Induction of hydrogen, hydroxy, and LPG with ethanol in a common SI engine: a comparison of performance and emission characteristics


In this investigation, performance and emission characteristics for enhancing LPG, hydrogen, and hydroxy with E20 were evaluated for the understanding of which fuel combination performs better in a gasoline engine. In the upper sequence, hydroxy-hydrogen-LPG could perform best in terms of brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC). The induction of gaseous fuel improves CO, CO2, and HC emission but increases the NOx emission. More concisely, the enhancement of hydroxy with E20 shows the best engine performance for highest BTE while lowest BSFC as well as lowest exhaust emissions (CO, HC, except NOx).

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Hydroxy gas


Brake power


20% (v/v) ethanol + 80% (v/v) gasoline


Brake-specific fuel consumption


Brake thermal efficiency


Unburned hydrocarbon


Nitrogen oxides


Liquefied petroleum gas


Liter per minute


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The authors would like to acknowledge the Ministry of Power, Energy and Mineral Resources, Bangladesh, for the partial financial support through the research program.

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Correspondence to Md. Atiqur Rahman.

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Responsible editor: Philippe Garrigues

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Rahman, M.A. Induction of hydrogen, hydroxy, and LPG with ethanol in a common SI engine: a comparison of performance and emission characteristics. Environ Sci Pollut Res 26, 3033–3040 (2019).

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  • LPG
  • Hydrogen
  • Hydroxy
  • SI engine
  • Performance
  • Emission