The linguistic interdependence hypothesis (Cummins, 1979, 2000) states that children’s second-language (L2) proficiency is, to some extent, a function of their first-language (L1) competence. Previous studies have examined this hypothesis with focus on a unidirectional relation from L1 to L2. In the present study, we examined bidirectional influences of literacy skills in multilingual contexts, and whether the nature of relations varied as a function of literacy instruction environment. To do so, we used longitudinal data from a randomized controlled trial of a literacy intervention for children in Grades 1 and 2, learning to read in Kiswahili and English, two official languages in Kenya. Children in the treatment condition received explicit and systematic instruction on literacy (e.g., phonological awareness, phoneme–grapheme correspondences) in Kiswahili and English, whereas children in the control condition did not. Overall results supported bidirectionality of relations, such that children’s literacy skills in the two languages were reciprocally related over time. However, directionality of relations differed as a function of language and literacy instruction condition, such that the relation from English to Kiswahili was found across intervention conditions, but the relation from Kiswahili to English was found only among children who had received explicit instruction in Kiswahili reading. These results are discussed in light of theory and practice for language and literacy acquisition in multilingual contexts.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Note that although we are using the terms L1 and L2, these languages might be L2 and L3 for some children in multilingual contexts.
Abu-Rabia, S., & Siegel, L. S. (2002). Reading, syntactic, orthographic, and working memory skills of bilingual Arabic-English speaking Canadian children. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 31(6), 661–678. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1021221206119.
Abu-Rabia, S., & Siegel, L. S. (2003). Reading skills in three orthographies: The case of trilingual Arabic-Hebrew-English-speaking Arab children. Reading and Writing, 16(7), 611–634. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1025838029204.
Adams, M. J. (1990). Beginning to read: Thinking and learning about print. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
African Population and Research Center. (2018). Impact evaluation of Tayari school readiness program in Kenya. Nairobi: Author.
Akyeampong, K., Pryor, J., Westbrook, J., & Lussier, K. (2011). Teacher preparation and continuing professional development in Africa: Learning to teach early reading and mathematics. Brighton, UK: Centre for International Education, University of Sussex. Retrieved July 30, 2018, from https://www.sussex.ac.uk/webteam/gateway/file.php?name=tpa-synthesis-report-july2011.pdf&site=320.
Al Otaiba, S., Kim, Y.-S., Wanzek, J., Petscher, Y., & Wagner, R. K. (2014). Long-term effects of first-grade multitier intervention. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 7(3), 250–267. https://doi.org/10.1080/19345747.2014.906692.
Albano, A. D., & Rodriguez, M. C. (2012). Statistical equating with measures of oral reading fluency. Journal of School Psychology, 50(1), 43–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsp.2011.07.002.
Alderman, H., Behrman, J., Kohler, H.-P., Maluccio, J. A., & Watkins, S. (2001). Attrition in longitudinal household survey data: Some tests from three developing countries. Demographic Research, 5(4), 79–124. https://doi.org/10.4054/DemRes.2001.5.4.
Almond, R. G., & Sinharay, S. (2012). What can repeated cross-sectional studies tell us about student growth? ETS Research Report Series, 2012(2), i–20. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2333-8504.2012.tb02299.x.
August, D., & Shanahan, T. (2006). Developing literacy in second-language learners: Report of the National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth. Mahwah, NJ: Center for Applied Linguistics, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Retrieved July 30, 2018, from http://www.colorincolorado.org/research/developing-literacy-second-language-learners-report-national-literacy-panel-language.
Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER). (2015). Report on the concurrent validity and inter-rater reliability studies of Uwezo. Prepared by the ACER Centre for Global Education Monitoring as part of the Results for Development Institute (R4D) evaluation of the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation’s citizen-led assessment initiative. Washington, DC: ACER. Retrieved July 30, 2018, from http://research.acer.edu.au/monitoring_learning/22.
Baker, D. L., Stoolmiller, M., Good, R. H., III, & Baker, S. K. (2011). Effect of reading comprehension on passage fluency in Spanish and English for second-grade English learners. School Psychology Review, 40(3), 331–351.
Ball, J. (2011). Enhancing learning of children from diverse language backgrounds: Mother tongue-based bilingual or multilingual education in early childhood and early primary school years. Analytical review commissioned by the UNESCO Education Sector. Victoria, Canada: Early Childhood Development Intercultural Partnerships, University of Victoria. Retrieved July 30, 2018, from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0021/002122/212270e.pdf.
Barnes, M. A., Dennis, M., & Haefele-Kalvaitis, J. (1996). The effects of knowledge availability and knowledge accessibility on coherence and elaborative inferencing in children from six to fifteen years of age. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 61(3), 216–241. https://doi.org/10.1006/jecp.1996.0015.
Basaraba, D., Yovanoff, P., Alonzo, J., & Tindal, G. (2013). Examining the structure of reading comprehension: Do literal, inferential, and evaluative comprehension truly exist? Reading and Writing, 26, 349–379. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-012-9372-9.
Bialystok, E. (2007). Acquisition of literacy in bilingual children: A framework for research. Language Learning, 57, 45–77.
Branum-Martin, L., Mehta, P. D., Fletcher, J. M., Carlson, C. D., Ortiz, A., Carlo, M., et al. (2006). Bilingual phonological awareness: Multilevel construct validation among Spanish-speaking kindergartners in transitional bilingual education classrooms. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(1), 170–181. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-06188.8.131.52.
Branum-Martin, L., Tao, S., Garnaat, S., Bunta, F., & Francis, D. J. (2012). Meta-analysis of bilingual phonological awareness: Language, age, and psycholinguistic grain size. Journal of Educational Psychology, 104(4), 932–944. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0027755.
Bunyi, G. (2008). The place of African indigenous knowledge and languages in education for development: The case of Kenya. In S. N. Dlamini (Ed.), New directions in African education: Challenges and possibilities (pp. 15–39). Calgary: University of Calgary Press.
Cain, K. (2007). Syntactic awareness and reading ability: Is there any evidence for a special relationship? Applied Psycholinguistics, 28(4), 679–694. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716407070361.
Cain, K., & Oakhill, J. V. (1999). Inference making ability and its relation to comprehension failure in young children. Reading and Writing, 11(5–6), 489–503. https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1008084120205.
Cain, K., & Oakhill, J. (2007). Reading comprehension difficulties: Correlates, causes, and consequences. In K. Cain & J. Oakhill (Eds.), Children’s comprehension problems in oral and written language: A cognitive perspective (pp. 41–75). New York: Guilford Press.
Cain, K., Oakhill, J., & Bryant, P. (2004). Children’s reading comprehension ability: Concurrent prediction by working memory, verbal ability, and component skills. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96(1), 31–42. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-06184.108.40.206.
Carlisle, J. F., & Katz, L. A. (2006). Effects of word and morpheme familiarity on reading of derived words. Reading and Writing, 19(7), 669–694. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-005-5766-2.
Cenoz, J. (2003). Cross-linguistic influence in third language acquisition: Implications for the organization of the multilingual mental lexicon. Bulletin Suisse de Linguistique Appliquée, 78, 1–11.
Cenoz, J., & Genesee, F. (1998). Psycholinguistic perspectives on multilingualism and multilingual education. In J. Cenoz & F. Genesee (Eds.), Beyond bilingualism: Multilingualism and multilingual education (pp. 16–32). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Cenoz, J., Hufeisen, B., & Jessner, U. (Eds.). (2001). Cross-linguistic influence in third language acquisition: Psycholinguistic perspectives. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Chall, J. S. (1983). Stages of reading development. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Cisero, C. A., & Royer, J. M. (1995). The development and cross-language transfer of phonological awareness. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 20(3), 275–303. https://doi.org/10.1006/ceps.1995.1018.
Comeau, L., Cormier, P., Grandmaison, E., & Lacroix, D. (1999). A longitudinal study of phonological processing skills in children learning to read in a second language. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91(1), 29–43. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-06220.127.116.11.
Commeyras, M., & Inyega, H. (2007). An integrative review of teaching reading in Kenyan primary schools. Reading Research Quarterly, 42(2), 258–281. https://doi.org/10.1598/RRQ.42.2.3.
Conners, F. A. (2009). Attentional control and the Simple View of Reading. Reading and Writing, 22(5), 591–613. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-008-9126-x.
Cromley, J. G., & Azevedo, R. (2007). Testing and refining the direct and inferential mediation model of reading comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99(2), 311–325. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0618.104.22.1681.
Cummins, J. (1979). Linguistic interdependence and the educational development of bilingual children. Review of Educational Research, 49(2), 222–251. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543049002222.
Cummins, J. (1986). Empowering minority students: A framework for intervention. Harvard Educational Review, 56(1), 18–37.
Cummins, J. (2000). Language, power, and pedagogy: Bilingual children in the crossfire. Buffalo, NY: Multilingual Matters.
Daneman, M., & Merikle, P. M. (1996). Working memory and language comprehension: A meta-analysis. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 3(4), 422–433. https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03214546.
Dowd, A. J., Wiener, K., & Mabeti, F. (2010). Malawi Literacy Boost 2009 Year 1 report. Washington, DC: Save the Children. Retrieved July 30, 2018, from https://resourcecentre.savethechildren.net/library/literacy-boost-2009-year-1-report-malawi.
Dubeck, M. M., Gove, A. K., & Alexander, K. (2016). School-based assessments: What and how to assess reading. In UNESCO Institute for Statistics (Ed.), Understanding what works in oral reading assessments (pp. 41–57). Montreal, Quebec: UNESCO Institute for Statistics. https://doi.org/10.15220/978-92-9189-196-2-en.
Dubeck, M. M., Jukes, M. C. H., Brooker, S. J., Drake, T. L., & Inyega, H. N. (2015). Designing a program of teacher professional development to support beginning reading acquisition in coastal Kenya. International Journal of Educational Development, 41, 88–96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedudev.2014.11.022.
Durgunoğlu, A. Y., Mir, M., & Ariño-Martí, S. (1993a). Effects of repeated readings on bilingual and monolingual memory for text. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 18(3), 294–317. https://doi.org/10.1006/ceps.1993.1022.
Durgunoğlu, A. Y., Nagy, W. E., & Hancin-Bhatt, B. J. (1993b). Cross-language transfer of phonological awareness. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85(3), 453–465. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0622.214.171.1243.
Durgunoğlu, A. Y., & Oney, B. (1999). A cross-linguistic comparison of phonological awareness and word recognition. Reading and Writing, 11(4), 281–299. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1008093232622.
Dutcher, N. (1994). The use of first and second languages in education: A review of international experience. Pacific Island Discussion Paper Series No. 1. Washington, DC: World Bank. Retrieved July 30, 2018, from http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/131161468770987263/pdf/multi-page.pdf.
Dynamic Measurement Group. (2008). DIBELS 6th edition technical adequacy information. Technical Report No. 6. Eugene, OR: Dynamic Measurement Group. Retrieved July 30, 2018, from https://dibels.org/papers/DIBELS6thTechnicalAdequacy.pdf.
Ehri, L. C. (1998). Grapheme-phoneme knowledge is essential for learning to read words in English. In J. L. Metsala & L. C. Ehri (Eds.), Word recognition in beginning literacy (pp. 3–40). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Elleman, A. M., Lindo, E. J., Morphy, P., & Compton, D. L. (2009). The impact of vocabulary instruction on passage level-comprehension of school-age children: A meta-analysis. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 2(1), 1–44. https://doi.org/10.1080/19345740802539200.
Florit, E., & Cain, K. (2011). The Simple View of Reading: Is it valid for different types of alphabetic orthographies? Educational Psychology Review, 23(4), 553–576. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-011-9175-6.
Florit, E., Roch, M., & Levorato, M. C. (2014). Listening text comprehension in preschoolers: A longitudinal study on the role of semantic components. Reading and Writing, 27(5), 793–817. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-013-9464-1.
Friedlander, E., Gasana, J., & Goldenberg, C. (2014). Literacy Boost Rwanda: Reading assessment report. Washington, DC: Save the Children. Retrieved July 30, 2018, from https://rwanda.savethechildren.net/sites/rwanda.savethechildren.net/files/library/Literacy%20Boost%20-%20Reading%20Assessment%20Baseline.pdf.
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Hosp, M. K., & Jenkins, J. R. (2001). Reading competence: A theoretical, empirical, and historical analysis. Scientific Studies of Reading, 5(3), 239–256. https://doi.org/10.1207/S1532799XSSR0503_3.
Gottardo, A., Javier, C., Farnia, F., Mak, L., & Geva, E. (2014). Bidirectional cross-linguistic relations of first and second language skills in reading comprehension of Spanish-speaking English learners. Written Language and Literacy, 17, 62–88.
Gough, P. B., & Tunmer, W. E. (1986). Decoding, reading and reading disability. Remedial and Special Education, 7(1), 6–10. https://doi.org/10.1177/074193258600700104.
Gove, A. K., & Cvelich, P. (2011). Early reading: Igniting education for all. A report by the early grade learning community of practice. Revised edition. Research Triangle Park, NC: RTI International. Retrieved July 30, 2018, from http://www.rti.org/sites/default/files/resources/early-reading-report-revised.pdf.
Gove, A., & Wetterberg, A. (2011). The early grade reading assessment: An introduction. In A. Gove & A. Wetterberg (Eds.), The early grade reading assessment: Applications and interventions to improve basic literacy (pp. 1–37). Research Triangle Park, NC: RTI Press. https://doi.org/10.3768/rtipress.2011.bk.0007.1109.
Gustavson, K., von Soest, T., Karevold, E., & Røysamb, E. (2012). Attrition and generalizability in longitudinal studies: Findings from a 15-year population-based study and a Monte Carlo simulation study. BMC Public Health, 12(1), 918–928. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-12-918.
Hoover, W. A., & Gough, P. B. (1990). The Simple View of Reading. Reading and Writing, 2(2), 127–160. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00401799.
Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1–55. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540118.
Jenkins, J. R., Fuchs, L. S., van den Broek, P., Espin, C., & Deno, S. L. (2003). Sources of individual differences in reading comprehension and reading fluency. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(4), 719–729. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-06126.96.36.1999.
Johnston, T. C., & Kirby, J. R. (2006). The contribution of naming speed to the Simple View of Reading. Reading and Writing, 19(4), 339–361. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-005-4644-2.
Jones, J. M., & Barkhuizen, G. (2011). ‘It is two-way traffic’: Teachers’ tensions in the implementation of the Kenyan language-in-education policy. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 14(5), 513–530. https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2010.532540.
Joshi, R. M., Tao, S., Aaron, P. G., & Quiroz, B. (2012). Cognitive component of componential model of reading applied to different orthographies. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 45(5), 480–486. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022219411432690.
Jukes, M. C. H., Turner, E. L., Dubeck, M. M., Halliday, K. E., Inyega, H. N., Wolf, S., et al. (2016). Improving literacy instruction in Kenya through teacher professional development and text messages support: A cluster randomized trial. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 10(3), 449–481. https://doi.org/10.1080/19345747.2016.1221487.
Kabay, S. (2016). Grade repetition and primary school dropout in Uganda. Harvard Educational Review, 86(4), 580–606. https://doi.org/10.17763/1943-5045-86.4.580.
Kendeou, P., van den Broek, P., White, M. J., & Lynch, J. S. (2009). Predicting reading comprehension in early elementary school: The independent contributions of oral language and decoding skills. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101(4), 765–778. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0015956.
Kieffer, M. (2011). Converging trajectories: Reading growth in language minority learners and their classmates, kindergarten to grade 8. American Educational Research Journal, 48(5), 1187–1225. https://doi.org/10.3102/0002831211419490.
Kim, Y.-S. (2009). Crosslinguistic influence on phonological awareness for Korean-English bilingual children. Reading and Writing, 22, 843–861. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-008-9132-z.
Kim, Y.-S. (2011). Considering linguistic and orthographic features in early literacy acquisition: Evidence from Korean. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 36, 177–189. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2010.06.003.
Kim, Y.-S. (2012). The relations among L1 (Spanish) literacy skills, L2 (English) language, L2 text reading fluency, and L2 reading comprehension for Spanish-speaking ELL first grade students. Learning and Individual Differences, 22, 690–700.
Kim, Y.-S. G. (2015a). Developmental, component-based model of reading fluency: An investigation of predictors of word-reading fluency, text-reading fluency, and reading comprehension. Reading Research Quarterly, 50, 459–481. https://doi.org/10.1002/rrq.107.
Kim, Y.-S. (2015b). Language and cognitive predictors of text comprehension: Evidence from multivariate analysis. Child Development, 86, 128–144. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12293.
Kim, Y.-S. G. (2017). Why the Simple View of Reading is not simplistic: Unpacking component skills of reading using a Direct and Indirect Effect Model of Reading (DIER). Scientific Studies of Reading, 21(4), 310–333.
Kim, Y.-S., Apel, K., & Al Otaiba, S. (2013). The relation of linguistic awareness and vocabulary to word reading and spelling for first-grade students participating in response to intervention. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 44, 337–347. https://doi.org/10.1044/0161-1461(2013/12-0013).PMCID:PMC3852899.
Kim, Y.-S., Boyle, H., Zuilkowski, S. S., & Nakamura, P. R. (2016). Landscape report on early grade literacy. Washington, DC: United States Agency for International Development (USAID). Retrieved July 30, 2018, from https://globalreadingnetwork.net/sites/default/files/research_files/LandscapeReport.pdf.
Kim, Y.-S., Park, C., & Wagner, R. K. (2014). Is oral/text reading fluency a “bridge” to reading comprehension? Reading and Writing, 27(1), 79–99. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-013-9434-7.
Kim, Y.-S., & Petscher, Y. (2011). Relations of emergent literacy skill development with conventional literacy skill development in Korean. Reading and Writing, 24(6), 635–656. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-010-9240-4.
Kim, Y.-S., & Phillips, B. (2014). Cognitive correlates of listening comprehension. Reading Research Quarterly, 49, 269–281. https://doi.org/10.2307/747960.
Kim, Y.-S., Wagner, R. K., & Foster, E. (2011). Relations among oral reading fluency, silent reading fluency, and reading comprehension: A latent variable study of first-grade readers. Scientific Studies of Reading, 15, 338–362. https://doi.org/10.1080/10888438.2010.493964.
Kintsch, W. (1988). The role of knowledge in discourse processing: A construction-integration model. Psychological Review, 95(2), 163–182. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.95.2.163.
Kline, R. B. (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Guilford.
Koda, K., & Reddy, P. (2008). Cross-linguistic transfer in second language reading. Language Teaching, 41(04), 497–508. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444808005211.
Kuo, L.-J., Uchikoshi, Y., Kim, T.-J., & Yang, X. (2016). Bilingualism and phonological awareness: Re-examining theories of cross-language transfer and structural sensitivity. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 46, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2016.03.002.
Lepola, J., Lynch, J., Laakkonen, E., Silvén, M., & Niemi, P. (2012). The role of inference making and other language skills in the development of narrative discourse-level oral language in 4- to 6-year old children. Reading Research Quarterly, 47, 259–282.
Lesaux, N. K., Rupp, A. A., & Siegel, L. S. (2007). Growth in reading skills in children from diverse linguistic backgrounds: Findings from a 5-year longitudinal study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99(4), 821–834. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-06188.8.131.521.
Lesaux, N. K., & Siegel, L. S. (2003). The development of reading in children who speak English as a second language. Developmental Psychology, 39(6), 1005–1019. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-16184.108.40.2065.
Lewis, M. P., Simons, G. F., & Fennig, C. D. (Eds.). (2015). Ethnologue: Languages of the world (18th ed.). Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Retrieved July 30, 2018, from https://www.ethnologue.com/.
López, F., Scanlan, M., & Gorman, B. K. (2015). Language modeling and reading achievement: Variations across different types of language instruction programs. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 31(1), 1–29.
Lucas, A. M., McEwan, P. J., Ngware, M., & Oketch, M. (2014). Improving early-grade literacy in East Africa: Experimental evidence from Kenya and Uganda. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 33(4), 950–976. https://doi.org/10.1002/pam.21782.
Luk, G., & Bialystok, E. (2008). Common and distinct cognitive bases for reading in English-Cantonese bilinguals. Applied Psycholinguistics, 29(2), 269–289. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716407080125.
Manis, F. R., Lindsey, K. A., & Bailey, C. E. (2004). Development of reading in grades K–2 in Spanish-speaking English-language learners. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 19(4), 214–224. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5826.2004.00107.x.
Melby-Lervåg, M., & Lervåg, A. (2011). Cross-linguistic transfer of oral language, decoding, phonological awareness and reading comprehension: A meta-analysis of the correlational evidence. Journal of Research in Reading, 34(1), 114–135. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9817.2010.01477.x.
Melby-Lervåg, M., & Lervåg, A. (2014). Reading comprehension and its underlying components in second-language learners: A meta-analysis of studies comparing first- and second-language learners. Psychological Bulletin, 140(2), 409–433. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0033890.
Muter, V., Hulme, C., Snowling, M. J., & Stevenson, J. (2004). Phonemes, rimes, vocabulary, and grammatical skills as foundations of early reading development: Evidence from a longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 40(5), 665–681. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-16220.127.116.115.
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998–2012). Mplus statistical analyses with latent variables: User’s guide (7th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén. Retrieved July 30, 2018, from https://www.statmodel.com/download/usersguide/Mplus%20user%20guide%20Ver_7_r3_web.pdf.
Nagy, W., Berninger, V., Abbott, R., Vaughan, K., & Vermeulen, K. (2003). Relationship morphology and other language skills to literacy skills in at-risk second grade readers and at-risk fourth grade writers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(4), 730–742. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0618.104.22.1680.
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) [United States]. (2000). Report of the National Reading Panel. Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction. Reports of the subgroups. U.S. National Institutes of Health Publication No. 00-4769. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Retrieved July 30, 2018, from https://www.nichd.nih.gov/publications/pubs/nrp/documents/report.pdf.
Oakhill, J. V., & Cain, K. (2012). The precursors of reading ability in young readers: Evidence from a four-year longitudinal study. Scientific Studies of Reading, 16(2), 91–121. https://doi.org/10.1080/10888438.2010.529219.
Oakhill, J. V., Hartt, J., & Samols, D. (2005). Levels of comprehension monitoring and working memory in good and poor comprehenders. Reading and Writing, 18(7–9), 657–686. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-005-3355-z.
PASEC. (2015). PASEC2014 education system performance in francophone sub-Saharan Africa: Competencies and learning factors in primary education. Dakar, Senegal: Programme d’Analyse des Systèmes Educatifs de la CONFEMEN (PASEC). Retrieved July 30, 2018, from http://www.pasec.confemen.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/Rapport_Pasec2014_GB_webv2.pdf.
Pearson, P. D., & Johnson, D. D. (1978). Teaching reading comprehension. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.
Piper, B. (2010). Kenya early grade reading assessment findings report: Mother tongue instruction and achievement. Prepared for the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, Grant No. 2008-3367. Research Triangle Park, NC: RTI International and East African Development Consultants.
Piper, B., DeStefano, J., Kinyanjui, E., & Ong’ele, S. (2018a). Scaling up successfully: Lessons from Kenya’s Tusome national literacy program. Journal of Educational Change, 19(3), 293–321. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10833-018-9325-4.
Piper, B., Jepkemei, E., & Kibukho, K. (2015). Pro-Poor PRIMR: Improving early literacy skills for children from low-income families in Kenya. Africa Education Review, 12(1), 67–87. https://doi.org/10.1080/18146627.2015.1036566.
Piper, B., King, S., & Mugenda, A. (2016a, September; revised from 2014). The Primary Math and Reading (PRIMR) Initiative: Endline impact evaluation—revised edition. Prepared under the USAID Education Data for Decision Making (EdData II) project, Task Order No. AID-623-M-11-00001 (RTI Task 13). Research Triangle Park, NC: RTI International. Retrieved July 30, 2018, from https://globalreadingnetwork.net/eddata/usaidkenya-primary-math-and-reading-primr-initiative-endline-impact-evaluation-revised.
Piper, B., & Miksic, E. (2011). Mother tongue and reading: Using early grade reading assessments to investigate language-of-instruction policy in East Africa. In A. Gove & A. Wetterberg (Eds.), The early grade reading assessment: Applications and interventions to improve basic literacy (pp. 139–182). Research Triangle Park, NC: RTI Press. https://doi.org/10.3768/rtipress.2011.bk.0007.1109.
Piper, B. L., Schroeder, L., & Trudell, B. (2016b). Oral reading fluency and comprehension in Kenya: Reading acquisition in a multilingual environment. Journal of Research in Reading, 39(2), 133–152. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9817.12052.
Piper, B., & Zuilkowski, S. (2015a). Assessing reading fluency in Kenya: Oral or silent assessment? International Review of Education, 61(2), 153–171. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11159-015-9470-4.
Piper, B., & Zuilkowski, S. S. (2015b). Teacher coaching in Kenya: Examining instructional support in public and nonformal schools. Teacher and Teacher Education, 47, 173–183. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2015.01.001.
Piper, B., & Zuilkowski, S. (2016). The role of timing in assessing oral reading fluency and comprehension in Kenya. Language Testing Journal., 33(1), 75–98. https://doi.org/10.1177/0265532215579529.
Piper, B., Zuilkowski, S., Dubeck, M., Jepkemei, E., & King, S. (2018b). Identifying the essential ingredients to literacy and numeracy improvement: Teacher professional development and coaching, student textbooks, and structured teachers’ guides. World Development, 106, 324–336. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2018.01.018.
Piper, B., Zuilkowski, S. S., Kwayumba, D., & Oyanga, M. (2018c). Examining the secondary effects of mother-tongue literacy instruction in Kenya: Impacts on student learning in English, Kiswahili, and mathematics. International Journal of Educational Development, 58, 110–127. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedudev.2017.10.002.
Piper, B., Zuilkowski, S. S., & Mugenda, A. (2014). Improving reading outcomes in Kenya: First-year effects of the PRIMR Initiative. International Journal of Educational Development, 37, 11–21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedudev.2014.02.006.
Piper, B., Zuilkowski, S. S., & Ong’ele, S. (2016c). Implementing mother tongue instruction in the real world: Results from a medium-scale randomized controlled trial in Kenya. Comparative Education Review, 60(4), 776–807. https://doi.org/10.1086/688493.
Proctor, C. P., August, D., Carlo, M. S., & Snow, C. (2006). The intriguing role of Spanish language vocabulary knowledge in predicting English reading comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(1), 159–169. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0622.214.171.124.
Republic of Kenya. (1976). Report of the National Committee on Educational Objectives and Policies (Gathachi report). Nairobi: Government Printer. Retrieved July 30, 2018, from http://kenyalaw.org/kl/fileadmin/CommissionReports/Report-of-the-National-Committee-on-Educational-Objectives-1975-to-1976.pdf.
Republic of Kenya. (2010). Constitution of Kenya. Nairobi: National Council for Law Reporting, with the Authority of the Attorney General. Retrieved July 30, 2018, from http://www.kenyaembassydc.org/pdfs/The%20Constitution%20of%20Kenya.pdf.
Saiegh-Haddad, E., & Geva, E. (2008). Morphological awareness, phonological awareness, and reading in English-Arabic bilingual children. Reading and Writing, 21(5), 481–504. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-007-9074-x.
Schatschneider, C., Fletcher, J. M., Francis, D. J., Carlson, C. D., & Foorman, B. R. (2004). Kindergarten prediction of reading skills: A longitudinal comparative analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96(2), 265–282. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-06126.96.36.1995.
Schwartz, M., Geva, E., Share, D. L., & Leikin, M. (2007). Learning to read in English as third language: The cross-linguistic transfer of phonological processing skills. Written Language & Literacy, 10(1), 25–52. https://doi.org/10.1075/wll.10.1.03sch.
Snow, C. E., Burns, M. S., & Griffin, P. (Eds.). (1998). Preventing reading difficulties in young children. Prepared for the Committee on the Prevention of Reading Difficulties in Young Children, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council [United States]. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Retrieved July 30, 2018, from https://www.nap.edu/catalog/6023/preventing-reading-difficulties-in-young-children.
Thomas, D., Witoelar, F., Frankenberg, E., Sikoki, B., Strauss, J., Sumantri, C., et al. (2012). Cutting the costs of attrition: Results from the Indonesia Family Life Survey. Journal of Development Economics, 98(1), 108–123. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdeveco.2010.08.015.
Thompson, M. S., & Green, S. B. (2013). Evaluating between-group differences in latent variable means. In G. R. Hancock & O. Mueller (Eds.), Structural equation modeling: A second course (2nd ed., pp. 163–218). Charlotte, NC: Information Age.
Tompkins, V., Guo, Y., & Justice, L. M. (2013). Inference generation, story comprehension, and language skills in the preschool years. Reading and Writing, 26(3), 403–429. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-012-9374-7.
Trudell, B., & Piper, B. (2013). Whatever the law says: Language policy implementation and early-grade literacy achievement in Kenya. Current Issues in Language Planning, 15(1), 4–21. https://doi.org/10.1080/14664208.2013.856985.
Trudell, B., Young, C., & Nyaga, S. (2015). Language, education, and development: Implications of language choice for learning. In S. McGrath & Q. Gu (Eds.), Routledge handbook of international education and development (pp. 133–149). London: Routledge.
Uwezo. (2016). Are our children learning (2016)? Uwezo Kenya sixth learning assessment report, December 2016. Nairobi: Twaweza East Africa. Retrieved July 30, 2018, from http://www.twaweza.org/uploads/files/UwezoKenya2015ALAReport-FINAL-EN-web.pdf.
Vagh, S. B. (2012). Validating the ASER testing tools: Comparisons with reading fluency measures and the Read India measures. Unpublished report. Retrieved July 30, 2018, from http://img.asercentre.org/docs/Aser%20survey/Tools%20validating_the_aser_testing_tools__oct_2012__2.pdf.
van den Broek, P., Kendeou, P., Lousberg, S., & Visser, G. (2011). Preparing for reading comprehension: Fostering text comprehension skills in preschools and early elementary schools. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 4(1), 259–268.
van den Broek, P., Rapp, D. N., & Kendeou, P. (2005). Integrating memory-based and constructionist processes in accounts of reading comprehension. Discourse Processes, 39(2–3), 299–316. https://doi.org/10.1080/0163853X.2005.9651685.
Vellutino, F. R., Tunmer, W. E., Jaccard, J. J., & Chen, R. (2007). Components of reading ability: Multivariate evidence for a convergent skills model of reading development. Scientific Studies of Reading, 11, 3–32. https://doi.org/10.1080/10888430709336632.
Wagner, R. K., & Torgesen, J. K. (1987). The nature of phonological processing and its causal role in the acquisition of reading skills. Psychological Bulletin, 101(2), 192–212. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.101.2.192.
Wang, M., Cheng, C., & Chen, S.-W. (2006a). Contribution of morphological awareness to Chinese-English biliteracy acquisition. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(3), 542–553. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-06188.8.131.522.
Wang, M., Park, Y., & Lee, K. R. (2006b). Korean-English biliteracy acquisition: Cross-language phonological and orthographic transfer. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(1), 148–158. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-06184.108.40.206.
Wang, M., Yang, C., & Cheng, C. (2009). The contributions of phonology, orthography, and morphology in Chinese-English biliteracy acquisition. Applied Psycholinguistics, 30(2), 291–314. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716409090122.
Wanzek, J., & Vaughn, S. (2007). Research-based implications from extensive early reading interventions. School Psychology Review, 36(4), 541–561. Retrieved from http://www.meadowscenter.org/files/news/Wanzek_Vaughn_2007.pdf.
Wanzek, J., Wexler, J., Vaughn, S., & Ciullo, S. (2010). Reading interventions for struggling readers in the upper elementary grades: A synthesis of 20 years of research. Reading and Writing, 23(8), 889–912. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-009-9179-5.
Wasanga, P. M., Ogle, A. M., & Wambua, R. M. (2010). Monitoring of learner achievement for class 3 in literacy and numeracy in Kenya: Summary of results and recommendations. The National Assessment System for Monitoring Learner Achievement, 2010. Nairobi: Kenya National Examinations Council. Retrieved July 30, 2018, from http://www.knec.ac.ke/home/index.php?option=com_phocadownload&view=category&id=62:std-3-abridged-report.
Wawire, B. A., & Kim, Y.-S. G. (2018). Causal evidence of cross-language transfer of phonological awareness and letter knowledge: A randomized control trial in a multilingual context. Scientific Studies of Reading. https://doi.org/10.1080/10888438.2018.1474882.
Zuilkowski, S. S., & Piper, B. (2017). Instructional coaching in Kenya: Supporting teachers to improve literacy outcomes. In M. Akiba & G. LeTendre (Eds.), The Routledge international handbook on teacher quality and policy (1st ed., pp. 505–516). New York, NY: Routledge.
The Primary Math and Reading (PRIMR) Initiative was funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID/Kenya), under the Education Data for Decision Making (EdData II) Blanket Purchase Agreement, Task Order No. AID-623-M-11-00001 (RTI International Task 13). The second author served as the Chief of Party on the PRIMR Initiative. The contents of the article are the sole responsibility of the authors. The authors’ views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of USAID, the United States Government, or RTI International.
Electronic supplementary material
Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.
See Table 3.
About this article
Cite this article
Kim, YS.G., Piper, B. Cross-language transfer of reading skills: an empirical investigation of bidirectionality and the influence of instructional environments. Read Writ 32, 839–871 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-018-9889-7
- Linguistic interdependence