The present study examined the four sources of self-efficacy (mastery experience, vicarious experience, verbal and social persuasion, and physiological state) and how these predict academic self-efficacy over time in N = 1597 (t1) and N = 1373 (t2) 7th-grade students. We simultaneously differentiated three different educationally relevant socialization contexts: the family, peers, and school. Although existing measures to assess sources of academic self-efficacy have considered different socialization contexts, they have done this neither systematically nor for all sources. Confirmatory factor analysis of the four sources in three socialization contexts showed a good fit to the data. Results of structural equation models at t1 showed differential patterns of substantial impact on academic self-efficacy in each socialization context. Over time, the impact decreased when controlling for SES. Results deliver only partial support for Bandura’s theoretical approach and indicate the need to revise social-cognitive theory.
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This study was funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (http://www.bmbf; Grant Numbers 01JC1118A and 01JC1118B). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
Conflict of interest
The authors declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.
The authors declare that research procedures were in accordance with ethical principles and guidelines for the protection of human subjects who gave informed consent to participate in this study. For each student, a signed statement to approve informed consent from parents/LAR was collected prior to data collection. The ethical review division of each Federal Department of Education responsible for reviewing research conducted in schools approved this study.
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Gebauer, M.M., McElvany, N., Bos, W. et al. Determinants of academic self-efficacy in different socialization contexts: investigating the relationship between students’ academic self-efficacy and its sources in different contexts. Soc Psychol Educ 23, 339–358 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11218-019-09535-0
- Social-cognitive theory
- Socialization contexts
- Sources of self-efficacy
- Students’ academic self-efficacy