# Quantum leader election

## Abstract

A group of *n* individuals \(A_{1},\ldots A_{n}\) who do not trust each other and are located far away from each other, want to select a leader. This is the leader election problem, a natural extension of the coin flipping problem to *n* players. We want a protocol which will guarantee that an honest player will have at least \(\frac{1}{n}-\epsilon \) chance of winning (\(\forall \epsilon >0\)), regardless of what the other players do (whether they are honest, cheating alone or in groups). It is known to be impossible classically. This work gives a simple algorithm that does it, based on the weak coin flipping protocol with arbitrarily small bias derived by Mochon (Quantum weak coin flipping with arbitrarily small bias, arXiv:0711.4114, 2000) in 2007, and recently published and simplified in Aharonov et al. (SIAM J Comput, 2016). A protocol with linear number of coin flipping rounds is quite simple to achieve; we further provide an improvement to logarithmic number of coin flipping rounds. This is a much improved journal version of a preprint posted in 2009; the first protocol with linear number of rounds was achieved independently also by Aharon and Silman (New J Phys 12:033027, 2010) around the same time.

## Keywords

Leader election Quantum leader elections Quantum coin flipping## Notes

### Acknowledgements

I would like to thank my adviser Prof. Dorit Aharonov for her support and guidance and for her remarks on this paper (in its many versions) and also thank Prof. Michael Ben–Or for his help.

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