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Production and characteristics of nanocellulose obtained with using of ionic liquid and ultrasonication

Abstract

The dissolving of cellulose under harsh and environmentally unfavorable circumstances is the basis of traditional chemical methods for nanocellulose (NC) or derivatization. Due to the limitations of present methods for dissolving and processing NC, more efficient and ecologically acceptable solvents are required. Because of their excellent thermal and chemical stability, non-flammability, and miscibility with many other solvent systems, ionic liquids (ILs) have emerged as useful and environmentally friendly solvents. Meanwhile, another procedure for producing NC with homogeneous and extremely crystalline characteristics is ultra-sonification. Ultrasound energy is delivered to cellulose chains during ultrasonication by a process known as cavitation, which refers to the development, growth, and collapse of cavities in a liquid medium. Cavitation provides 10–100 kJ/mol of energy in this so-called sonochemistry, which is within the hydrogen bond energy scale. As a result, both catalytic IL treatments and ultrasonication influence the progressive disintegration of NC synthesis.

Graphical abstract

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Data availability

Available upon request.

The work described has not been published previously and that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. This publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out. We also declare that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the Publisher. There is no conflict of interest for this paper.

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Acknowledgements

The authors would like to acknowledge the SATU Joint Research Scheme Grant no. ST008-2018 (Title: Development on NC Conjugated Gold Drug Delivery System for Cancer Treatment Application).

Funding

The research has been supported by SATU Joint Research Scheme Grant no. ST008-2018 (Title: Development on NC Conjugated Gold Drug Delivery System for Cancer Treatment Application).

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Nurul Atikah Mohd Ishak:

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Fatimah Zahara Abdullah

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Nurhidayatullaili Muhd Julkapli.

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Correspondence to Nurhidayatullaili Muhd Julkapli.

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Highlights

• Usage of ILs catalyst produced NCC with high crystallinity and surface area.

• Ultrasonication produced NCC in high yield, less agglomeration, and uniform size.

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Mohd Ishak, N.A., Abdullah, F.Z. & Muhd Julkapli, N. Production and characteristics of nanocellulose obtained with using of ionic liquid and ultrasonication. J Nanopart Res 24, 171 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11051-022-05549-6

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Keywords

  • Nanocellulose
  • Cellulose hydrolysis
  • Ionic liquid
  • Ultrasonication
  • Cellulose extraction
  • Comparative evaluation