Advertisement

Journal of Chinese Political Science

, Volume 16, Issue 1, pp 69–89 | Cite as

Building China’s Soft Power for a Peaceful Rise

  • Xin LiEmail author
  • Verner Worm
Research Article

Abstract

With its rapid economic growth and deepening integration into the global system, Chinese leaders see the first 20 years of the 21st century as an ‘important period of strategic opportunity’ for China. China under Hu Jintao’s leadership has chosen a new path of peaceful rise. To facilitate such a peaceful rise, Chinese Communist Party has gradually adopted a soft power strategy. We see building soft power as a means as well as the end of China’s peaceful rise. We argue China has a genuine desire for peace in her rise and China’s peaceful rise may not be impossible. Based on existing literature, we expand the sources of soft power to six pillars: cultural attractiveness, political values, development model, international institutions, international image, and economic temptation. We also identify three channels for wielding soft power: formal, economic, and cultural diplomacies. Putting all the basics together, we have proposed an integrative model of soft power. Accordingly, we analyze the sources and limits of China’s soft power and suggest how to improve it in these six areas.

Keywords

Peaceful Rise Soft Power China Development Model Beijing Consensus Culture 

Notes

Acknowledgement

Xin Li thanks Danish Otto Monsted Fond for its financial support for participating and presenting an earlier draft of this paper at the conference China’s 30 years of ‘Opening up and reform’: Continuities and Change, held in University of Nottingham Ningbo China, 16–19 September 2009. He also thanks Danish EAC Foundation for sponsoring his PhD study at Copenhagen Business School.

References

  1. 1.
    Guo, Sujian. 2006. Introduction: Challenges and opportunities for China’s “peaceful rise”. In China’s “peaceful rise” in the 21st century: domestic and international, ed. Sujian Guo, 1–16. Burlington: Ashgate Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Yan, Xuetong. 1998. 中国崛起—国际环境评估 [International Environment of China’s Rise]. Tianjing: Tianjing People’s Press.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zheng, Bijian. 2002. The 16th National Congress of the Communist Party of China and China’s peaceful rise—A new path. Speech delivered at Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, DC, on December 9, 2002. http://www.brookings.edu/fp/events/20050616bijianlunch.pdf, pp. 1–6
  4. 4.
    Nye Jr., Joseph S. 1990. Soft power. Foreign Policy 80: 159.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ikenberry, G. John. 2008. The rise of China and the future of the West: Can the liberal system survive?. Foreign Affairs, January/February.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Johnston, Alastair Iain. 2003. Is China a status quo power? International Security 27(4): 5–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Tammen, Ronald L., Jacek Kugler, Douglas Lemke, and Allan C. Stam. 2000. Power transitions strategies for the 21st century. New York: Chatham House.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Layne, Christopher. 2008. China’s challenge to US hegemony. Current History 107(75): 13–18.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Organski, A.F.K., and Jacek Kugler. 1981. The war ledger. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Levy, Jack S. 1998. The causes of war and the conditions of peace. Annual Review of Political Science 1(1): 139–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Nye, Joseph S. 1990. Bound to lead: The changing nature of American power. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wang, Huning. 1993. 作为国家实力的文化: 软权力 [Culture as national power: Soft power], 复旦学报(社会科学版) [Fudan Journal (Social Sciences edition)], Issue 3. http://www.lunwentianxia.com/qikan_detail_qis/479010/
  13. 13.
    Li, Mingjiang. 2009. China debates soft power. Chinese Journal of International Politics 2(2): 287–308.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hu Jintao. 2006. Speech on the Eighth National Congress of the China Federation of Literary and Art Circles, on November 10, 2006. http://culture.people.com.cn/GB/22219/5026372.html
  15. 15.
    Ding, Sheng. 2008. To build a “harmonious world”: China’s soft power wielding in the global south. Journal of Chinese Political Science 13(2): 195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wang, Hongying, and Yeh-Chung Lu. 2008. The conception of soft power and its policy implications: a comparative study of China and Taiwan. Journal of contemporary China 17(56): 427.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Yan, Xuetong. 2006.‘中国软实力有待提高’[China’s soft power needs to be improved)]’. http://www.ccwe.org.cn/ccweold/journal/2/1.pdf
  18. 18.
    Men, Honghua. 2007. 中国软实力评估报告-(上) [Assessment report on China’s soft power: part one]. 国际观察 [International Watch] 2: 15–26 [in Chinese].Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wuthnow, Joel. 2008. The concept of soft power in China’s strategic discourse. Issues & Studies 44(2): 1–28.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nye, Joseph S. 2007. The Rise of China’s Soft Power. Speech delivered at Peking University, Beijing, on December 18. http://ennews.pku.edu.cn/news.php?s=197954479
  21. 21.
    Gao, Zhanxiang. 2007. Cultural power. Beijing: Beijing University Press.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Huang, Yanzhong, and Sheng Ding. 2006. Dragon’s underbelly: An analysis of China’s soft power. East Asia 23(4): 38–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kurlantzick, Josh. 2006. China’s charm: Implication of Chinese soft power, Policy Brief No. 47, June, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. p. 1.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wang, Yiwei. 2008. ‘Public diplomacy and the rise of Chinese soft power’, The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 616(1): 260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lai, Hongyi. 2006. ‘China’s cultural diplomacy: going for soft power’, EAI Background Brief No. 308, East Asian Institute, National University of Singapore, Singapore. http://www.eai.nus.edu.sg/BB308.pdf
  26. 26.
    Hesmondhalgh, David. 2002. The cultural industries, 3. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Xiang, Youming, and Yuming Wang. 2001. Some views on the further reform of culture supervisory system. Journal of Guangdong Institute of Public Administration, pp. 23–26 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ramo, Joshua C. 2004. The Beijing Consensus, p. 3.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Yu, Yongding. 2005. G-20 and China: A Chinese perspective. China & World Economy 13(1): 10.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Colley, Chris. 2009. China’s reforms at 30 and the “Beijing Consensus”. Pambazuka News, China-Africa Watch section, January 31, Issue 417. http://www.pambazuka.org/en/category/africa_china/53757
  31. 31.
    Yu, Keping. 2007. Yu Keping on the development of China’s socialist democracy. NewsTimes (新闻午报), September 29. http://web.xwwb.com/wbnews.php?db=11&thisid=108122
  32. 32.
    Fravel, M.Taylor. 2005. Regime insecurity and international cooperation: Explaining China’s compromises in territorial disputes. International Security 30(2): 46–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kennedy, Scott. 2010. The myth of the Beijing Consensus. Journal of Contemporary China 19(65): 461–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Williamson, John. 1990. What Washington means by policy reform. In Latin American adjustment: How much has happened, ed. Williamson John. Washington: Institute for International Economics.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Li, Xin., Kjeld Erik Brødsgaard, and Michael Jacobsen. 2009 ‘Redefining Beijing Consensus: Ten economic principles’, China Economic Journal 2(3): 297–311.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wesley-Smith, Terence. 2007. China in Oceania: New forces in Pacific politics. Honolulu: East-West Center.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    World Bank. 2005. Economic growth in the 1990s: Learning from a decade of reform. Washington: The World Bank.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wen Jiabao. 2006. Win–win cooperation for common development. Keynote speech delivered on China-Pacific Island Countries Economic Development and Cooperation Forum, Nadi, Fiji, on April 5. http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2006-04/05/content_4385969.htm
  39. 39.
    Yu, Keping. 2005. 关于“北京共识”与中国发展模式的对话 [A dialogue about the “Beijing Consensus” and the Chinese development model]), http://theory.people.com.cn/GB/40557/54488/54489/3802863.html
  40. 40.
    Zoellick, Robert B., and Justin Y. Lin. 2009. Recovery rides on the “G-2”. The Washington Post, March 6. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/03/05/AR2009030502887_pf.html.
  41. 41.
    Men, Honghua. 2007. 中国软实力评估报告- (下) [Assessment report on China’s soft power: part two]. 国际观察, [International Watch] 3: 41 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Chan, Stephen. 2006. Scramble for China. Prospect, September 24, issue 126, p. 16.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Nathan, Andrew. 2003. Authoritarian resilience. Journal of Democracy 14(1): 6–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Lawrence, Dune. 2009. China’s “soft-power” strategy threatened by Obama, slow growth. Bloomberg News, February 17.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Goldman Sachs. 2003. Dreaming with BRICs: The path to 2050. Goldman Sachs Global Economic Paper No: 99.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Han, Jianmin., Renzhi Zhang, and Ziliang Ma. 2008. 中国东西部地区发展差距拉大的原因分析 [Analysis on Reasons of Widening Development Gap between the Easter Region and the Western Region in China], 科学.经济.社会 [Science, Economy, Society] 26(1):11–15 (in Chinese) http://ilib.com.cn/A-kxjjsh200801003.html.
  47. 47.
    Drezner, Daniel W. 2009. Fearing China. Newsweek, May 20, 2009. http://www.newsweek.com/id/198586
  48. 48.
    Powell, Bill. 2009. Five Things the U.S. Can Learn from China. Time, Nov. 12, 2009, http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1938671,00.html

Copyright information

© Journal of Chinese Political Science/Association of Chinese Political Studies 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Asia Research Centre, Copenhagen Business SchoolFrederiksbergDenmark

Personalised recommendations