Photosynthetic efficiency in sun and shade plants

Abstract

Photosynthesis is amongst the plant cell functions that are highly sensitive to any type of changes. Sun and shade conditions are prevalent in fields as well as dense forests. Dense forests face extreme sun and shade conditions, and plants adapt themselves accordingly. Sun flecks cause changes in plant metabolic processes. In the field, plants have to face high light intensity and survive under such conditions. Sun and shade type of plants develops a respective type of chloroplasts which help plants to survive and perform photosynthesis under adverse conditions. PSII and Rubisco behave differently under different sun and shade conditions. In this review, morphological, physiological, and biochemical changes under conditions of sun (high light) and shade (low light) on the process of photosynthesis, as well as the tolerance and adaptive mechanisms involved for the same, were summarized.

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Abbreviations

ABS:

absorption

AOX:

alternative oxidase

APX:

ascorbate peroxidise

CAT:

catalase

CET:

cyclic electron flow

Chl:

chlorophyll

CP:

chloroplast protein

Cyt b/f :

cytochrome b/f

DHA:

dehydroascorbate

DHAR:

dehydroascorbate reductase

ETR:

electron rate

F0 :

minimal fluorescence

Fm :

maximal fluorescence

FQR:

ferredoxin-plastoquinone reductase

g s :

stomatal conductance

HL:

high light

LCP:

light-compensation point

LL:

low light

LSP:

light-saturation point

LTR:

long-term response

MDA:

malondialdehyde

MDAR:

monodehydroascorbate reductase

NPQ:

nonphotochemical quenching

OJ, JI, IP:

phases of Chl a fluorescence induction curve

PET:

photosynthetic electron transport

pgr :

proton gradient regulation mutant

pLHCII:

phosphorylated LHCII

P N :

net CO2 assimilation rates

POD:

peroxidase

PQH2 :

plastoquinol

qP :

proportion of open PSII reaction centers

RC:

reaction center

ROS:

reactive oxygen species

SS:

soluble sugars

SOD:

superoxide dismutase

VDE:

violaxanthin de-epoxidase

VJ :

variable fluorescence at 2 ms

φPo :

maximum quantum yield of PSII photochemistry

ΨET2o :

probability of electron transport from reduced QA to QB

ΨRE1o :

probability of electron transport from the PSII to the PSI acceptor side

ZEP:

zeaxanthin epoxidase

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Correspondence to A. Jajoo.

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Acknowledgements: S. Mathur thanks University Grant Commission, (UGC), India for Post Doctoral Fellowship for Women (PDFWM- 2014-15-GEMAD-23945). L. Jain thanks Council of Science and Industrial Research (CSIR), India, for CSIR-Junior Research Fellowship (09/301(0130)/2016-EMRI).

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Mathur, S., Jain, L. & Jajoo, A. Photosynthetic efficiency in sun and shade plants. Photosynthetica 56, 354–365 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11099-018-0767-y

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Additional key words

  • chlorophyll fluorescence
  • high light
  • low light
  • photosynthesis
  • shade
  • sun