1998. A new porolepiform-like fish, Psarolepis romeri, gen. et sp. nov. (Sarcopterygii, Osteichthyes) from the Lower Devonian of Yunnan, China. J Vert Paleont, 18: 261–274

    Article  Google Scholar 

  77. Zeng Y F, Chen H D, Zhang J Q, Liu W J. 1992. Types and main characteristics of Devonian sedimentary basin in South China (in Chinese with English abstract). Acta Sedimentol Sin, 10: 14–113

    Google Scholar 

  78. Zhao W J, Herten U, Zhu M, Mann U, Lücke A. 2010. Carbon isotope stratigraphy across the Silurian-Devonian transition in Zoige (West Qinling), China. Boll Soc Paleont Ital, 49: 35–45

    Google Scholar 

  79. Zhao W J, Jia G D, Zhu M, Zhu Y A. 2015. Geochemical and palaeontological evidence for the definition of the Silurian/Devonian boundary in the Changwantang Section, Guangxi Province, China. Estonian J Earth Sci, 64: 110–114

    Article  Google Scholar 

  80. Zhao W J, Wang N Z, Zhu M, Jia L T. 2012. The microvertebrate remains and assemblage sequences across Silurian/Devonian Transition in West Qinling, China. Vert PalAsiat, 50: 309–321

    Google Scholar 

  81. Zhao W J, Wang N Z, Zhu M, Mann U, Herten U, Lücke A. 2011. Geochemical stratigraphy and microvertebrate assemblage sequences across the Silurian/Devonian transition in South China. Acta Geol Sin-Engl Ed, 85: 340–353

    Article  Google Scholar 

  82. Zhao W J, Zhu M. 2007. Diversification and faunal shift of Siluro-Devonian vertebrates of China. Geol J, 42: 351–369

    Article  Google Scholar 

  83. Zhao W J, Zhu M. 2010. Siluro-Devonian vertebrate biostratigraphy and biogeography of China. Palaeoworld, 19: 4–26

    Article  Google Scholar 

  84. Zhao W J, Zhu M. 2014. A review of the Silurian fishes from China, with comments on the correlation of fish-bearing strata (in Chinese with English abstract). Earth Sci Front, 21: 185–202

    Google Scholar 

  85. Zhao W J, Zhu M. 2015. A review of Silurian fishes from Yunnan, China and related biostratigraphy. Palaeoworld, 24: 243–250

    Article  Google Scholar 

  86. Zheng R C, Zhang J Q. 1989. The tectonic framework and the evolution of lithofacies and paleogeography of Devonian in eastern Yunnan and southwestern Guizhou (in Chinese with English summary). J Chengdu Coll Geol, 16: 51–60

    Google Scholar 

  87. Zhu M, Ahlberg P E, Pan Z H, Zhu Y A, Qiao T, Zhao W J, Jia L T, Lu J. 2016. A Silurian maxillate placoderm illuminates jaw evolution. Science, 354: 334–336

    Article  Google Scholar 

  88. Zhu M, Ahlberg P E. 2004. The origin of the internal nostril of tetrapods. Nature, 432: 94–97

    Article  Google Scholar 

  89. Zhu M, Fan J H. 1995. Youngolepis from the Xishancun Formation (Early Lochkovian) of Qujing; China. Geobios, 28: 293–299

    Article  Google Scholar 

  90. Zhu M, Schultze H P. 1997. The oldest sarcopterygian fish. Lethaia, 30: 293–304

    Google Scholar 

  91. Zhu M, Yu X B, Ahlberg P E, Choo B, Lu J, Qiao T, Qu Q M, Zhao W J, Jia L T, Blom H, Zhu Y A. 2013. A Silurian placoderm with osteichthyan-like marginal jaw bones. Nature, 502: 188–193

    Article  Google Scholar 

  92. Zhu M, Yu X B, Ahlberg P E. 2001. A primitive sarcopterygian fish with an eyestalk. Nature, 410: 81–84

    Article  Google Scholar 

  93. Zhu M, Yu X B, Janvier P. 1999. A primitive fossil fish sheds light on the origin of bony fishes. Nature, 397: 607–610

    Article  Google Scholar 

  94. Zhu M, Yu X B, Lu J, Qiao T, Zhao W J, Jia L T. 2012. Earliest known coelacanth skull extends the range of anatomically modern coelacanths to the Early Devonian. Nat Commun, 3: 772

    Article  Google Scholar 

  95. Zhu M, Yu X B. 2002. A primitive fish close to the common ancestor of tetrapods and lungfish. Nature, 418: 767–770

    Article  Google Scholar 

  96. Zhu M, Zhao W J. 2006. Early diversification of sarcopterygians and trans-Panthalassic Ocean distribution. In: Rong J Y, ed. Originations, Radiations and Biodiversity Changes—Evidences from the Chinese Fossil Record. Beijing: Science Press. 399–416 (Chinese), 885–887 (English)

    Google Scholar 

  97. Zhu M, Zhao W J, Jia L T, Lu J, Qiao T, Qu Q M. 2009. The oldest articulated osteichthyan reveals mosaic gnathostome characters. Nature, 458: 469–474

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to Zhaohui PAN, Jie ZHANG, Xindong CUI, Jiachen CAI and Jianhua WANG for field works, to You’an ZHU for the treatment and measurement of the geochemical samples, and to Brian CHOO for improving the manuscript. The authors would also like to thank two anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments and suggestions. This work was supported by the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) (Grant Nos. XDB26000000, XDA19050102), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 42072026, 41972006 & 41530102), and the Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences of CAS (Grant No. QYZDJ-SSW-DQC002).

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Min Zhu.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Zhao, W., Zhang, X., Jia, G. et al. The Silurian-Devonian boundary in East Yunnan (South China) and the minimum constraint for the lungfish-tetrapod split. Sci. China Earth Sci. 64, 1784–1797 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11430-020-9794-8

Download citation

Keywords

  • Carbon isotope stratigraphy
  • Silurian-Devonian boundary
  • East Yunnan
  • South China
  • Lungfish-tetrapod split
  • Calibration date