Solar Physics

, Volume 280, Issue 2, pp 457–474 | Cite as

On-Disk Coronal Rain

  • Patrick Antolin
  • Gregal Vissers
  • Luc Rouppe van der Voort


Small and elongated, cool and dense blob-like structures are being reported with high resolution telescopes in physically different regions throughout the solar atmosphere. Their detection and the understanding of their formation, morphology, and thermodynamical characteristics can provide important information on their hosting environment, especially concerning the magnetic field, whose understanding constitutes a major problem in solar physics. An example of such blobs is coronal rain, a phenomenon of thermal non-equilibrium observed in active region loops, which consists of cool and dense chromospheric blobs falling along loop-like paths from coronal heights. So far, only off-limb coronal rain has been observed, and few reports on the phenomenon exist. In the present work, several data sets of on-disk Hα observations with the CRisp Imaging SpectroPolarimeter (CRISP) at the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope (SST) are analyzed. A special family of on-disk blobs is selected for each data set, and a statistical analysis is carried out on their dynamics, morphology, and temperature. All characteristics present distributions which are very similar to reported coronal rain statistics. We discuss possible interpretations considering other similar blob-like structures reported so far and show that a coronal rain interpretation is the most likely one. The chromospheric nature of the blobs and the projection effects (which eliminate all direct possibilities of height estimation) on one side, and their small sizes, fast dynamics, and especially their faint character (offering low contrast with the background intensity) on the other side, are found as the main causes for the absence until now of the detection of this on-disk coronal rain counterpart.


Coronal rain Prominences Coronal heating MHD Flares Thermal instability 


  1. Antiochos, S.K., Klimchuk, J.A.: 1991, Astrophys. J. 378, 372. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Antiochos, S.K., MacNeice, P.J., Spicer, D.S., Klimchuk, J.A.: 1999, Astrophys. J. 512, 985. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Antolin, P., Rouppe van der Voort, L.: 2012, Astrophys. J. 745, 152. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Antolin, P., Shibata, K.: 2010, Astrophys. J. 712, 494. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Antolin, P., Verwichte, E.: 2011, Astrophys. J. 736, 121. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Antolin, P., Shibata, K., Vissers, G.: 2010, Astrophys. J. 716, 154. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Berger, T.E., Slater, G., Hurlburt, N., Shine, R., Tarbell, T., Title, A., et al.: 2010, Astrophys. J. 716, 1288. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chae, J., Ahn, K., Lim, E.-K., Choe, G.S., Sakurai, T.: 2008, Astrophys. J. Lett. 689, L73. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cox, D.P.: 1972, Astrophys. J. 178, 143. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dahlburg, R.B., Antiochos, S.K., Klimchuk, J.A.: 1998, Astrophys. J. 495, 485. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. De Groof, A., Berghmans, D., van Driel-Gesztelyi, L., Poedts, S.: 2004, Astron. Astrophys. 415, 1141. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. De Groof, A., Bastiaensen, C., Müller, D.A.N., Berghmans, D., Poedts, S.: 2005, Astron. Astrophys. 443, 319. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Field, G.B.: 1962, Interstellar Matter in Galaxies, Benjamin, New York. Google Scholar
  14. Field, G.B.: 1965, Astrophys. J. 142, 531. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Foukal, P.V.: 1976, Astrophys. J. 210, 575. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Foukal, P.: 1978, Astrophys. J. 223, 1046. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Goldsmith, D.W.: 1971, Solar Phys. 19, 86. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hildner, E.: 1974, Solar Phys. 35, 123. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hillier, A., Isobe, H., Watanabe, H.: 2011, Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan 63, L19. ADSGoogle Scholar
  20. Hirayama, T.: 1985, Solar Phys. 100, 415. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kamio, S., Peter, H., Curdt, W., Solanki, S.K.: 2011, Astron. Astrophys. 532, A96. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kawaguchi, I.: 1970, Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan 22, 405. ADSGoogle Scholar
  23. Kleczek, J.: 1957, Bull. Astron. Inst. Czechoslov. 8, 120. ADSGoogle Scholar
  24. Leroy, J.: 1972, Solar Phys. 25, 413. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Levine, R.H., Withbroe, G.L.: 1977, Solar Phys. 51, 83. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lin, Y.: 2011, Space Sci. Rev. 158, 237. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lin, Y., Engvold, O., Rouppe van der Voort, L.H.M.: 2012, Astrophys. J. 747, 129. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Liu, W., Berger, T.E., Low, B.C.: 2012, Astrophys. J. Lett. 745, L21. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mendoza-Briceño, C.A., Sigalotti, L.D.G., Erdélyi, R.: 2005, Astrophys. J. 624, 1080. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mok, Y., Drake, J.F., Schnack, D.D., van Hoven, G.: 1990, Astrophys. J. 359, 228. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mok, Y., Mikić, Z., Lionello, R., Linker, J.A.: 2008, Astrophys. J. Lett. 679, L161. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Moriyasu, S., Kudoh, T., Yokoyama, T., Shibata, K.: 2004, Astrophys. J. Lett. 601, L107. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Müller, D.A.N., Hansteen, V.H., Peter, H.: 2003, Astron. Astrophys. 411, 605. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Müller, D.A.N., Peter, H., Hansteen, V.H.: 2004, Astron. Astrophys. 424, 289. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Müller, D.A.N., De Groof, A., de Pontieu, B., Hansteen, V.H.: 2005, In: Innes, D.E., Lagg, A., Solanki, S.A. (eds.) Chromospheric and Coronal Magnetic Fields, ESA SP-596 CDROM 37.1. Google Scholar
  36. Murawski, K., Zaqarashvili, T.V., Nakariakov, V.M.: 2011, Astron. Astrophys. 533, A18. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. O’Shea, E., Banerjee, D., Doyle, J.G.: 2007, Astron. Astrophys. 475, L25. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Parker, E.N.: 1953, Astrophys. J. 117, 431. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Rouppe van der Voort, L., Leenaarts, J., de Pontieu, B., Carlsson, M., Vissers, G.: 2009, Astrophys. J. 705, 272. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Scharmer, G.B., Bjelksjo, K., Korhonen, T.K., Lindberg, B., Petterson, B.: 2003a, In: Keil, S.L., Avakyan, S.V. (eds.) SPIE CS-4853, 341. Google Scholar
  41. Scharmer, G.B., Dettori, P.M., Lofdahl, M.G., Shand, M.: 2003b, In: Keil, S.L., Avakyan, S.V. (eds.) SPIE CS-4853, 370. Google Scholar
  42. Scharmer, G.B., Narayan, G., Hillberg, T., de la Cruz Rodriguez, J., Löfdahl, M.G., Kiselman, D., et al.: 2008, Astrophys. J. Lett. 689, L69. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Schrijver, C.J.: 2001, Solar Phys. 198, 325. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Shine, R.A., Title, A.M., Tarbell, T.D., Smith, K., Frank, Z.A., Scharmer, G.: 1994, Astrophys. J. 430, 413. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Spitzer, L. Jr.: 1956, Astrophys. J. 124, 20. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Tripathi, D., Mason, H.E., Dwivedi, B.N., del Zanna, G., Young, P.R.: 2009, Astrophys. J. 694, 1256. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Tsiklauri, D., Aschwanden, M.J., Nakariakov, V.M., Arber, T.D.: 2004, Astron. Astrophys. 419, 1149. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ugarte-Urra, I., Warren, H.P., Brooks, D.H.: 2009, Astrophys. J. 695, 642. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. van Noort, M.J., Rouppe van der Voort, L.H.M.: 2006, Astrophys. J. Lett. 648, L67. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. van Noort, M.J., Rouppe van der Voort, L.H.M.: 2008, Astron. Astrophys. 489, 429. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. van Noort, M., Rouppe van der Voort, L., Löfdahl, M.G.: 2005, Solar Phys. 228, 191. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Vasheghani Farahani, S., Nakariakov, V.M., van Doorsselaere, T., Verwichte, E.: 2011, Astron. Astrophys. 526, A80. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Vissers, G., Rouppe van der Voort, L.: 2012, arXiv:1202.5453.
  54. Watanabe, H., Vissers, G., Kitai, R., Rouppe van der Voort, L., Rutten, R.J.: 2011, Astrophys. J. 736, 71. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Zanstra, H.: 1955, Vistas Astron. 1, 256. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Zapiór, M., Rudawy, P.: 2010, Solar Phys. 267, 95. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Patrick Antolin
    • 1
    • 2
  • Gregal Vissers
    • 2
  • Luc Rouppe van der Voort
    • 2
  1. 1.Centre for Plasma Astrophysics, Department of MathematicsKU LeuvenHeverleeBelgium
  2. 2.Institute of Theoretical AstrophysicsUniversity of OsloOsloNorway

Personalised recommendations