Reading and Writing

, Volume 31, Issue 1, pp 155–171 | Cite as

Visuomotor integration and executive functioning are uniquely linked to Chinese word reading and writing in kindergarten children

  • Kevin Kien Hoa ChungEmail author
  • Chun Bun Lam
  • Ka Chun Cheung


This cross-sectional study examined the associations of visuomotor integration and executive functioning with Chinese word reading and writing in kindergarten children. A total of 369 Chinese children (mean age = 57.99 months; 55% of them were girls) from Hong Kong, China, completed tasks on visuomotor integration, executive functioning, and Chinese word reading and writing. Children also completed tasks on rapid automatized naming, and their mothers provided child and family background information. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that, controlling for child age, gender, and rapid automatized naming and maternal education, both visuomotor integration and executive functioning were uniquely linked to Chinese word reading and writing. Findings highlighted the importance of visuomotor integration and executive functioning in understanding the development of Chinese word reading and writing in early years, and the utility of targeting visuomotor integration and executive functioning to help kindergarten children to learn to read and write in Chinese.


Chinese literacy Executive functioning Kindergarten children Reading and writing abilities Visuomotor integration 



This research was supported by a grant by Research Grants Council, University Grants Committee, Hong Kong, to Chun Bun Lam (ECS 28401714). We thanked the undergraduate assistants and faculty collaborators for their help in conducting this study, as well as the participating preschools and families for their time and insight about family relationships and child development.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kevin Kien Hoa Chung
    • 1
    Email author
  • Chun Bun Lam
    • 1
  • Ka Chun Cheung
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Early Childhood EducationThe Education University of Hong KongTai PoHong Kong

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