Fast Algorithms for Fitting Active Appearance Models to Unconstrained Images
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Abstract
Fitting algorithms for Active Appearance Models (AAMs) are usually considered to be robust but slow or fast but less able to generalize well to unseen variations. In this paper, we look into AAM fitting algorithms and make the following orthogonal contributions: We present a simple “projectout” optimization framework that unifies and revises the most wellknown optimization problems and solutions in AAMs. Based on this framework, we describe robust simultaneous AAM fitting algorithms the complexity of which is not prohibitive for current systems. We then go on one step further and propose a new approximate projectout AAM fitting algorithm which we coin Extended ProjectOut Inverse Compositional (EPOIC). In contrast to current algorithms, EPOIC is both efficient and robust. Next, we describe a partbased AAM employing a translational motion model, which results in superior fitting and convergence properties. We also show that the proposed AAMs, when trained “inthewild” using SIFT descriptors, perform surprisingly well even for the case of unseen unconstrained images. Via a number of experiments on unconstrained human and animal face databases, we show that our combined contributions largely bridge the gap between exact and current approximate methods for AAM fitting and perform comparably with stateoftheart face alignment systems.
Keywords
Active Appearance Models Face alignment Inthewild1 Introduction
Pioneered by Cootes et al. (2001) and revisited by Matthews and Baker (2004), Active Appearance Models (AAMs) have been around in computer vision research for more than 15 years. They are statistical models of shape and appearance that can generate instances of a specific object class (e.g. faces) given a small number of model parameters. Fitting an AAM to a new image entails estimating the model parameters so that the model instance and the given image are “close enough” typically in a leastsquares sense. Recovering the shape parameters is important because it implies that the location of a set of landmarks (or fiducial points) has been detected in the given image. Landmark localization is of fundamental significance in many computer vision problems like face and medical image analysis. Hence, fitting AAMs robustly to new images has been the focus of extensive research over the past years.
Fitting AMMs is an iterative process at each iteration of which an update of the current model parameters is estimated. Typically, the update is a function of the error between the image and the model instance measured in the canonical reference frame of the model. There are two main lines of research for modeling this function. The first is to learn it via regression which was also the approach proposed in the original AAM paper (Cootes et al. 2001). Regressionbased approaches are fast but approximate. For example in Cootes et al. (2001), the relationship between the error image and the update is assumed linear and independent of the current model parameters.
Of particular interest in this work is the second line of research for fitting AAMs through nonlinear leastsquares (Matthews and Baker 2004). In particular, AAM fitting is formulated as a Lucas–Kanade (LK) problem (Lucas et al. 1981) which can be solved iteratively using Gauss–Newton optimization. However, standard gradient descend algorithms when applied to AAM fitting are inefficient. This problem was addressed in the seminal work of Matthews and Baker (2004) which extends the LK algorithm and the appearancebased tracking framework of Hager and Belhumeur (1998) for the case of AAMs and deformable models. One of the major contributions of Matthews and Baker (2004) is the socalled ProjectOut Inverse Compositional algorithm (POIC). The algorithm is coined projectout because it decouples shape from appearance and inverse compositional because the update is estimated in the model coordinate frame and then composed to the current estimate (this is in contrast to the standard LK algorithm in which the parameters are updated in a forward additive fashion). The combination results in an algorithm which is as efficient as regressionbased approaches and is now considered the standard choice for fitting personspecific AAMs (i.e. AAMs for modeling a specific subject known in advance during training). Its main disadvantage is its limited capability of generalizing well to unseen variations, the most notable example of which is the case of generic AAMs (i.e. AAMs for modeling subjects not seen during training).
In contrast to POIC, the Simultaneous Inverse Compositional (SIC) algorithm (Baker et al. 2003) has been shown to perform robustly for the case of generic fitting (Gross et al. 2005). However, the computational cost of the algorithm is almost prohibitive for most applications. Let n and m denote the number of the shape and appearance parameters of the AAM. Then, the cost per iteration for SIC is \(O((n+m)^2N)\), where N is the number of pixels in the reference frame. Note that the cost of POIC is only O(nN). For generic fitting \(m \gg n\) and hence the huge difference in computational cost has either ruled out SIC from most papers/studies that depart from the personspecific case or made the authors resort in approximate solutions (please see (Saragih and Gocke 2009) for an example).
Some attempts to reduce the cost of SIC do exist but they are limited. An example is the Normalization algorithm (Gross et al. 2005). However, the performance of the Normalization algorithm has been reported to be closer to that of POIC rather than that of SIC. A second notable example is Papandreou and Maragos (2008) which applies the update rules originally proposed in Hager and Belhumeur (1998) to the problem of AAM fitting. The framework proposed in this paper is also based on Hager and Belhumeur (1998), but it extends it in several different ways (please see below for a summary of our contributions). Finally, other techniques for reducing the cost to some extent via precomputations have been reported in Batur and Hayes (2005) and Netzell and Solem (2008).
1.1 Summary of Contributions and Paper Roadmap
 1.
Can AAMs provide fitting performance comparable to that of contemporary stateoftheart algorithms for the difficult problem of fitting facial deformable models to unconstrained images (also known as face alignment inthewild)?
 2.
What is the relation between performance and computational efficiency? How efficient can exact algorithms be? More importantly, are there any inexact algorithms that are also robust?
 1.
Two approximate but both robust and efficient fitting algorithms coined approximate FastSIC (aFastSIC) and Extended POIC (EPOIC) with complexity \(O((n+m)N + n^2N)\) and O(nN), respectively. We show that aFastSIC has essentially the same fitting and convergence properties as SIC, and can be seen as a block coordinate descent algorithm for AAM fitting. Additionally, we show that EPOIC largely bridges the gap between SIC and POIC, and can be seen as a very fast regressionbased approach to AAM fitting.
 2.
Robust training of AAMs. In particular, we propose a new direction for employing AAMs in unconstrained conditions by means of training AAMs inthewild, and provide justifications why such a training procedure is beneficial for AAM fitting.
 3.
Partbased AAMs combined with a translational motion model (as opposed to standard holistic AAMs with piecewise affine warp). We show that our partbased AAM, coined Gauss–Newton Deformable Part Model (GNDPM), is more robust and accurate and has superior convergence properties.
 4.
Robust features, in particular SIFTbased AAMs. Although creating such models is straightforward, there is also an associated computational overhead. To alleviate this problem, we show how significant computational reductions can be achieved by building a full model during training but then efficiently performing the optimization on a sparse grid during fitting.
 1.
In Sect. 5, we present a simple optimization framework for AAM fitting that unifies and revises the most wellknown optimization problems and solutions in AAMs. Our framework derives and solves the optimization problem for FastSIC, a fast algorithm that is theoretically guaranteed to provide exactly the same updates per iterations as the ones provided by SIC, and describes a simple and approximate FastSIC algorithm coined aFastSIC.
 2.
In Sect. 6, and based on the analysis of Sect. 5, we describe our approximate but both robust and efficient AAM fitting algorithm coined EPOIC.
 3.
In Sect. 7, we illustrate the benefits of the proposed training of AAMs inthewild.
 4.
In Sect. 8.1, we describe the proposed partbased AAM, coined GNDPM, and show how this model can be fitted with Gauss–Newton optimization via a translational motion model.
 5.
In Sect. 9, we describe the efficient fitting of SIFTbased AAMs based on a weighted leastsquares formulation.
 6.
In Sect. 10, we report experiments illustrating the fitting and convergence properties of all AAMs described in this work and provide comparisons with stateoftheart.
2 StateoftheArt in Face Alignment
The problem of face alignment has a long history in computer vision and a large number of approaches have been proposed to tackle it. Typically, faces are modelled as deformable objects which can vary in terms of shape and appearance. Much of early work revolved around the Active Shape Models (ASMs) and the AAMs (Cootes et al. 1995, 2001; Matthews and Baker 2004). In ASMs, facial shape is expressed as a linear combination of shape bases learned via principal component analysis (PCA), while appearance is modelled locally using (most commonly) discriminatively learned templates. In AAMs, shape is modelled as in ASMs but appearance is modelled globally using PCA in a canonical coordinate frame where shape variation has been removed. More recently, the focus has been shifted to the family of methods coined Constrained Local Models (CLMs) (Cristinacce and Cootes 2008; Lucey et al. 2009; Saragih et al. 2011) which build upon the ASMs. Besides new methodologies, another notable development in the field has been the collection and annotation of large facial data sets captured in unconstrained conditions (inthewild) (Belhumeur et al. 2011; Zhu and Ramanan 2012; Le et al. 2012; Sagonas et al. 2013). Being able to capitalize on large amounts of data, a number of (cascaded) regressionbased techniques have been recently proposed which achieve impressive performance (Valstar et al. 2010; Cao et al. 2012; Xiong and De la Torre 2013; Sun et al. 2013; Ren et al. 2014; Asthana et al. 2014; Kazemi and Josephine 2014). The approaches described in Xiong and De la Torre (2013), Ren et al. (2014), Asthana et al. (2014), Kazemi and Josephine (2014) and Tzimiropoulos (2015) along with the partbased generative deformable model of Tzimiropoulos and Pantic (2014) are considered to be the stateoftheart in face alignment. Regarding AAMs, and following Tzimiropoulos and Pantic (2013), there have been a few notable approaches to AAM fitting, see for example Kossaifi et al. (2014) and Kossaifi et al. (2015). Stateoftheart is considered the partbased AAM of Tzimiropoulos and Pantic (2014).
3 Active Appearance Models
We used piecewise affine warps \(\mathbf {W}(\mathbf {x};\mathbf {p})\) as the motion model for AAMs in this work. Briefly, to define a piecewise affine warp, one firstly needs to triangulate the set of vertices of the given shapes. Then, each triangle in \(\mathbf {s}(\mathbf {p})\) and the corresponding triangle in \(\mathbf {s}_0\) are used to define an affine warp. The collection of all affine warps defines a piecewise affine warp which is parameterized with respect to \(\mathbf {p}\).
Finally, a model instance is synthesized to represent a test object by warping \(\mathbf {A}(\mathbf {c})\) from the mean shape \(\mathbf {s}_0\) to \(\mathbf {s}(\mathbf {p})\) using the piecewise affine warp \(\mathbf {W}(\mathbf {x};\mathbf {p})\) defined by \(\mathbf {s}(\mathbf {p})\) and \(\mathbf {s}_0\). Please see Cootes et al. (2001) and Matthews and Baker (2004) for a detailed coverage of AAMs.
4 Background on Fitting AAMs
In a series of seminal papers (Baker et al. 2003; Matthews and Baker 2004), the authors illustrated that problem (3) can be solved using using an optimization framework based on a generalization of the Lucas–Kanade (LK) algorithm (Lucas et al. 1981). In particular, because (3) is a nonlinear function of \(\mathbf {p}\), the standard approach to proceed is to linearize with respect to the shape parameters \(\mathbf {p}\) and then optimize iteratively in a Gauss–Newton fashion. As illustrated in Baker et al. (2003); Matthews and Baker (2004), linearization of (3) with respect to \(\mathbf {p}\) can be performed in two coordinate frames. In the forward case, the test image \(\mathbf {I}\) is linearized around the current estimate \(\mathbf {p}\), a solution for a \(\varDelta \mathbf {p}\) is sought using leastsquares, and \(\mathbf {p}\) is updated in an additive fashion \(\mathbf {p}\leftarrow \mathbf {p} + \varDelta \mathbf {p}\). In general, forward algorithms are slow because the Jacobian and its inverse must be reevaluated at each iteration.
5 An Optimization Framework for Efficient Fitting of AAMs
Solving the exact problem in a simultaneous fashion as described above is not the only way for robust fitting of AAMs. In this section, we derive and solve the optimization problem for FastSIC, a fast algorithm that is theoretically guaranteed to provide exactly the same updates per iteration as the ones provided by SIC in \(O(nmN + n^2N)\). The derived update rules for FastSIC were originally proposed in Hager and Belhumeur (1998) and applied to the problem of AAM fitting in Papandreou and Maragos (2008). In this section, we provide a derivation based on a standard result from optimization theory (Eq. (9)), which has the advantage of producing the exact form of the optimization problem that FastSIC solves. Our derivation sheds further light on the different optimization problems that POIC and SIC solve and shows that POIC is only an approximation to FastSIC (and hence to SIC). Additionally, we describe a simple and approximate FastSIC algorithm which we coin aFastSIC with similar fitting and convergence performance (as experimentally shown) but with complexity \(O((n+m)N+n^2N)\). Both algorithms, and especially aFastSIC, are not only computationally realizable but also relatively attractive speedwise for most current systems. Finally, it is worth noting that based on the analysis presented in this section, in the next section, we describe an algorithm which is shown to largely outperform POIC, and similarly to POIC, has complexity O(nN), only.
As we may see from (11), the difference between POIC and FastSIC (and hence SIC) is that POIC uses \(\mathbf {J}_0\) while FastSIC uses \(\mathbf {J}\). This difference simply comes from the point at which we choose to linearize. The authors in Matthews and Baker (2004) chose to project out first and then linearize. FastSIC first linearizes the appearance model, and then projects out. Overall, it is evident that because the Jacobian \(\mathbf {J}\) has been omitted from (8), POIC and FastSIC produce different solutions per iteration. Hence POIC is only an approximation to FastSIC (and hence to SIC). We attribute the large performance gap (as we show later on) between FastSIC and POIC to this approximation.
Another way to interpret FastSIC is to solve the original SIC problem of (5) in the subspace defined by \(\mathbf {P}_A\). This has the effect that the appearance terms \(\mathbf {A}\mathbf {c}\) and \(\mathbf {A}\varDelta \mathbf {c}\) immediately vanish. However, the Jacobian \(\mathbf {J}_c = \sum _{i=1}^{m}c_i\mathbf {J}_i\) does not belong to the appearance subspace \(\mathbf {A}\), and therefore does not vanish as assumed by POIC. To make it vanish, in the next section, we propose an algorithm which works in the subspace orthogonal to both \(\mathbf {A}\) and \(\mathbf {J}_i\), and is shown to largely outperform POIC.
To calculate the cost for FastSIC, we just note that for a matrix \(\mathbf {X}\in \mathcal {R}^{N \times l}\), we can calculate \(\mathbf {P}_A\mathbf {X}=\mathbf {X}  \mathbf {A}(\mathbf {A}^T\mathbf {X})\) with cost O(lmN). Hence, the complexity per iteration is O(nmN) for computing \(\mathbf {J}_{fsic}\), \(O(n^2N)\) for computing \(\mathbf {H}_{fsic}\) and \(O(n^3)\) for inverting \(\mathbf {H}_{fsic}\). Because typically \(m \gg n\), the main computational burden is \(O(nmN+n^2N)\) and is related to the calculation of the projectedout Jacobian \(\mathbf {J}_{fsic}\).
The above cost can be readily reduced by using a simple approximation: when computing (12), we can write \(\mathbf {J}_{fsic}^T(\mathbf {I}\mathbf {A}_0)=\mathbf {J}^T\mathbf {P}_A^T(\mathbf {I}\mathbf {A}_0)\). Now \(\mathbf {P}_A^T(\mathbf {I}\mathbf {A}_0)\) takes O(mN) and one can compute \(\mathbf {J}\) as the Jacobian of \(\mathbf {A}(\mathbf {c})\) also in O(mN). Hence, if we approximate \(\mathbf {H}_{fsic}\) with \(\mathbf {H} = \mathbf {J}^T\mathbf {J}\), the overall cost of the algorithm is reduced to \(O((n+m)N+n^2N)\). We call this algorithm approximate FastSIC (aFastSIC). Note that aFastSIC can be readily seen as a block coordinate descent algorithm for minimizing (5). In particular, by keeping \(\varDelta \mathbf {p}\) fixed and optimizing with respect to \(\varDelta \mathbf {c}\), as we showed above, we can readily derive (10). Then, by keeping \(\varDelta \mathbf {c}\) fixed and optimizing with respect to \(\varDelta \mathbf {p}\), we can readily derive the unprojected Hessian and the same update as the one employed by aFastSIC. As we show below aFastSIC achieves essentially the same fitting and convergence performance as the one achieved by FastSIC.
6 Extended ProjectOut Inverse Compositional (EPOIC) Algorithm
We note that although derived from a totally different pathway, POIC is similar to regressionbased approaches having a computational cost of O(nN). This can be readily seen by writing \(\mathbf {K}=\mathbf {H}_{p}^{1}\mathbf {J}^T\) and \(\mathbf {E}_r=\mathbf {P}_A^T(\mathbf {I}[\mathbf {p}]\mathbf {A}_0)\). Unfortunately, as our experiments hereafter show, there is a very large difference in performance between POIC and FastSIC. Based on the analysis presented in Sect. 5, in the following subsections, we describe the Extended ProjectOut Inverse Compositional (EPOIC) algorithm, a very fast gradient descentbased projectout algorithm with complexity O(nN) which largely outperforms POIC and bridges the gap with FastSIC. EPOIC is a combination of two algorithms EPOICv1 and EPOICv2 which both outperform POIC whilst the individual performance improvements turn out to be orthogonal.
6.1 EPOICv1: ProjectOut the Steepest Descent Images
6.2 EPOICv2: ProjectOut Joint Alignment
POIC algorithm essentially averages over all training images and performs alignment between the mean appearance and the test image. As we show below, this introduces some undesirable terms in the calculation of the Hessian which deteriorate fitting performance. To alleviate this, we propose to jointly align the test image with all training images and then average out the result in a similar fashion to regression approaches. This can be also seen as one iteration of the socalled joint alignment framework of “image congealing” (Huang et al. 2007; Cox et al. 2008). Because all training images are already aligned to each other, we show below that this idea can be extended within the projectout inverse compositional framework with complexity O(nN).
It is worth noting that the difference between POIC and EPOICv2 boils down to how the Hessian is calculated. EPOICv2 uses an average projectedout Hessian. In contrast, POIC first averages over all images, and then computes the projectedout Hessian of the mean appearance \(\mathbf {H}_{poic} = (\sum _i\mathbf {G}_i)^T\mathbf {P}_A\sum _j\mathbf {G}_j\). The result is that \(\mathbf {H}_{poic}\) contains crossterms of the form \(\mathbf {G}_i^T\mathbf {P}_A\mathbf {G}_j, i\ne j\) which do not appear in \(\mathbf {H}_{ja}\). As our results have shown, these terms deteriorate performance significantly.
6.3 The Extended ProjectOut Inverse Compositional Algorithm
7 Fitting AAMs to Unconstrained Images
In general, fitting AAMs to unconstrained images is considered a difficult task. Perhaps, the most widely acknowledged reason for this is the limited representational power of the appearance model which is unable to generalize well to unseen variations. In particular, all optimization problems considered in the previous sections are leastsquares problems, and, as it is wellknown in computer vision, leastsquares combined with pixel intensities as features typically results in poor performance for data corrupted by outliers (e.g. sunglasses, occlusions, difficult illumination). Standard ways of dealing with outliers are robust norms and robust features. The problem with robust norms is that scale parameters must be estimated (or percentage of outlier pixels must be predefined) and this task is not trivial. The problem with feature extraction is that it might slow down the speed of the fitting algorithm significantly especially when the dimensionality of the featuredbased appearance model is large.
To illustrate the boost in robustness obtained by training AAMs inthewild, we used the training set of LFPW to train the shape and the appearance model of pixelbased AAMs, and the test set of the same database to quantify fitting accuracy. The database consists of images from the web containing large variations in pose, illumination, expression and occlusion. For our experiments, in order to assess performance, we used the same average (computed over all 68 points) pointtopoint Euclidean error normalized by the face size as the one used in Zhu and Ramanan (2012). Similarly to Zhu and Ramanan (2012), for this error measure, we produced the cumulative curve corresponding to the percentage of test images for which the error was less than a specific value. In all cases, fitting was initialized by the bounding box of Zhu and Ramanan (2012).
8 PartBased Active Appearance Models
In our formulation, a partbased AAM is an AAM that draws advantages from the partbased representation and the translational motion model of the Deformable Part Model (DPM) (Felzenszwalb et al. 2010) and (Zhu and Ramanan 2012) (as opposed to the holistic representation and the piecewise affine warp used in standard AAMs). Following Tzimiropoulos and Pantic (2014), we call this model a generative DPM. As we show hereafter, fitting a generative DPM using Gauss–Newton optimization implies a translational motion model which results in more accurate and robust performance compared to that obtained by fitting a standard holistic AAM with the same algorithm. We attribute this performance improvement to the more flexible partbased representation which models only the most relevant parts of the face, and the simplicity of the translational motion model.
8.1 Generative DPM
A generative DPM is described by generative models of global shape and local appearance both learned via PCA, as in the original CLM paper of Cristinacce and Cootes (2008). Unlike Cristinacce and Cootes (2008), both models are kept independent (Matthews and Baker 2004) i.e., we do not apply a third PCA on the embeddings of the shape and texture. The global shape model of the generative DPM is the same as the one used in AAMs, i.e. an instance of the shape model \(\mathbf {s}(\mathbf {p})\) is given by (1). A key feature of the appearance model is that it is learned from all parts jointly, and hence parts, although capture local appearance, are not assumed independent. The appearance model of the generative DPM is obtained by (a) warping each training image \(\mathbf {I}_i\) to a reference frame so that similarity transformations are removed, (b) extracting a \(N_p=N_s \times N_s\) pixelbased part (i.e. patch) around each landmark, (c) obtaining a partbased texture for the whole image by concatenating all parts in a \(N = uN_p \) vector, and (d) applying PCA to the partbased textures of all training images. In this way, and similarly to an AAM, we obtain the mean appearance \(\mathbf {A}_0\) and m appearance eigenvectors \(\mathbf {A}_i\), compactly represented as columns of \(\mathbf {A} \in \mathcal {R}^{N \times m}\). Again, and similarly to an AAM, an instance of the appearance model \(\mathbf {A}(\mathbf {c})\) is given by (2).
It is worth noting that each \(\mathbf {A}_i\) (this also applies to the partbased texture representation of each training image \(\mathbf {I}_i\)) can be rearranged as a \(u \times N_p\) representation \([\mathbf {A}^{i,1} \; \mathbf {A}^{i,2} \; \ldots \; \mathbf {A}^{i,N_p}]\). Each column \(\mathbf {A}^{i,j}\in \mathcal {R}^u\) contains u pixels all belonging to a different part but all sharing the same index location j within their part. This representation allows us to interpret each patch as a \(N_p\)dimensional descriptor for the corresponding landmark. Finally, we define \(\mathbf {A}^{j} = [\mathbf {A}^{1,j} \; \mathbf {A}^{2,j} \; \ldots \; \mathbf {A}^{m,j}] \in \mathcal {R}^{u \times m}\).
8.2 Fitting Generative DPMs with Gauss–Newton
8.3 Comparison with AAMs
Two questions that naturally arise when comparing the partbased GNDPMs over holistic AAMs are: (a) do both models have the same representational power? and (b) which model is easier to optimize? Because it is difficult to meaningfully compare the representational power of the models directly, in this section, we provide an attempt to shed some light on both questions by conducting an indirect comparison between the two models.
To investigate question (a), we repeated the experiment of Sect. 7 for both GNDPMs and holistic AAMs, but we initialized both algorithms (we used FastSIC for both cases) using the ground truth locations of the landmarks for each image. We assume that the more powerful the appearance model is, the better it will reconstruct the appearance of an unseen image, and hence the fitting process will not cause much drifting from the ground truth locations. Fig. 5 (left) shows the obtained cumulative curves for GNDPMs and AAMs. We may see that both methods achieve literally the same fitting accuracy illustrating that the partbased and holistic approaches have the same representational power. An interesting observation is that the drift from ground truth is very small and the achieved fitting accuracy is very high. This shows that generative deformable models when trained inthewild are able to produce a very high degree of fitting accuracy.
9 Efficient Weighted LeastSquares Optimization of SIFTAAMs
All algorithms presented so far operate on raw pixel intensities. However, one could use other more sophisticated features to boost up robustness and accuracy. In this work, we used the same SIFT features as Xiong and De la Torre (2013) which we found that they produce a large basin of attraction for gradient descent optimization. Building an AAM using SIFT features is straightforward. For example, for the case of standard holistic AAMs (for the case of GNDPMs, the process is very similar) at each pixel location we extract a SIFT descriptor of dimension \(N_f\), and the appearance of each image is represented as a SIFT image (Liu et al. 2008) with \(N_f\) channels \(\mathbf {I}^k, k=1, \ldots , N_f\). The appearance model of the SIFTAAM can be learned by warping each \(\mathbf {I}^k\) to the mean shape, concatenating all features in a single vector and then applying PCA. In a similar fashion, the mean appearance \(\mathbf {A}_0\) and each appearance basis \(\mathbf {A}_i\) can be rearranged in \(N_f\) channels \(\mathbf {A}^k_i, i=1, \ldots , N_f\). Finally for each appearance basis and channel, we can calculate the Jacobian \(\mathbf {J}^k_i\) as described in Sect. 4.
10 Results

Case 1: Evaluation of pixelbased AAMs We have already assessed the performance of all algorithms presented so far for the popular data set of LPFW. To verify these results, we report fitting performance for two challenging crossdatabase experiments on Helen (Le et al. 2012) and AFW (Zhu and Ramanan 2012). We emphasize that the faces of these databases contain significantly more shape and appearance variation than those of the training set of LFPW that all methods were trained on.

Case 2: Evaluation of SIFTbased AAMs We report the fitting performance of the proposed algorithms when the appearance model was built using SIFT features for all three databases, and we focus on whether the proposed efficient weighted leastsquares optimization of SIFTbased AAMs results in any loss in performance.

Case 3: Comparison with stateoftheart We present a comparison on both human and animal faces between the performance of the proposed algorithms against that of two of the best performing methods in literature, namely the Supervised Descent Method (SDM) of (Xiong and De la Torre 2013) and Chehra (Asthana et al. 2014). We also compare the performance of all methods considered in our experiments against the best possible fitting result achieved by an Oracle who knows the location of the landmarks in the test images and simply reconstructs them using the trained shape model.

Conclusion 1 aFastSIC and FastSIC feature the same performance both in terms of fitting accuracy and speed of convergence.

Conclusion 2 The partbased AAM (i.e. GNDPM) built with SIFT features and fitted with EPOIC achieves essentially the same fitting accuracy as the same model fitted via aFastSIC. To achieve this accuracy though, EPOIC requires about twice as many iterations. However, the cost per iteration for EPOIC is orders of magnitude smaller than the cost per iteration required for aFastSIC.

Conclusion 3 Our two best performing methods, namely GNDPMs built with SIFT features and fitted with aFastSIC and EPOIC, outperform SDM and Chehra. However, SDM and Chehra converge faster.
It is worth noting that we used the efficient weighted leastsquares optimization approach of Sect. 9 only for the case of SIFT features. In order to investigate whether such an approach results in loss in performance, we report results for FastSIC by optimizing over all pixels whilst we report results for aFastSIC, EPOIC and POIC by optimizing over the points of the sparse grid described in Sect. 9. This setting is used for both AAMs and GNDPMs. This means that if we exclude the cost for the SIFT extraction process, the aFastSICSIFT, EPOICSIFT and POICSIFT algorithms have almost the same complexity as their pixel intensity counterparts (in particular the complexity is increased only by a factor of 2 as explained in Sect. 9).
Similarly to the experiment of Sect. 7, we initialized all algorithms using the bounding box of the face detector of Zhu and Ramanan (2012). To quantify performance, we produced the cumulative curves corresponding to the percentage of test images for which the normalized pointtopoint error was less than a specific value. Note that for cases 1 and 2, we report performance for 68 points.
Regarding comparison with SDM and Chehra (case 3), we note that for the sake of a fair comparison we used the same implementation of SIFT that the authors of Xiong and De la Torre (2013) provide, although we used a reduced 8dimensional SIFT representation as opposed to the 128dimensional representation used in Xiong and De la Torre (2013). As our experiments have shown, this reduced representation seems to suffice for good performance and keeps the complexity of SIFTbased AAMs close to that of their pixelbased counterparts. Probably, the good performance can be attributed to the generative appearance model of the AAMs which can account for appearance variation. Finally, we carefully initialized both SDM and Chehra using the same face detector used for our AAMs, following the authors’ instructions, and we report performance on the 49 interior points because these are the points that the publicly available implementations of SDM and Chehra provide.
Figure 6 shows the results of pixelbased AAMs and GNDPMs on Helen and AFW. Compared to LFPW, there is drop in performance for all methods because the faces of Helen and AFW are much more difficult to detect and fit. Nevertheless the relative difference in performance is similar, validating the conclusions of Sects. 7 and 8.1. Notably, the partbased representation and the translational motion model of GNDPMs consistently outperform the holistic appearance models and the piecewise affine warp of AAMs.
Figure 7 shows the results obtained by fitting SIFTbased AAMs and GNDPMs on LFPW, Helen and AFW. We may observe that (a) there is large boost in performance when SIFT features are used, (b) there is negligible difference in performance between FastSICSIFT which is optimized over all pixels, and aFastSICSIFT which is optimized on a sparse grid, (c) EPOICSIFT on a sparse grid largely outperforms POICSIFT, and performs almost similarly to aFastSICSIFT. Especially for the case of GNDPMs, the difference in performance between aFastSICSIFT and EPOICSIFT is almost negligible.
Additionally, Fig. 8 shows the convergence performance in terms of reduction of the average ptpt error for a fixed number of iterations for all SIFTbased AAMs and algorithms. Note that similar results were obtained for the case of pixelbased AAMs but for brevity we present only the results for SIFT features which produce the best fitting performance. For this experiment, we used the test set of LPFW and a total of 50 iterations (25 for the lower and 25 for the higher level of our pyramid). As we may observe, the partbased formulation results in significantly faster error reduction. Additionally, FastSICSIFT and aFastSICSIFT feature almost identical convergence performance. This result clearly illustrates that, compared to FastSIC, the aFastSIC approximation essentially achieves the same performance in terms of both fitting accuracy and speed of convergence. From the same figure, we can observe that EPOICSIFT requires almost twice as many iterations at the lower level compared to FastSICSIFT and aFastSICSIFT. Hence, although EPOICSIFT achieves very similar fitting performance to that of aFastSICSIFT (especially for GNDPMs), it also requires more iterations. However, the cost per iteration for each algorithm is significantly different. After ignoring the feature extraction step, EPOIC requires one matrix multiplication to calculate the update for the shape parameters which on an average laptop takes about 0.0003 s. To perform the necessary matrix multiplications to calculate the update for the shape and appearance parameters, aFastSIC is approximately 100 times slower, while FastSIC is approximately 5 times slower than aFASTSIC. It is worth noting that EPOIC is very attractive in terms of memory requirements as it requires storing only one matrix of size \(N \times n\) in memory, while aFastSIC additionally requires storing the appearance model and its gradients. This makes EPOIC particularly suitable for mobile applications.
Figure 9(a) shows the performance of our best performing GNDPMs for different patch sizes \(N_s\). It can be observed that the method is not too sensitive to patch size and that performance starts saturating already from \(N_s=19\). Figure 9(b) compares performance for SIFT dimensionality equal to 8 and 128. We observe that there is no benefit in increasing SIFT dimensionality (and hence complexity). We attribute this to the flexibility of the generative appearance model employed by AAMs.
Figure 10 shows the comparison between our two best performing methods, namely GNDPMs fitted via aFastSICSIFT and EPOICSIFT and two stateoftheart methods, namely SDM and Chehra. For this comparison, it is worth noting that we conducted experiments on human faces but also on animal faces For the former case, we followed our previous setting and trained aFastSICSIFT and EPOICSIFT on about 800 images from LFPW. Note that SDM was trained on internal CMU data and Chehra on the whole LPFW, Helen and AFW data sets. As we may observe, the proposed methods outperform SDM on all three databases, and perform worse than Chehra only on the AFW data set. For the sake of a fairer comparison, we also provide the results of our implementation of SDM and Chehra, trained on LFPW. Finally, the later setting was repeated for our “Cats” data set which contains 1500 cat face images anotated with 42 landmarks (1000 images were used for training and 500 images for testing) selected from the Oxford pet data set Parkhi et al. (2012). Because large pose variations and facial hair are very common in cat faces, this data set is much more challenging than the ones containing human faces. As we may observe, compared to our implementations of SDM and Chehra, the proposed AAMs perform significantly better showing that AAMs can feature robust performance even when trained on relatively small data sets such as LFPW and very challenging data sets such as our “Cats” data set. We have to emphasize though that both SDM and Chehra require very few iterations to converge (about 5–6). Overall, these results clearly place the proposed methods in par with the stateoftheart methods in face alignment. Finally, there is a very large performance gap between all methods and the best achievable result provided by the Oracle.
Finally, Fig. 11 shows some fitting examples of aFastSICSIFT, EPOICSIFT, and POICSIFT on Helen. As we may observe aFastSICSIFT and EPOICSIFT are significantly more robust and accurate than POICSIFT.
11 Conclusions
We presented a framework for fitting AAMs to unconstrained images. Our focus was on robustness, fitting accuracy and efficiency. Toward these goals, we introduced several orthogonal contributions: First, we proposed a series of algorithms, perhaps the most notable of which are aFastSICSIFT and more importantly EPOICSIFT. The former algorithm is relatively efficient, very accurate and very robust. The latter algorithm is very efficient, very accurate and, at the same time, notably robust. Secondly, we illustrated for the first time in literature the benefit of training AAMs inthewild. Thirdly, we introduced a partbased AAM combined with a translational motion model which is shown to largely outperform the holistic AAM based on piecewise affine warps. Finally, we introduced a weighted leastsquares formulation for the efficient fitting of SIFTbased AAMs. Via a number of experiments on the most popular unconstrained face databases (LPFW, Helen, AFW and Cats), we showed that EPOIC largely bridges the gap between exact and current approximate methods and performs comparably with stateoftheart systems. Future work includes investigating how EPOIC can be extended for the case of regressionbased techniques such as the one recently proposed in Tzimiropoulos (2015).
Footnotes
 1.
This approach is different from the one used in Matthews and Baker (2004) which used composition. However, we found that which of the two ways is used for incorporating the global similarity transform makes little difference in the overall algorithms’ performance, and there is no approach that gives smaller error consistently for all images. We opted for using the “appending” version mainly because it simplifies mathematical notation. Please note that since we use the same approach for all algorithms, we ensure that comparisons are fair.
 2.
For a vector \(\mathbf {x}\), we use the notation \(\mathbf {x}_{\mathbf {P}_A}^2\) to denote the weighted norm \(\mathbf {x}^T\mathbf {P}_A\mathbf {x}\).
Notes
Acknowledgments
The work of Georgios Tzimiropoulos was supported in part by the EPSRC project EP/M02153X/1 Facial Deformable Models of Animals. The work of Maja Pantic was supported in part by the European Community Horizon 2020 [H2020/20142020] under grant agreement no. 645094 (SEWA).
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