Chlorinated and brominated organic pollutants in shellfish from the Yellow Sea and East China Sea
- 623 Downloads
The global contamination with persistent organic pollutants (POPs), or compounds with similar characteristics, is well known. Still there are data gaps for POP concentrations from many areas in the world. The aim of the present study is to assess several legacies POPs and also hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) in shellfish from three locations in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea. The sources of the contaminants are discussed. Pooled samples were treated by liquid-liquid extraction and acid and column cleanup prior to analysis by gas chromatogram equipped with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The by far most abundant environmental contaminant originates from dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), independent of species analyzed or sampling site. The results indicate ongoing or at least recent discharges of DDT. The second highest concentrations were reported for HBCDD (21–40 ng/g fat) in the shellfish, independent of sampling sites. The two natural products, 6-MeO-BDE-47 and 2′-MeO-BDE-68, were also present in the shellfish (1.3–22 and 1–14 ng/g fat, respectively). The polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener CB-153 (0.8–6.5 ng/g fat), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) (1.1–3.6 ng/g fat), and β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH) (2.3–4.9 ng/g fat) were all higher than the concentrations of other HCH isomers, β-endosulfan, PBDE congeners, and mirex. Apart from the DDTs and HBCDDs, it is evident that the pollution of shellfish was similar to, or lower than, the contamination of shellfish in other parts of the world.
KeywordsShellfish Pesticides HBCDD DDT MeO-PBDE China
Financial supports from the SIDA Partner Driven Cooperation project (AKT 2010-015) and the VR Research Cooperation China project (639-2013-6913) are gratefully acknowledged. The financial support from Tongji University is also acknowledged. We would like to thank Ioannis Athanassiadis for performing the GC-MS analysis.
- Fang ZQ (2004) Organochlorines in sediments and mussels collected from coastal sites along the Pearl River Delta, South China. J Environ Sci (China) 16:321–327Google Scholar
- Marsh G, Stenutz R, Bergman A (2003) Synthesis of hydroxylated and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers—natural products and potential polybrominated diphenyl ether metabolites. European Journal of Organic Chemistry 2566–2576Google Scholar
- NRM (2012) Övervakning av metaller och organiska miljögifter i marin biota, 2012.Google Scholar
- Ramu K, Kajiwara N, Isobe T, Takahashi S, Kim EY, Min BY, We SU, Tanabe S (2007a) Spatial distribution and accumulation of brominated flame retardants, polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) from coastal waters of Korea. Environ Pollut 148:562–569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ramu K, Kajiwara N, Sudaryanto A, Isobe T, Takahashi S, Subramanian A, Ueno D, Zheng GJ, Lam PKS, Takada H, Zakaria MP, Viet PH, Prudente M, Tana TS, Tanabe S (2007b) Asian mussel watch program: contamination status of polyhrominated diphenyl ethers and organochlorines in coastal waters of Asian countries. Environ Sci Technol 41:4580–4586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ueno D, Isobe T, Ramu K, Tanabe S, Alaee M, Marvin C, Inoue K, Someya T, Miyajima T, Kodama H, Nakata H (2010) Spatial distribution of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organochlorines in bivalves from Japanese coastal waters. Chemosphere 78:1213–1219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- UNEP (2007) The People’s Republic of China National Implementation Plan for the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants.Google Scholar
- UNEP (2014) Stockholm Convention Overview.Google Scholar