Goals and values in school: a model developed for describing, evaluating and changing the social climate of learning environments

Abstract

This paper defines a broad model of the psychosocial climate in educational settings. The model was developed from a general theory of learning environments, on a theory of human values and on empirical studies of children’s evaluations of their schools. The contents of the model are creativity, stimulation, achievement, self-efficacy, creativity, safety, control, helpfulness, participation, responsibility and influence; they are hypothesised to be structured in a circular model. The contents are defined and related to existing theories and research in education, special education, educational psychology and sociology, on the basis of reviews of literature. The model underlies the Goals, Attitudes and Values in School questionnaire, developed to assess the characteristics of educational settings. The model can be a practical tool in understanding and appreciating differences between learning environments in research and assessment and it could represent a guideline for interventions aimed to analyse and improve the social climate of learning environments.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Almgren, E. (2006). Att fostra demokrater: om skolan i demokratin och demokratin i skolan. (Educating to be democratic: About school in democracy and democracy in school), Dissertation, Uppsala university, Uppsala

  2. Allodi M. W. (2000) Self-concept in children receiving special support at school. European Journal of Special Needs Education 15(1): 69–78

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Allodi M. W. (2002a) A two-level analysis of classroom climate in relation to social context, group composition, and organization of special support. Learning Environments Research 5(3): 253–274

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Allodi M. W. (2002b) Children’s experiences of school: Narratives of Swedish children with and without learning difficulties. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research 46(2): 181–205

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Allodi, M. W. (2002c). Support and resistance: Ambivalence in special education. Dissertation, HLS förlag, Studies in educational sciences, Stockholm, nr 61.

  6. Allodi, M. W., Munck, I., & Fischbein, S. (2005). Civic values in learning environments in 24 countries. A theory based analysis with methodological applications. In W. Bilsky & D. Elizur (Eds.), Facet theory: Design, analysis and applications. Proceedings of the 10th international facet theory conference, Rome, 10–13 July 2005 (pp. 249–261). Prague, Czech Republic: Agentura Action M. (Available as PDF document at: http://miami.uni-muenster.de/servlets/DocumentServlet?id=4160).

  7. Allodi M. W. (2007a) Children with cognitive disabilities in a Swedish educational context: Reflections from a case study. Disability & Society 22(6): 639–653

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Allodi M. W. (2007b) Equal opportunities in educational systems: The case of Sweden. European Journal of Education 42(1): 133–146

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Allodi M. W. (2007c) Assessing the quality of learning environments in Swedish schools: Development and analysis of a theory-based instrument. Learning Environments Research 10(3): 157–175

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Amabile T. M. (1983) The social psychology of creativity: A componential conceptualization. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 45(2): 357–376

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Amabile T. M. (1985) Motivation and creativity: Effects of motivational orientation on creative writers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 48(2): 393–397

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Anderson L. W., Pellicer L. O. (1998) Toward an understanding of unusually successful programs for economically disadvantaged students. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk 3(3): 237–263

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Anderson G. J., Walberg H. J. (1974) Learning environments. In: Walberg H. J. (eds) Evaluating educational performance: A sourcebook of methods, instruments, and examples. McCutchan, Berkeley, CA, pp 81–98

    Google Scholar 

  14. Antikainen A. (2006) In search of the Nordic model in education. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research 50(3): 229–243

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Aro M., Rinne R., Kivirauma J. (2002) Northern youth under the siege of educational policy change: Comparing youth’s educational opinions in Finland, Sweden, Spain, Portugal and Australia. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research. Special Issue: Changing Education Governance in Nordic Welfare States: Finland, Iceland and Sweden as Cases of an International Restructuring Movement 46(3): 305–323

    Google Scholar 

  16. Avenatti J. L., Garza T. D., Panico A. P. (2007) The adventure of service. Reclaiming Children and Youth: The Journal of Strength-Based Interventions 16(1): 28–32

    Google Scholar 

  17. Bandura A. (1997) Self-efficacy : The exercise of control. W. H. Freeman, Basingstoke

    Google Scholar 

  18. Barth J. M., Dunlap S. T., Dane H., Lochman J. E., Wells K. C. (2004) Classroom environment influences on aggression, peer relations, and academic focus. Journal of School Psychology 42(2): 115–133

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Beaman R., Wheldall K., Kemp C. (2006) Differential teacher attention to boys and girls in the classroom. Educational Review 58(3): 339–366

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Beattie N. (1998) Movements or institutions? The French mouvements pédagogique. Comparative Education 34(3): 299–312

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Berding J. W. A. (2004) Janusz Korczak What it means to become an educator. Encounter 17(4): 11–16

    Google Scholar 

  22. Bilsky, W., Niemann, F., Schmitz, J., & Rose, I. (2005). Value structure at an early age: Cross cultural replications. In W. Bilsky & D. Elizur (Eds.), Facet theory: Design, analysis and applications. Proceedings of the 10th international facet theory conference, Rome, 10–13 July 2005 (pp. 241–248). Prague, Czech Republic: Agentura Action M. (Available as PDF document at: http://miami.unimuenster.de/servlets/DocumentServlet?id=4160).

  23. Bishop J. H., Bishop M., Bishop M., Gelbwasser L., Green S., Peterson E. et al (2004) Why we harass nerds and freaks: A formal theory of student culture and norms. Journal of School Health 74(7): 235–251

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Bock M. A. (2007) The impact of social-behavioral learning strategy training on the social interaction skills of four students with Asperger syndrome. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities 22(2): 88–95

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Bondy E., Ross D. D., Gallingane C., Hambacher E. (2007) Creating environments of success and resilience: Culturally responsive classroom management and more. Urban Education 42(4): 326–348

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Bronfenbrenner U. (1979) The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Bronfenbrenner U., Ceci S. J. (1994) Nature-nuture reconceptualized in developmental perspective: A bioecological model. Psychological Review 101(4): 568–586

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Brophy J. (1988) Research linking teacher behaviour to student achievement: Potential implication for instruction of Chapter 1 students. Educational Psychologist 23(3): 235–286

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Brokenleg M., Van Bockern S. (2003) The science of raising courageous kids. Reclaiming Children & Youth 12(1): 22–26

    Google Scholar 

  30. CEMEA. (2008). Site officiel des Ceméa. Mouvement national d’éducation nouvelle. http://www.cemea.asso.fr.

  31. Coetzee C. (2005) The circle of courage: Restorative approaches in South African schools. Reclaiming Children and Youth: The Journal of Strength-Based Interventions 14(3): 184

    Google Scholar 

  32. Collins, J. (1997). Barriers to communication in schools. For full text: http://brs.leeds.ac.uk/cgi-bin/brs_engine.

  33. Cowie, H. & Jennifer, D., et al. (2006). School bullying and violence: Taking action. Web-resource. URL: http://www.vista-europe.org.

  34. Csikszentmihalyi M. (1997) Creativity: Flow and the psychology of discovery and invention. HarperCollins Publishers, New York, NY, USA

    Google Scholar 

  35. Dewey, J. (1916). Democracy and education. Champaign, Ill: Project Gutenberg E-book. (Stockholm University Library eContent Collection).

  36. Diener E., Oishi S. (2005) The nonobvious social psychology of happiness. Psychological Inquiry 16(4): 162–167

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Diener E., Lucas R. E., Scollon C. N. (2006) Beyond the hedonic treadmill: Revising the adaptation theory of well-being. American Psychologist 61(4): 305–314

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Dillon J., Swinbourne A. (2007) Helping friends: A peer support program for senior secondary schools. Australian e-Journal for the Advancement of Mental Health 6(1): 1–7

    Google Scholar 

  39. Dorman J. (2001) Associations between classroom environment and academic efficacy. Learning Environments Research 4(3): 243–257

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Durst A. (2005) The Union of intellectual freedom and cooperation: Learning from the University of Chicago’s Laboratory School Community, 1896–1904. Teachers College Record 107(5): 958–984

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Dyer K., Teggart T. (2007) Bullying experiences of child and adolescent mental health service-users: A pilot survey. Child Care in Practice 13(4): 351–365

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Efron S. E. (2008) Moral education between hope and hopelessness: The legacy of Janusz Korczak. Curriculum Inquiry 38(1): 39–62

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Ekblad S. (1984) Children’s thoughts and attitudes in China and Sweden: Impacts of a restrictive versus a permissive environment. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 70(6): 578–590

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Ekman, T. (2007). Demokratisk kompetens: om gymnasiet som demokratiskola. Dissertation, Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg.

  45. Emmer E. T., Stough L. M. (2001) Classroom management: A critical part of educational psychology, with implications for teacher education. Educational Psychologist 36(2): 103–112

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Engel L. H. (2008) Experiments in democratic education: Dewey’s lab school and Korczak’s children republic. Social Studies 99(3): 117–121

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Engström K., Hallqvist J., Möller J., Laflamme L. (2005) Do episodes of peer victimization trigger physical injury? A case-crossover study of Swedish school children. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health 33(1): 19–25

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Eriksson L., Granlund M. (2004) Conceptions of participation in students with disabilities and persons in their close environment. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities 16(3): 229–245

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Eriksson L., Welander J., Granlund M. (2007) Participation in everyday school activities for children with and without disabilities. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities 19(5): 485–502

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Erling A., Hwang C. P. (2004) Swedish 10-year-old children’s perceptions and experiences of bullying. Journal of School Violence 3(1): 33–43

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Esposito C. (1999) Learning in urban blight: School climate and its effects on the school performance of urban, minority, low-income children. School Psychology Review 28(3): 365–377

    Google Scholar 

  52. Evertson C. M., Emmer E. T. (1982) Effective management at the beginning of the school year in junior high classes. Journal of Educational Psychology 74(4): 485–498

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Feldman L., Pasek J., Romer D., Jamieson K. H. (2007) Identifying best practices in civic education: Lessons from the student voices program. American Journal of Education 114(1): 75–100

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Felner R. D., Seitsinger A. M., Brand S., Burns A., Bolton N. (2007) Creating small learning communities: Lessons from the project on high-performing learning communities about “what works” in creating productive, developmentally enhancing, learning contexts. Educational Psychologist 42(4): 209–221

    Google Scholar 

  55. Fischbein S., Guttman R. (1992) Twins’ perceptions of their environment: A cross-cultural comparison of changes over time. Acta Geneticae Medicae et Gemellologiae: Twin Research 41(4): 275–286

    Google Scholar 

  56. Fischman W., DiBara J. A., Gardner H. (2006) Creating good education against the odds. Cambridge Journal of Education; Special Issue: Creativity in Education 36(3): 383–398

    Google Scholar 

  57. Fleming J. E., Cook T. D., Stone C. A. (2002) Interactive influences of perceived social contexts on the reading achievement of urban middle schoolers with learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice 17(1): 47–64

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Fraser B. J. (1986) Classroom environment. Croom Helm, London

    Google Scholar 

  59. Fraser B. J. (1998) Classroom environment instruments: Development, validity and applications. Learning Environments Research 1: 7–33

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Fraser, B., Walberg, H. (eds) (1991) Educational environments: Evaluation, antecedents and consequences. Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK

    Google Scholar 

  61. Frederickson N., Turner J. (2002) Utilizing the classroom peer group to address children’s social needs: An evaluation of the circle of friends intervention approach. The Journal of Special Education 36(4): 234–245

    Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Freiberg H. J. (1996) From tourists to citizens in the classroom. Educational Leadership 54(1): 32–36

    Google Scholar 

  63. Frydman M., Ledru L., Hofmans V., Molinier C. (1995) Le développement de l’attitude altruiste. expérimentation et évaluation d’un programme d’éducation sociale/the development of altruistic attitudes: Research and evaluation of a social education program. Enfance 1: 89–100

    Google Scholar 

  64. Furrer C., Skinner E. (2003) Sense of relatedness as a factor in children’s academic engagement and performance. Journal of Educational Psychology 95(1): 148–162

    Article  Google Scholar 

  65. Garbarino J. (2001) An ecological perspective on the effects of violence on children. Journal of Community Psychology 29(3): 361–378

    Article  Google Scholar 

  66. Gardner, H., Perkins, D. N. (eds) (1989) Art, mind, and education: Research from project zero. University of Illinois Press, Urbana

    Google Scholar 

  67. Gaziel H. (1997) Impact of school culture on effectiveness of secondary schools with disadvantaged students. Journal of Educational Research 90(5): 310–318

    Google Scholar 

  68. Gillies R. M. (2004) The effects of cooperative learning on junior high school students during small group learning. Learning and Instruction 14(2): 197–213

    Article  Google Scholar 

  69. Goetz T., Hall N. C., Frenzel A. C., Pekrun R. (2006) A hierarchical conceptualization of enjoyment in students. Learning and Instruction 16(4): 323–338

    Article  Google Scholar 

  70. Good T. L., Brophy J. E. (1997) Looking in classrooms. Longman, New York

    Google Scholar 

  71. Grobler B. R., Moloi K. C., Loock C. F., Bisschoff T. C., Mestry R. J. (2006) Creating a school environment for the effective management of cultural diversity. Educational Management Administration & Leadership 34(4): 449–472

    Article  Google Scholar 

  72. Gunther N., Drukker M., Feron F., van Os J. (2007) No ecological effect modification of the association between negative life experiences and later psychopathology in adolescence: A longitudinal community study in adolescents. European Psychiatry 22(5): 296–304

    Article  Google Scholar 

  73. Guttman L. (1954) A new approach to factor analysis: The radex. In: Lazarsfeld P. F. (eds) Mathematical thinking in the social sciences. The Free Press, Glencoe, Illinois, pp 258–348

    Google Scholar 

  74. Guttman R., Greenbaum C. W. (1998) Facet theory: Its development and current status. European Psychologist 3(1): 13–36

    Google Scholar 

  75. Hamre B. K., Pianta R. C. (2005) Can instructional and emotional support in the first-grade classroom make a difference for children at risk of school failure?. Child Development 76(5): 949–967

    Article  Google Scholar 

  76. Haynes N. M., Emmons C., Ben-Avie M. (1997) School climate as a factor in student adjustment and achievement. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation 8(3): 321–329

    Article  Google Scholar 

  77. Heckenlaible-Gotto M. J., Roggow L. (2007) Supporting peers lives and solving hassles: The SPLASH program. Reclaiming Children and Youth: The Journal of Strength-Based Interventions 15(4): 220–226

    Google Scholar 

  78. Henrich J. P., Boyd R., Bowles S., Camerer C., Fehr E., Gintis H. (2004) Foundations of human sociality economic experiments and ethnographic evidence from fifteen small-scale societies. Oxford University Press, Oxford

    Google Scholar 

  79. Humphrey N., Bartolo P., Ale P., Calleja C., Hofsaess T., Janikova V. et al (2006) Understanding and responding to diversity in the primary classroom: An international study. European Journal of Teacher Education 29(3): 305–318

    Article  Google Scholar 

  80. Ivarsson T., Broberg A. G., Arvidsson T., Gillberg C. (2005) Bullying in adolescence: Psychiatric problems in victims and bullies as measured by the youth self report (YSR) and the depression self-rating scale (DSRS). Nordic Journal of Psychiatry 59(5): 365–373

    Article  Google Scholar 

  81. Ivens J. (2007) The development of a happiness measure for school children. Educational Psychology in Practice 23(3): 221–239

    Article  Google Scholar 

  82. Jennifer D., Shaughnessy J. (2005) Promoting non-violence in schools: The role of cultural, organisational and managerial factors. Educational and Child Psychology 22(3): 58–66

    Google Scholar 

  83. Johnson D. W., Johnson R. T. (1983) Social interdependence and perceived academic and personal support in the classroom. Journal of Social Psychology 120(1): 77–82

    Google Scholar 

  84. Johnson D. W., Johnson R. T. (1984) Building acceptance of differences between handicapped and nonhandicapped students: The effects of cooperative and individualistic instruction. Journal of Social Psychology 122(2): 257–267

    Google Scholar 

  85. Jonas H. (1984) The imperative of responsibility: In search of an ethics for the technological age. University of Chicago Press, Chicago

    Google Scholar 

  86. Kamps D. M., Kravits T., Gonzalez Lopez A., Kemmerer K., Potucek J., Harrell L. G. (1998) What do the peers think? Social validity of peer-mediated programs. Education & Treatment of Children 21(2): 107–134

    Google Scholar 

  87. Kaufmann J. C., Sternberg R. J. (2007) Creativity. Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning 39(4): 55–60

    Article  Google Scholar 

  88. Kim Y. S., Leventhal B. L., Koh Y.-J., Hubbard A., Boyce W. T. (2006) School bullying and youth violence: Causes or consequences of psychopathologic behavior?. Archives of General Psychiatry 63(9): 1035–1041

    Article  Google Scholar 

  89. Klomek, A. B., Marrocco, F., Kleinman, M., Schonfeld, I. S., Gould M. S. (2007) Bullying, depression, and suicidality in adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 46(1): 40–49

    Article  Google Scholar 

  90. Kumpulainen K., Räsänen E. (2000) Children involved in bullying at elementary school age: Their psychiatric symptoms and deviance in adolescence. An epidemiological sample. Child Abuse and Neglect 24(12): 1567–1577

    Article  Google Scholar 

  91. Kumpulainen K., Räsänen E., Henttonen I., Almqvist F., Kresanov K., Linna S.-L., Moilanen I., Piha J., Puura K., Tamminen T. (1998) Bullying and psychiatric symptoms among elementary school-age children. Child Abuse & Neglect 22(7): 705–717

    Article  Google Scholar 

  92. Leo E., Barton L. (2006) Inclusion, diversity and leadership. Educational Management Administration & Leadership 34(2): 167–180

    Article  Google Scholar 

  93. Levitt M. J., Guacci-Franco N., Levitt J. L. (1993) Convoys of social support in childhood and early adolescence: Structure and function. Developmental Psychology 29(5): 811–818

    Article  Google Scholar 

  94. Lindström L. (2006) Creativity: What is it? Can you assess it? Can it be taught?. The International Journal of Art & Design Education 25(1): 53–66

    Article  Google Scholar 

  95. Lindström P. (2000) School violence: A multi-level perspective. International Review of Victimology. Special Issue: Victims and Fear of Crime in Contemporary Sweden 8(2): 141–158

    Google Scholar 

  96. Lippitt R., White R. K. (1943) The “social climate” of children’s groups. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA

    Google Scholar 

  97. Luna C. (1993) Story, voice, and culture: The politics of narrative in multicultural education. Working Papers in Educational Linguistics 9(1): 127–142

    Google Scholar 

  98. Maheady L., Harper G. F., Mallette B. (1991) Peer-mediated instruction: A review of potential applications for special education. Journal of Reading, Writing, & Learning Disabilities International 7(2): 75–103

    Google Scholar 

  99. Marcus R. F., Sanders-Reio J. (2001) The influence of attachment on school completion. School Psychology Quarterly 16(4): 427–444

    Article  Google Scholar 

  100. McConachie H., Colver A. F., Forsyth R. J., Jarvis S. N., Parkinson K. N. (2006) Participation of disabled children: How should it be characterised and measured?. Disability & Rehabilitation 28(18): 1157–1164

    Article  Google Scholar 

  101. McDougall J., DeWit D. J., King G., Miller L. T., Killip S. (2004) High school-aged youths’ attitudes toward their peers with disabilities: The role of school and student interpersonal factors. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education 51(3): 287–313

    Article  Google Scholar 

  102. McMurray A. J. (2007) The role of discussion and dissent in creating civic understanding. American Secondary Education 36(1): 49–58

    Google Scholar 

  103. Mishna F. (2003) Learning disabilities and bullying: Double jeopardy. Journal of Learning Disabilities 36(4): 336–347

    Article  Google Scholar 

  104. Misztal B. A. (1996) Trust in modern societies: The search for the bases of social order. Polity Press, Oxford

    Google Scholar 

  105. Moos L., Moller J. (2003) Schools and leadership in transition: The case of Scandinavia. Cambridge Journal of Education. Special Issue: Changing the World of Leadership 33(3): 353–370

    Google Scholar 

  106. Moos R. H. (1979) Evaluating educational environments. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA

    Google Scholar 

  107. Myhill D., Jones S. (2006) She doesn’t shout at no girl’s: Pupils’ perceptions of gender equity in the classroom. Cambridge Journal of Education 36(1): 99–113

    Article  Google Scholar 

  108. National Agency of Education. (2006). Lusten och möjligheten—om lärarens betydelse, arbetssituation och förutsättningar. [The pleasure and the capacity—teachers’ importance, their work situation and conditions]. Rapport 282, Stockholm: Skolverket http://www.skolverket.se/publikationer?id=1630. Retrieved November 20, 2008.

  109. Newerly I. (2001) A man you can trust. Dialogue and Universalism 9–10: 21–27

    Google Scholar 

  110. Newman E., Christopher S. R., Berry J. O. (2000) Developmental disabilities, trauma exposure, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse 1(2): 154–170

    Article  Google Scholar 

  111. Noguera P. A. (1995) Preventing and producing violence: A critical analysis of responses to school violence. Harvard Educational Review 65(2): 189–212

    Google Scholar 

  112. O’Keefe M. (1997) Adolescents’ exposure to community and school violence: Prevalence and behavioral correlates. Journal of Adolescent Health 20(5): 368–376

    Article  Google Scholar 

  113. Opp G., Unger N., Teichmann J. (2007) Together, not alone: Positive peer culture in a German school. Reclaiming Children and Youth: The Journal of Strength-Based Interventions 15(4): 234–242

    Google Scholar 

  114. Peebles-Wilkins W. (2006) Affirm diversity: “Mix it up”. Children & Schools 28(1): 3

    Google Scholar 

  115. Piazza G. (2007) On the wave of creativity: Children, expressive languages and technology. International Journal of Education Through Art 3(2): 103–121

    Article  Google Scholar 

  116. Pope J., Wilder J. (2005) Now that I’m out in the field: Student teaching and valuing diversity. Journal of Instructional Psychology 32(4): 322–328

    Google Scholar 

  117. Post, S. G. (2007). Altruism and health—Perspectives from empirical research. New York: Oxford University Press. Oxford Scholarship Online. 21 August 2008 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195182910.001.0001).

  118. Prawat R. (1985) Affective versus cognitive goal orientation in elementary teachers. American Educational Research Journal 22: 587–604

    Google Scholar 

  119. Pressley M., Gaskins I. W., Solic K., Collins S. (2006) A portrait of benchmark school: How a school produces high achievement in students who previously failed. Journal of Educational Psychology 98(2): 282–306

    Article  Google Scholar 

  120. Presthus A. M. (2006) A successful school and its’ principal—Enabling leadership within the organization. Staff Issues and Professional Development 34(2): 82–99

    Google Scholar 

  121. Print M., Ørnstrøm S., Skovgaard Nielsen H. (2002) Education for democratic processes in schools and classrooms. European Journal of Education 37(2): 193

    Article  Google Scholar 

  122. Putnam J., Markovchick K., Johnson D. W., Johnson R. T. (1996) Cooperative learning and peer acceptance of students with learning disabilities. Journal of Social Psychology 136(6): 741–752

    Google Scholar 

  123. Rigby K. (2003) Consequences of bullying in schools. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry/La Revue canadienne de psychiatrie 48(9): 583–590

    Google Scholar 

  124. Rigby K., Slee P. T., Martin G. (2007) Implications of inadequate parental bonding and peer victimization for adolescent mental health. Journal of Adolescence 30(5): 801–812

    Article  Google Scholar 

  125. Rodari, G. (2001). La grammatica della fantasia: introduzione all’arte di inventare storie. Torino: Einaudi (1a ed. 1974).

  126. Roland E., Galloway D. (2002) Classroom influences on bullying. Educational Research 44(3): 299–312

    Article  Google Scholar 

  127. Roland E., Galloway D. (2004) Professional cultures in schools with high and low rates of bullying. School Effectiveness and School Improvement 15(3–4): 241–260

    Article  Google Scholar 

  128. Roseth C. J., Johnson D. W., Johnson R. T. (2008) Promoting early adolescents’ achievement and peer relationships: the effects of cooperative, competitive, and individualistic goal structures. Psychological Bullettin 134(2): 223–246

    Article  Google Scholar 

  129. Rossi J. A. (2006) The dialogue of democracy. Social Studies 97(3): 112–120

    Article  Google Scholar 

  130. Ross S. M., McDonald A. J., Alberg M., McSparrin-Gallagher B. (2007) Achievement and climate outcomes for the knowledge is power program in an inner-city middle school. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk 12(2): 137–165

    Google Scholar 

  131. Rudduck J., Fielding M. (2006) Student voice and the perils of popularity. Educational Review 58(2): 219–231

    Article  Google Scholar 

  132. Rutter M. (2000) School effects on pupil progress. Research findings and policy implications. In: Smith P. K., Pellegrini A. D. (eds) Psychology of education: Major themes (Vol. 1, pp. 3–50). Falmer Press, London

    Google Scholar 

  133. Rutter M., Maughan B. (2002) School effectiveness findings 1979–2002. Journal of School Psychology 40(6): 451–475

    Article  Google Scholar 

  134. Schwartz S. H. (1992) Universals in the content and structure of values: Theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries. In: Zanna M. P. (eds) Advances in experimental psychology. Academic Press, London

    Google Scholar 

  135. Schwartz S. H. (2007) Universalism values and the inclusiveness of our moral universe. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 38(6): 711–728

    Article  Google Scholar 

  136. Sellström E., Bremberg S. (2006) Is there a “school effect” on pupil outcomes? A review of multilevel studies. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 60(2): 149–155

    Article  Google Scholar 

  137. Shye S., Elizur D. (1994) Introduction to facet theory: Content design and intrinsic data analysis in behaviour research. Sage, Thousand Oaks

    Google Scholar 

  138. Sourander A., Elonheimo H., Niemelä S., Nuutila A.-M., Helenius H., Sillanmäki L., Piha J., Tamminen T., Kumpulainen K., Moilanen I., Almqvist F. (2006) Childhood predictors of male criminality: A prospective population-based follow-up study from age 8 to late adolescence. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 45(5): 578–586

    Article  Google Scholar 

  139. Stanton-Salazar R. D., Spina S. U. (2005) Adolescent peer networks as a context for social and emotional support. Youth & Society 36(4): 379–417

    Article  Google Scholar 

  140. Starko A. J. (2005) Creativity in the classroom: Schools of curious delight (3rd ed.). Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah, N.J

    Google Scholar 

  141. Sternberg, R. J. (eds) (1988) The nature of creativity: Contemporary psychological perspectives. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

    Google Scholar 

  142. Sternberg R.J. (2006) Creating a vision of creativity: The first 25 years. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts 0(1): 2–12

    Article  Google Scholar 

  143. Strohmeier D., Spiel C. (2003) Immigrant children in Austria: Aggressive behavior and friendship patterns in multicultural school classes. Journal of Applied School Psychology 19(2): 99–116

    Article  Google Scholar 

  144. Sutton J., Keogh E. (2000) Social competition in school: Relationships with bullying, machiavellianism and personality. British Journal of Educational Psychology 70(3): 443–456

    Article  Google Scholar 

  145. Telhaug A. O., Mediås O. A., Aasen P. (2006) The Nordic model in education: Education as part of the political system in the last 50 years. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research. Special Issue: Is there a Nordic School Model? 50(3): 245–283

    Google Scholar 

  146. Thuen E., Bru E., Ogden T. (2007) Coping styles, learning environment and emotional and behavioural problems. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research 51(4): 347–368

    Article  Google Scholar 

  147. Tobin K., Fraser B. J. (1998) Qualitative and quantitative landscapes of classroom learning environments. In: Fraser B. J., Tobin K. G. (eds) International handbook of science education. Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp 623–640

    Google Scholar 

  148. Torney-Purta, J. (eds) (2001) Citizenship and education in twenty-eight countries: Civic knowledge and engagement at age fourteen. IEA (International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement), Amsterdam

    Google Scholar 

  149. Turner M. E., Pratkanis A. R. (1997) Mitigating groupthink by stimulating constructive conflict. In: De Dreu C. K. W., Van de Vliert E. (eds) Using conflict in organizations. Sage Publications, Inc, Thousand Oaks, CA, USA, pp 53–71

    Google Scholar 

  150. Ueno K. (2005) The effects of friendship networks on adolescent depressive symptoms. Social Science Research 34(3): 484–510

    Article  Google Scholar 

  151. van de Grift W. (2007) Quality of teaching in four European countries: A review of the literature and application of an assessment instrument. Educational Research 49(2): 127–152

    Article  Google Scholar 

  152. Verheij C. (2004) Education as a glowing experiment. Encounter: Education for Meaning and Social Justice 17(3): 44–49

    Google Scholar 

  153. Villa, R. A., Thousand, J. S. (eds) (2005) Creating an inclusive school. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Alexandria, VA

    Google Scholar 

  154. Walker I., Crogan M. (1998) Academic performance, prejudice, and the jigsaw classroom: New pieces to the puzzle. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology 8(6): 381–393

    Article  Google Scholar 

  155. Warren, M. E. (eds) (1999) Democracy and trust. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

    Google Scholar 

  156. Warren K., Schoppelrey S., Moberg D. P., McDonald M. (2005) A model of contagion through competition in the aggressive behaviors of elementary school students. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 33(3): 283–292

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Mara Westling Allodi.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Allodi, M.W. Goals and values in school: a model developed for describing, evaluating and changing the social climate of learning environments. Soc Psychol Educ 13, 207–235 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11218-009-9110-6

Download citation

Keywords

  • Learning environments
  • Classroom climate
  • Educational goals
  • Students’ evaluations