Photosynthesis is amongst the plant cell functions that are highly sensitive to any type of changes. Sun and shade conditions are prevalent in fields as well as dense forests. Dense forests face extreme sun and shade conditions, and plants adapt themselves accordingly. Sun flecks cause changes in plant metabolic processes. In the field, plants have to face high light intensity and survive under such conditions. Sun and shade type of plants develops a respective type of chloroplasts which help plants to survive and perform photosynthesis under adverse conditions. PSII and Rubisco behave differently under different sun and shade conditions. In this review, morphological, physiological, and biochemical changes under conditions of sun (high light) and shade (low light) on the process of photosynthesis, as well as the tolerance and adaptive mechanisms involved for the same, were summarized.
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cyclic electron flow
- Cyt b/f :
- F0 :
- Fm :
- g s :
- OJ, JI, IP:
phases of Chl a fluorescence induction curve
photosynthetic electron transport
- pgr :
proton gradient regulation mutant
- P N :
net CO2 assimilation rates
- PQH2 :
- qP :
proportion of open PSII reaction centers
reactive oxygen species
- VJ :
variable fluorescence at 2 ms
- φPo :
maximum quantum yield of PSII photochemistry
- ΨET2o :
probability of electron transport from reduced QA to QB
- ΨRE1o :
probability of electron transport from the PSII to the PSI acceptor side
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Acknowledgements: S. Mathur thanks University Grant Commission, (UGC), India for Post Doctoral Fellowship for Women (PDFWM- 2014-15-GEMAD-23945). L. Jain thanks Council of Science and Industrial Research (CSIR), India, for CSIR-Junior Research Fellowship (09/301(0130)/2016-EMRI).
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Mathur, S., Jain, L. & Jajoo, A. Photosynthetic efficiency in sun and shade plants. Photosynthetica 56, 354–365 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11099-018-0767-y
Additional key words
- chlorophyll fluorescence
- high light
- low light