Advertisement

A Catalog of Smaller Planets

  • Barton Paul LevensonEmail author
Article

Abstract

A compilation was made of N = 89 planets or moons for which the mass and radius are known, between the limits of 0.01 and 10 times the mass of Earth. Although starting from a larger and higher-quality (because it excludes m sin i figures) sample than that of Weiss and Marcy (Astrophys J Lett 783:L6–L12, 2014), the chart of log density versus radius confirms the WM14 results: Density increases up to about 1.5 Earth radii and decreases for larger radii, probably as the planet retains hydrogen and helium on formation.

Keywords

Catalogs Exoplanets Planet physical parameters Planets 

Notes

References

  1. T. Barclay, J.F. Rowe, J.J. Lissauer, D. Huber, F. Fressin, S.B. Howell, S.T. Bryson, W.J. Chaplin, J.-M. Désert, E.D. Lopez, G.W. Marcy, F. Mullally, D. Ragozzine, G. Torres, E.R. Adams, E. Agol, D. Barrado, S. Basu, T.R. Bedding, L.A. Buchhave, D. Charbonneau, J.L. Christiansen, J. Christensen-Dalsgaard, D. Ciardi, W.D. Cochran, A.K. Dupree, Y. Elsworth, M. Everett, D.A. Fischer et al., A sub-mercury-sized exoplanet. Nature 494, 452–454 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Z.K. Berta-Thompson, D. Charbonneau, J. Bean, J. Irwin, C.J. Burke, J.-M. Désert, P. Nutzman, E.E. Falco, The GJ1214 super-earth system: stellar variability, new transits, and a search for additional planets. Astrophys. J. 736, 12–27 (2011)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Z.K. Berta-Thompson, J. Irwin, D. Charbonneau, E.R. Newton, J.A. Dittmann, N. Astudillo-Defru, X. Bonfils, M. Gillon, E. Jehin, A rocky planet transiting a nearby low-mass star. Nature 527, 204–207 (2015)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. W.J. Borucki, E. Agol, F. Fressin, L. Kaltenegger, J. Rowe, H. Isaacson, D. Fischer, N. Batalha, J.J. Lissauer, G.W. Marcy, D. Fabrycky, J.-M. Désert, S.T. Bryson, T. Barclay, F. Bastien, A. Boss, E. Brugamyer, L.A. Buchhave, C. Burke, D.A. Caldwell, J. Carter, D. Charbonneau, J.R. Crepp, J. Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.L. Christiansen, D. Ciardi, W.D. Cochran, E. DeVore, L. Doyle, A.K. Dupree, M. Endl, M.E. Everett, E.B. Ford, J. Fortney, T.N. Gautier III, J.C. Geary, A. Gould, M. Haas, C. Henze, A.W. Howard, S.B. Howell, D. Huber, J.M. Jenkins, H. Kjeldsen, R. Kolbl, J. Kolodziejczak, D.W. Latham, B.L. Lee, E. Lopez, F. Mullally, J.A. Orosz, A. Prsa, E.V. Quintana, R. Sanchez-Ojeda, D. Sasselov, S. Seader, A. Shporer, J.H. Steffen, M. Still, P. Tenenbaum, S.E. Thompson, G. Torres, J.D. Twicken, W.F. Welsh, J.N. Winn, Kepler-62: a five-planet system with planets of 1.4 and 1.6 Earth radii in the habitable zone. Sci. Express 340, 587–590 (2013)Google Scholar
  5. P. Brennan, Kepler-114 c (2013), https://exoplanets.nasa.gov/newworldsatlas/5931/. Accessed 22 Jan 2018
  6. J.A. Carter, E. Agol, W.J. Chaplin, S. Basu, T.R. Bedding, L.A. Buchhave, J. Christensen-Dalsgaard, K.M. Deck, Y. Elsworth, D.C. Fabrycky, E.B. Ford, J.J. Fortney, S.J. Hale, R. Handberg, S. Hekker, M.J. Holman, D. Huber, C. Karoff, S.D. Kawaler, H. Kjeldsen, J.J. Lissauer, E.D. Lopez, M.N. Lund, M. Lundkvist, T.S. Metcalfe, A. Miglio, L.A. Rogers, D. Stello, W.J. Borucki, S. Bryson, J.L. Christiansen, W.D. Cochran, J.C. Geary, R.L. Gilliland, M.R. Haas, J. Hall, A.W. Howard, J.M. Jenkins, T. Klaus, D.G. Koch, D.W. Latham, P.J. MacQueen, D. Sasselov, J.H. Steffen, J.D. Twicken, J.N. Winn, Kepler-36: a pair of planets with neighboring orbits and dissimilar densities. Science 337, 556–559 (2012)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. S. Charpinet, G. Fontaine, P. Brassard, E.M. Green, V. van Grootel, S.K. Randall, R. Silvotti, A.S. Baran, R.H. Østensen, S.D. Kawaler, J.H. Telting, A compact system of small planets around a former red-giant star. Nature 480, 496–499 (2011). Conférence internationale des étoiles fondamentales, Paris, 18–21 May 1896Google Scholar
  8. R.I. Dawson, D.C. Fabrycky, Radial velocity planets de-aliased. A new, short period for Super-Earth 55 Cnc e. Astrophys. J. 722, 937–953 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. J.A. Dittmann, J.M. Irwin, D. Charbonneau, X. Bonfils, N. Astudillo-Defru, R.D. Haywood, Z.K. Berta-Thompson, E.R. Newton, J.E. Rodriguez, J.G. Winters, T.-G. Tan, J.-M. Almenara, F. Bouchy, X. Delfosse, T. Forveille, C. Lovis, F. Murgas, F. Pepe, N.C. Santos, S. Udry, A. Wünsche, G.A. Esquerdo, D.W. Latham, C.D. Dressing, A temperate rocky super-Earth transiting a nearby cool star. Nature 544, 333–357 (2017)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. H.E. Doran, Applied Regression Analysis in Econometrics (Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, 1989), p. 146zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  11. C.D. Dressing, D. Charbonneau, X. Dumusque, S. Gettel, F. Pepe, A.C. Cameron, D.W. Latham, E. Molinari, S. Udry, L. Affer, A.S. Bonomo, L.A. Buchhave, R. Cosentino, P. Figueira, A.F.M. Fiorenzano, A. Harutyunyan, R.D. Haywood, J.A. Johnson, M. Lopez-Morales, C. Lovis, L. Malavolta, M. Mayor, G. Micela, F. Motalebi, V. Nascimbeni, D.F. Phillips, G. Piotto, D. Pollacco, D. Queloz, K. Rice, D. Sasselov, D. Segransan, A. Sozzetti, A. Szentgyorgyi, C. Watson, The mass of Kepler-93b and the composition of terrestrial planets. Astrophys. J. (2015). https://arxiv.org/pdf/1412.8687.pdf. Accessed 23 Jan 2018
  12. S. Ferraz-Mello, M. Tadeu dos Santos, C. Beaugé, T.A. Michtchenko, A. Rodríguez, On planetary mass determination in the case of super-Earths orbiting active stars. The case of the CoRoT-7 system. Astron. Astrophys. 531, A161 (2011)Google Scholar
  13. F. Fressin, G. Torres, J.F. Rowe, D. Charbonneau, L.A. Rogers, S. Ballard, N.M. Batalha, W.J. Borucky, S.T. Bryson, L.A. Buchhave, D.R. Ciardi, J.-M. Desert, C.D. Dressing, D.C. Fabrycky, E.B. Ford, T.N. Gautier III, C.E. Henze, M.J. Holman, A.W. Howard, S.B. Howell, J.M. Jenkins, D.G. Koch, D.W. Latham, J.J. Lissauer, G.W. Marcy, S.N. Quinn, D. Ragozzine, D.D. Sasselov, S. Seager, T. Barclay, F. Mullally, S.E. Seader, M. Still, J.D. Twicken, S.E. Thompson, K. Uddin, Two Earth-sized planets orbiting Kepler-20. Nature 482, 195–198 (2012)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. M. Fridlund, E. Gaidos, O. Barragán, C.M. Persson, D. Gandolfi, J. Cabrera, T. Hirano, M. Kuzuhara, S. Csizmadia, G. Nowak, M. Endl, S. Grziwa, J. Korth, J. Pfaff, B. Bitsch, A. Johansen, A.J. Mustill, M.B. Davies, H.J. Deeg, E. Palle, W.D. Cochran, P. Eigmüller, A. Erikson, E. Guenther, A.P. Hatzes, A. Kiilerich, T. Kudo, P. MacQueen, N. Narita, D. Nespral, M. Pätzold, J. Prieto-Arranz, H. Rauer, V. van Eylen, K2-111 b–a short period super-Earth transiting a metal poor, evolved old star. Astron. Astrophys. 604, A16 (2017)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. S. Gettel, D. Charbonneau, C.D. Dressing, L.A. Buchhave, X. Dumusque, A. Vanderburg, A.S. Bonomo, L. Malavolta, F. Pepe, A.C. Cameron, D.W. Latham, S. Udry, G.W. Marcy, H. Isaacson, A.W. Howard, G.R. Davies, V. Silva Aguirre, H. Kjeldsen, T.R. Bedding, E. Lopez, L. Affer, R. Cosentino, P. Figueira, A.F.M. Fiorenzano, A. Harutyunyan, J.A. Johnson, M. Lopez-Morales, C. Lovis, M. Mayor, G. Micela, E. Molinari, F. Motalebi, D.F. Phillips, G. Piotto, D. Queloz, K. Rice, D. Sasselov, D. Segransan, A. Sozzetti, C. Watson, S. Basu, T.L. Campante, J. Christensen-Dalsgaard, S.D. Kawaler, T.S. Metcalfe, R. Handberg, M.N. Lund, M.S. Lundkvist, D. Huber, W.J. Chaplin, The Kepler-454 system: a small, not-rocky inner planet, a Jovian World, and a distant companion. Astrophys. J. (2015). https://arxiv.org/pdf/1511.09097.pdf. Accessed 24 Jan 2018
  16. R.L. Gilliland, G.W. Marcy, J.F. Rowe, L. Rogers, G. Torres, F. Fressin, E.D. Lopez, L.A. Buchhave, J. Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.-M. Desert, H. Isaacson, J.M. Jenkins, J.L. Lissauer, W.J. Chaplin, S. Basu, T.S. Metcalfe, Y. Elsworth, R. Handberg, S. Hekker, D. Huber, C. Karoff, H. Kjeldsen, M.N. Lund, M. Lundkvist, A. Miglio, D. Charbonneau, E.B. Ford, J.J. Fortney, M.R. Haas, A.W. Howard, S.B. Howell, D. Ragozzine, S.E. Thompson, Kepler-68: three planets, one with a density between that of Earth and Ice Giants. Astrophys. J. (2013). https://arxiv.org/pdf/1302.2596.pdf. Accessed 21 Jan 2018
  17. M. Gillon, B.-O. Demory, V. van Grootel, F. Motalebi, C. Lovis, A.C. Cameron, D. Charbonneau, D. Latham, E. Molinari, F.A. Pepe, D. Ségransan, D. Sasselov, S. Udry, M. Mayor, G. Micela, G. Piotto, A. Sozzetti, Two massive rocky planets transiting a K-dwarf 6.5 parsecs away. (2015). https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1703/1703.01430.pdf. Accessed 24 Jan 2018
  18. S.J. Goldstein Jr., Christian Huygens’ measurement of the distance to the sun. Observatory 105, 32–33 (1985)ADSGoogle Scholar
  19. D. Jontof-Hutter, E.B. Ford, J.F. Rowe, J.J. Lissauer, D.C. Fabrycky, C. van Laerhoven, E. Agol, K.M. Deck, T. Holczer, T. Mazeh, Secure TTV mass measurements: ten Kepler exoplanets between 3 and 8 M with diverse densities and incident fluxes. Astrophys. J. (2015). https://arxiv.org/pdf/1512.02003.pdf. Accessed 22 Jan 2018
  20. D. Jontof-Hutter, J.J. Lissauer, J.F. Rowe, D.C. Fabrycky, Kepler-79’s low density planets. Astrophys. J. 785, 15–28 (2014)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. J.J. Lissauer, D. Jontof-Hutter, J.F. Rowe, D.C. Fabrycky, E.D. Lopez, E. Agol, G.W. Marcy, K.M. Deck, D.A. Fischer, J.J. Fortney, S.B. Howell, H. Isaacson, J.M. Jenkins, R. Kolbl, D. Sasselov, D.R. Short, W.F. Welsh, All six planets known to orbit Kepler-11 have low densities. Astrophys. J. 770, 131–170 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. M.G. MacDonald, D. Ragozzine, D.C. Fabrycky, E.B. Ford, M.J. Holman, H.T. Isaacson, J.J. Lissauer, E.D. Lopez, T. Mazeh, L. Rogers, J.F. Rowe, J.H. Steffen, G. Torres, A dynamical analysis of the Kepler-80 system of five transiting planets. Astron. J. 152, 105–123 (2016)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. L. Malavolta, A.W. Mayo, T. Louden, V.M. Rajpaul, A.S. Bonomo, L.A. Buchhave, L. Kreidberg, M.H. Kristiansen, M. Lopez-Morales, A. Mortier, A. Vanderburg, A. Coffinet, D. Ehrenreich, C. Lovis, F. Bouchy, D. Charbonneau, D.R. Ciardi, A.C. Cameron, R. Cosentino, I.J.M. Crossfield, M. Damasso, C.D. Dressing, X. Dumusque, M.E. Everett, P. Figueira, A.F.M. Fiorenzano, E.J. Gonzales, R.D. Haywood, A. Harutyunyan, L. Hirsch, S.B. Howell, J.A. Johnson, D.W. Latham, E. Lopez, M. Mayor, G. Micela, E. Molinari, V. Nascimbeni, F. Pepe, D.F. Phillips, G. Piotto, K. Rice, D. Sasselov, D. Ségransan, A. Sozzetti, S. Udry, C. Watson, An ultra-short period rocky super-Earth with a secondary eclipse and a Neptune-like companion around K2-141. Astron. J. (2018). https://arxiv.org/pdf/1801.03502.pdf. Accessed 24 Jan 2018
  24. G.W. Marcy, H. Isaacson, A.W. Howard, J.F. Rowe, J.M. Jenkins, S.T. Bryson, D.W. Latham, S.B. Howell, T.N. Gautier III, N.M. Batalha, L. Rogers, D. Ciardi, D.A. Fischer, R.L. Gilliland, H. Kjeldsen, J. Christensen-Dalsgaard, D. Huber, W.J. Chaplin, S. Basu, L.A. Buchhave, S.N. Quinn, W.J. Borucki, D.G. Koch, R. Hunter, D.A. Caldwell, J. van Cleve, R. Kolb, L.M. Weiss, E. Petigura, S. Seager, T. Morton, J.A. Johnson, S. Ballard, C. Burke, W.D. Cochran, M. Endl, P. MacQueen, M.E. Everett, J.J. Lissauer, E.B. Ford, G. Torres, F. Fressin, T.M. Brown, J.H. Steffen, D. Charbonneau, G.S. Basri, D.D. Sasselov, J. Winn, R. Sanchis-Ojeda, J. Christiansen, E. Adams, C. Henze, A. Dupree, D.C. Fabrycky, J.J. Fortney, J. Tarter, M.J. Holman, P. Tenenbaum, A. Shporer, P.W. Lucas, W.F. Welsh, J.A. Orosz, T.R. Bedding, T.L. Campante, G.R. Davies, Y. Elsworth, R. Handberg, S. Hekker, C. Karoff, S.D. Kawaler, M.N. Lund, M. Lundkvist, T.S. Metcalfe, A. Miglio, V. Silva Aguirre, D. Stello, T.R. White, A. Boss, E. Devore, A. Gould, A. Prsa, E. Agol, T. Barclay, J. Coughlin, E. Brugamyer, F. Mullally, E.V. Quintana, M. Still, S.E. Thompson, D. Morrison, J.D. Twicken, J.-M. Desert, J. Carter, J.R. Crepp, G. Hebrard, A. Santerne, C. Moutou, C. Sobeck, D. Hudgins, M.R. Haas, P. Robertson, J. Lillo-Box, D. Barrado, Masses, radii, and orbits of small Kepler planets: The transition from gaseous to rocky planets. Astrophys. J. Supp. Ser. (2014). http://w.astro.berkeley.edu/~gmarcy/22kois.pdf. Accessed 22 Jan 2018
  25. K. Masuda, Very low-density planets around Kepler-51 revealed with transit timing variations and an anomaly similar to a planet-planet eclipse event. (2014). https://arxiv.org/pdf/1401.2885.pdf. Accessed Jan 21 2018
  26. A. Ofir, S. Dreizler, M. Zechmeister, T.-O. Husser, An independent planet search in the Kepler dataset. II. An extremely low-density super-Earth mass planet around Kepler-87. Astron. Astrophys. (2013). https://arxiv.org/pdf/1310.2064.pdf. Accessed 22 Jan 2018
  27. F. Pepe, A.C. Cameron, D.W. Latham, E. Molinari, S. Udry, A.S. Bonomo, L.A. Buchhave, D. Charbonneau, R. Cosentino, C.D. Dressing, X. Dumusque, P. Figueira, A.F.M. Fiorenzano, S. Gettel, A. Harutyunyan, R.D. Haywood, K. Horne, M. Lopez-Morales, C. Lovis, L. Malavolta, M. Mayor, G. Micela, F. Motalebi, V. Nascimbeni, D. Phillips, G. Piotto, D. Pollacco, D. Queloz, K. Rice, D. Sasselov, D. Ségransan, A. Sozzetti, A. Szentgyorgi, C.A. Watson, An Earth-sized planet with an Earth-like density. Nature 503, 377–386 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. J.F. Rowe, S.T. Bryson, G.W. Marcy, J.J. Lissauer, D. Jontof-Hutter, F. Mullally, R.L. Gilliland, H. Issacson, E. Ford, S.B. Howell, W.J. Borucki, M. Haas, D. Huber, J.H. Steffen, S.E. Thompson, E. Quintana, T. Barclay, M. Still, J. Fortney, T.N.I.I.I. Gautier, R. Hunter, D.A. Caldwell, D.R. Ciardi, E. Devore, W. Cochran, J. Jenkins, E. Agol, J.A. Carter, J. Geary, Validation of Kepler’s multiple planet candidates. III: light curve analysis and announcement of hundreds of new multi-planet systems. Astrophys. J. 784, 45–182 (2014)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. J.R. Schmitt, E. Agol, K.M. Deck, L.A. Rogers, J.Z. Gazak, D.A. Fischer, J. Wang, M.J. Holman, K.J. Jek, C. Margossian, M.R. Omohundro, T. Winarski, J.M. Brewer, M.J. Giguere, C. Lintott, S. Lynn, M. Parrish, K. Schawinski, M.E. Schwamb, R. Simpson, A.M. Smith, Planet hunters VII. Discovery of a new low-mass, low-density planet (PH3 c) Orbiting Kepler-289 with mass measurements of two additional planets (PH3 b and d). Astrophys. J. (2015). https://arxiv.org/pdf/1410.8114.pdf. Accessed 24 Jan 2018
  30. U. Stettler, Kepler-60. (2016). http://nccr-planets.ch/blog/2016/11/01/kepler-60/. Accessed 21 Jan 2018
  31. V. Van Grootel, M. Gillon, D. Valencia, N. Madhusudhan, D. Dragomir, A.R. Howe, A.S. Burrows, B.-O. Demory, D. Deming, D. Ehrenreich, C. Lovis, M. Mayor, F. Pepe, D. Queloz, R. Scuflaire, S. Seager, D. Segransan, S. Udry, Transit confirmation and improved stellar and planet parameters for the super-earth HD 97658 b and its host star. Astrophys. J. 786, 2–31 (2014)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. S. Wang, D.-H. Wu, T. Barclay, G.P. Laughlin, Updated masses for the TRAPPIST-1 planets. Astrophys. J. (2017) https://arxiv.org/abs/1704.04290. Accessed 24 Jan 2018
  33. L.M. Weiss, G.W. Marcy, The mass-radius relation for 65 exoplanets smaller than 4 Earth radii. Astrophys. J. Lett. 783, L6–L12 (2014)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. D.R. Williams, Saturnian Satellite Fact Sheet (2015). https://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/factsheet/saturniansatfact.html. Accessed 18 Jan 2018
  35. D.R. Williams, Mercury Fact Sheet. (2016). https://nssdc.gsfcnasa.gov/planetary/factsheet/mercuryfact.html. Accessed 18 Jan 2018
  36. D.R. Williams, Venus Fact Sheet. (2016). https://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/factsheet/venusfact.html. Accessed 18 Jan 2018
  37. D.R. Williams, Moon Fact Sheet. (2017). https://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/factsheet/moonfact.html. Accessed 18 Jan 2018
  38. D.R. Williams, Mars Fact Sheet. (2016). https://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/factsheet/marsfact.html. Accessed 18 Jan 2018
  39. D.R. Williams, Jovian Satellite Fact Sheet. (2016). https://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/factsheet/joviansatfact.html. Accessed 18 Jan 2018
  40. J.-W. Xie, Transit timing variation of near-resonance planetary pairs. II. Confirmation of 30 planets in 15 multiple-planet systems. Astrophys. J. Supp. Ser. 210, 25–34 (2014)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.PittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations