Public Choice

, Volume 156, Issue 3–4, pp 517–536 | Cite as

Time to vote?

  • John Gibson
  • Bonggeun Kim
  • Steven Stillman
  • Geua Boe-Gibson


Despite the centrality of voting costs to the paradox of voting, little effort has been made to measure these costs accurately, outside of a few spatially limited case studies. In this paper, we apply Geographic Information Systems (GIS) tools to validated national election survey data from New Zealand. We calculate distance and travel time by road from the place of residence to the nearest polling place and combine our time estimate with imputed wages for all sample members. Using this new measure of the opportunity cost of voting to predict turnout at the individual level, we find that small increases in the opportunity costs of time can have large effects in reducing voter turnout.


Opportunity cost Paradox of voting Travel time 

JEL Classification

D7 R4 



We are grateful for the financial support from Marsden Fund grant 07-MEP-003 and to comments from two anonymous referees and the associate editor. All remaining errors in this paper are those of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • John Gibson
    • 1
  • Bonggeun Kim
    • 2
  • Steven Stillman
    • 3
  • Geua Boe-Gibson
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of EconomicsUniversity of WaikatoHamiltonNew Zealand
  2. 2.Seoul National UniversitySeoulKorea
  3. 3.University of Otago, Motu and IZADunedinNew Zealand
  4. 4.University of WaikatoHamiltonNew Zealand

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