Water, Air, & Soil Pollution: Focus

, Volume 8, Issue 5–6, pp 445–456 | Cite as

Sources of Alkylphenols and Alkylphenol Ethoxylates in Wastewater—A Substance Flow Analysis in Stockholm, Sweden

  • N. MånssonEmail author
  • L. Sörme
  • C. Wahlberg
  • B. Bergbäck


This is a study of the sources of alkylphenol and alkylphenol ethoxylates in wastewater, including the new observation that the main contribution is from textiles. Alkylphenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates are widely used chemicals in various applications that are partly under environmental restrictions within Europe. The study sets out to analyze the most important sources of this large group of organic compounds in an urban wastewater system. A substance flow analysis (SFA) of the technosphere in Stockholm, Sweden in 2004 was conducted, allowing a comparison of 13 groups of goods’ emissions to wastewater. It was found that the groups of textiles and cleaning agents were the major sources to wastewater, while the group’s personal care products and paint and lacquers give smaller contributions. The content of alkylphenol ethoxylates in goods, especially in textiles, is a most significant source and is probably valid for other urban areas as well.


Alkylphenol Goods Nonylphenol Octylphenol SFA Textile Wastewater treatment 



This study was founded by Stockholm City, Stockholm Water Co, Statistics Sweden, and by the Faculty of Natural Science and Technology, University of Kalmar. The authors would like to thank Åsa Andersson for the gathering of data and the Swedish Society for Nature Conservation (Frida Hök) for sharing data valuable for this article.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. Månsson
    • 1
    Email author
  • L. Sörme
    • 2
  • C. Wahlberg
    • 3
  • B. Bergbäck
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Pure and Applied Natural SciencesUniversity of KalmarKalmarSweden
  2. 2.SCB Statistics SwedenStockholmSweden
  3. 3.Stockholm Water CompanyStockholmSweden

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