Greenhouse mitigation strategies for agronomic and grazing lands of the US Southern Great Plains

A Correction to this article was published on 27 November 2019

This article has been updated

Abstract

Challenges to sustainable agriculture are increasing with forecasts for greater climate variability, including rising temperatures, extreme precipitation events, and prolonged droughts. One important factor that contributes to the increasing climate variability is greenhouse gas emissions, including from agro-ecosystems. The US Environment Protection Agency indicates soil management and enteric fermentation from livestock contribute ~ 80% of total greenhouse gas from agriculture sector. Management practices conducive to greenhouse gas emissions, and possible mitigation strategies for the agricultural systems of Southern Great Plains, an integral part of the US beef industry, have not been thoroughly defined. The objective of this paper is to review and synthesize the literature regarding management practices conducive to emissions [carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4)] from croplands and grazing lands of Southern Great Plains, and potential strategies that may aid in greenhouse gas mitigation in the region. The results from different published studies evaluating such strategies were analyzed to determine whether these practices have potential in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from agronomic and grazing lands. Based on the analysis, it can be recommended that increasing the amount of cropland managed by conservation tillage, fertilizer management, crop rotation systems, grazing management, and fertilizer amendments can be potential management strategies for greenhouse gas mitigation. As agro-ecosystems are very complex and reducing emissions using strategies in one sector may stimulate higher emissions in other sectors, these strategies require testing at the systems-level before they can be implemented to advise applied policies for the Southern Great Plains region.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7

Change history

  • 27 November 2019

    The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake.

References

  1. Aandahl A (1982) Soils of the Great Plains: Land use, crops and grasses. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, NE, USA

    Google Scholar 

  2. Abdalla M, Jones M, Ambus P, Williams M (2010) Emissions of nitrous oxide from Irish arable soils: effects of tillage and reduced N input. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 86:53–65

    Google Scholar 

  3. Abdalla M, Osborne B, Lanigan G, Forristal D, Williams M, Smith P, Jones M (2013) Conservation tillage systems: a review of its consequences for greenhouse gas emissions. Soil Use Manag 29:199–209

    Google Scholar 

  4. Adams C, Thapa S, Fan Y, Park S (2018) Agronomic and economic effects of two enhanced-efficiency urea fertilizer technologies on southern great plains winter wheat. Agron J 110:1097–1102

    Google Scholar 

  5. Aiken R, O’Brien D, Olson B, Murray L (2013) Replacing fallow with continuous cropping reduces crop water productivity of semiarid wheat. Agron J 105:199–207

    Google Scholar 

  6. Arah J, Smith K, Crichton I, Li H (1991) Nitrous oxide production and denitrification in Scottish arable soils. J Soil Sci 42:351–367

    Google Scholar 

  7. Arnold G, Dudzinski M (1978) Ethology of free-ranging domestic animals. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co, Amsterdam, Netherlands

    Google Scholar 

  8. Atchison, R, Daniels, R, Martinson, E (2010) Agroforestry Kansas Forest Action Plan, 15-16.

  9. Augustine D, Milchunas D, Derner J (2013) Spatial redistribution of nitrogen by cattle in semiarid rangeland. Rangel Ecol Manag 66:56–62

    Google Scholar 

  10. Aulakh M, Rennie D, Paul E (1982) Gaseous nitrogen losses from cropped and summer-fallowed soils. Can J Soil Sci 62:187–196

    Google Scholar 

  11. Baath GS, Northup B, Gowda P, Turner K, Rocateli A (2018a) Mothbean: a potential summer crop for the Southern Great Plains. Am J Plant Sci 9:1391

    Google Scholar 

  12. Baath G, Northup B, Rocateli A, Gowda P, Neel J (2018b) Forage potential of summer annual grain legumes in the southern great plains. Agron J 110:1–13

    Google Scholar 

  13. Bailey D, Gross J, Laca E, Rittenhouse L, Coughenour M, Swift D, Sims P (1996) Mechanisms that result in large herbivore grazing distribution patterns. J Range Manag 49:386–400

    Google Scholar 

  14. Barnes M, Norton B, Maeno M, Malechek J (2008) Paddock size and stocking density affect spatial heterogeneity of grazing. Rangel Ecol Manag 61:380–388

    Google Scholar 

  15. Basche AD, Miguez FE, Kaspar TC, Castellano MJ (2014) Do cover crops increase or decrease nitrous oxide emissions? A meta-analysis. J Soil Water Conserv 69:471–482

    Google Scholar 

  16. Bergtold JS, Ramsey S, Maddy L, Williams JR (2017) A review of economic considerations for cover crops as a conservation practice. Renew Agr Food Syst:1–15

  17. Berhe AA, Harte J, Harden JW, Torn MS (2007) The significance of the erosion-induced terrestrial carbon sink. BioScience 57:337–346

    Google Scholar 

  18. Bhandral R, Saggar S, Bolan N, Hedley M (2007) Transformation of nitrogen and nitrous oxide emission from grassland soils as affected by compaction. Soil Tillage Res 94:482–492

    Google Scholar 

  19. Blanco-Canqui H, Shaver TM, Lindquist JL, Shapiro CA, Elmore RW, Francis CA, Hergert GW (2015) Cover crops and ecosystem services: insights from studies in temperate soils. Agron J 107:2449–2474

    Google Scholar 

  20. Bolle H, Seiler W, Bolin B (1986) Other greenhouse gases and aerosols: assessing their role for atmospheric radiative transfer The Greenhouse Effect, Climatic change and Ecosystems. John Wiley and Sons, NY, USA

    Google Scholar 

  21. Bouwman AF (1994) Method to estimate direct nitrous oxide emissions from agricultural soils. http://hdl.handle.net/10029/10536. Accessed 26 June, 2019.

  22. Bouwman A, Boumans L, Batjes N (2002) Modeling global annual N2O and NO emissions from fertilized fields. Global Biogeochem Cycles 16:28-21-28-29

  23. Bowman R, Vigil M, Nielsen D, Anderson R (1999) Soil organic matter changes in intensively cropped dryland systems. Soil Sci Soc Am J 63:186–191

    Google Scholar 

  24. Breitenbeck G, Bremner J (1986) Effects of various nitrogen fertilizers on emission of nitrous oxide from soils. Biol Fertil Soils 2:195–199

    Google Scholar 

  25. Breitenbeck G, Blackmer A, Bremner J (1980) Effects of different nitrogen fertilizers on emission of nitrous oxide from soil. Geophys Res Lett 7:85–88

    Google Scholar 

  26. Briske DD, Derner JD, Brown JR, Fuhlendorf SD, Teague WR, Havstad KM, Gillen RL, Ash AJ, Willms WD (2008) Rotational grazing on rangelands: reconciliation of perception and experimental evidence. Rangel Ecol Manag 61:3–17

    Google Scholar 

  27. Bronson KF, Zobeck TM, Chua TT, Acosta-Martinez V, Van Pelt RS, Booker J (2004) Carbon and nitrogen pools of southern high plains cropland and grassland soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 68:1695–1704

    Google Scholar 

  28. Burton D, Li X, Grant C (2008a) Influence of fertilizer nitrogen source and management practice on N2O emissions from two Black Chernozemic soils. Can J Soil Sci 88:219–227

    Google Scholar 

  29. Burton D, Zebarth B, Gillam K, MacLeod J (2008b) Effect of split application of fertilizer nitrogen on N2O emissions from potatoes. Can J Soil Sci 88:229–239

    Google Scholar 

  30. Cai Y, Chang SX, Cheng Y (2017) Greenhouse gas emissions from excreta patches of grazing animals and their mitigation strategies. Earth-science Rev 171:44–57

    Google Scholar 

  31. Chadwick D, Cardenas LM, Dhanoa MS, Donovan N, Misselbrook T, Williams JR, Thorman RE, McGeough KL, Watson CJ, Bell M, Anthony SG (2018) The contribution of cattle urine and dung to nitrous oxide emissions: quantification of country specific emission factors and implications for national inventories. Sci Total Environ 635:607–617

    Google Scholar 

  32. Chatskikh D, Olesen JE (2007) Soil tillage enhanced CO2 and N2O emissions from loamy sand soil under spring barley. Soil Tillage Res 97:5–18

    Google Scholar 

  33. Ciais P, Sabine C, Bala G, Bopp L, Brovkin V, Canadell J, Chhabra A, DeFries R, Galloway J, Heimann M, Jones C (2013) Carbon and other biogeochemical cycles Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK

    Google Scholar 

  34. Clayton H, McTaggart I, Parker J, Swan L, Smith K (1997) Nitrous oxide emissions from fertilised grassland: a 2-year study of the effects of N fertiliser form and environmental conditions. Biol Fertil Soils 25:252–260

    Google Scholar 

  35. Cole C, Duxbury J, Freney J, Heinemeyer O, Minami K, Mosier A, Paustian K, Rosenberg N, Sampson N, Sauerbeck D, Zhao Q (1997) Global estimates of potential mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions by agriculture. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 49:221–228

    Google Scholar 

  36. Cole N, Greene L, McCollum F, Montgomery T, McBride K (2003) Influence of oscillating dietary crude protein concentration on performance, acid-base balance, and nitrogen excretion of steers. J Anim Sci 81:2660–2668

    Google Scholar 

  37. Coleman SW, Forbes T (1998) Herbage characteristics and performance of steers grazing old world bluestem. J Range Manag:399–407

  38. Conant RT, Ogle SM, Paul EA, Paustian K (2011) Measuring and monitoring soil organic carbon stocks in agricultural lands for climate mitigation. Front Ecol Environ 9:169–173

    Google Scholar 

  39. Cowan N, Norman P, Famulari D, Levy P, Reay D, Skiba U (2015) Spatial variability and hotspots of soil N 2O fluxes from intensively grazed grassland. Biogeosciences 12:1585–1596

    Google Scholar 

  40. Curtin D, Wang H, Selles F, McConkey B, Campbell C (2000) Tillage effects on carbon fluxes in continuous wheat and fallow–wheat rotations. Soil Sci Soc Am J 64:2080–2086

    Google Scholar 

  41. Dai Y, Di HJ, Cameron KC, He J-Z (2013) Effects of nitrogen application rate and a nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide on ammonia oxidizers and N2O emissions in a grazed pasture soil. Sci Total Environ 465:125–135

    Google Scholar 

  42. Dalal RC, Wang W, Robertson GP, Parton WJ (2003) Nitrous oxide emission from Australian agricultural lands and mitigation options: a review. Soil Res 41:165–195

    Google Scholar 

  43. Davidson EA (2009) The contribution of manure and fertilizer nitrogen to atmospheric nitrous oxide since 1860. Nat Geosci 2:659

    Google Scholar 

  44. Desjardins R, Kulshreshtha S, Junkins B, Smith W, Grant B, Boehm M (2001) Canadian greenhouse gas mitigation options in agriculture. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 60:317–326

    Google Scholar 

  45. Di H, Cameron K, Sherlock R (2007) Comparison of the effectiveness of a nitrification inhibitor, dicyandiamide, in reducing nitrous oxide emissions in four different soils under different climatic and management conditions. Soil Use Manag 23:1–9

    Google Scholar 

  46. Dijkstra J, Oenema O, Van Groenigen J, Spek J, Van Vuuren A, Bannink A (2013) Diet effects on urine composition of cattle and N2O emissions. Animal 7:292–302

    Google Scholar 

  47. Ding WX, Hongyan YY, Cai ZC (2011) Impact of urease and nitrification inhibitors on nitrous oxide emissions from fluvo-aquic soil in the North China Plain. Biol Fertil Soils 47:91–99

    Google Scholar 

  48. Dobbie KE, Smith KA (2003) Impact of different forms of N fertilizer on N2O emissions from intensive grassland. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 67:37–46

    Google Scholar 

  49. Drury C, Reynolds W, Yang X, McLaughlin N, Welacky T, Calder W, Grant C (2012) Nitrogen source, application time, and tillage effects on soil nitrous oxide emissions and corn grain yields. Soil Sci Soc Am J 76:1268–1279

    Google Scholar 

  50. Dubeux J, Sollenberger L, Vendramini J, Interrante S, Lira M (2014) Stocking method, animal behavior, and soil nutrient redistribution: how are they linked? Crop Sci 54:2341–2350

    Google Scholar 

  51. Duckett S, Neel J, Fontenot J, Clapham W (2009) Effects of winter stocker growth rate and finishing system on: III. Tissue proximate, fatty acid, vitamin, and cholesterol content. J Anim Sci 87:2961–2970

    Google Scholar 

  52. Dusenbury M, Engel R, Miller P, Lemke R, Wallander R (2008) Nitrous oxide emissions from a northern great plains soil as influenced by nitrogen management and cropping systems. J Environ Qual 37:542–550

    Google Scholar 

  53. Edwards J, Carver B, Horn G, Payton M (2011) Impact of dual-purpose management on wheat grain yield. Crop Sci 51:2181–2185

    Google Scholar 

  54. Engel R, Jones C, Wallander R (2011) Ammonia volatilization from urea and mitigation by NBPT following surface application to cold soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 75:2348–2357

    Google Scholar 

  55. Fageria N, Baligar V, Bailey B (2005) Role of cover crops in improving soil and row crop productivity. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 36:2733–2757

    Google Scholar 

  56. Farahani H, Peterson G, Westfall D (1998) Dryland cropping intensification: a fundamental solution to efficient use of precipitation. Adv Agron

  57. Fernández FG, Venterea RT, Fabrizzi KP (2016) Corn nitrogen management influences nitrous oxide emissions in drained and undrained soils. J Environ Qual 45:1847–1855

    Google Scholar 

  58. Fieser BG, Horn GW, Edwards JT, Krenzer EG Jr (2006) Timing of grazing termination in dual-purpose winter wheat enterprises. Prof Anim Sci 22:210–216

    Google Scholar 

  59. Fissore C, Espeleta J, Nater EA, Hobbie SE, Reich PB (2010) Limited potential for terrestrial carbon sequestration to offset fossil-fuel emissions in the upper Midwestern U.S. Front Ecol Environ 8:409–413

    Google Scholar 

  60. Flechard C, Ambus P, Skiba U, Rees RM, Hensen A, Van Amstel A, Van Den Pol-Van Dasselaar A, Soussana JF, Jones M, Clifton-Brown J, Raschi A (2007) Effects of climate and management intensity on nitrous oxide emissions in grassland systems across Europe. Agric Ecosyst Environ 121:135–152

    Google Scholar 

  61. Flessa H, Dörsch P, Beese F, König H, Bouwman A (1996) Influence of cattle wastes on nitrous oxide and methane fluxes in pasture land. J Environ Qual 25:1366–1370

    Google Scholar 

  62. Follett RF (2010) Symposium: soil carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas mitigation. Soil Sci Soc Am J 74:345

    Google Scholar 

  63. Follett R, Shafer S, Jawson M, Franzluebbers A (2005) Research and implementation needs to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture in the USA. Soil Tillage Res 83:159–166

    Google Scholar 

  64. Franzluebbers A, Hons F, Zuberer D (1994) Long-term changes in soil carbon and nitrogen pools in wheat management systems. Soil Sci Soc Am J 58:1639–1645

    Google Scholar 

  65. Galloway JN, Aber JD, Erisman JW, Seitzinger SP, Howarth RW, Cowling EB, Cosby BJ (2003) The nitrogen cascade. AIBS Bull 53:341–356. https://doi.org/10.1641/0006-3568(2003)053[0341:TNC]2.0.CO;2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  66. Giles J (2005) Nitrogen study fertilizes fears of pollution. Nature Publishing Group, London, UK

    Google Scholar 

  67. Goodman JM (1977) Physical environments of Oklahoma. In: Morris JW (ed) Geography of Oklahoma. Oklahoma Historical Society, Oklahoma City, OK, USA, pp 9–25

    Google Scholar 

  68. Gregorich E, Rochette P, Hopkins D, McKim U, St-Georges P (2006) Tillage-induced environmental conditions in soil and substrate limitation determine biogenic gas production. Soil Biol Biochem 38:2614–2628

    Google Scholar 

  69. Gupta PK, Jha AK, Koul S, Sharma P, Pradhan V, Gupta V, Sharma C, Singh N (2007) Methane and nitrous oxide emission from bovine manure management practices in India. Environ Pollut 146:219–224

    Google Scholar 

  70. Halvorson AD, Del Grosso SJ (2012) Nitrogen source and placement effects on soil nitrous oxide emissions from no-till corn. J Environ Qual 41:1349–1360

    Google Scholar 

  71. Halvorson AD, Del Grosso SJ (2013) Nitrogen placement and source effects on nitrous oxide emissions and yields of irrigated corn. J Environ Qual 42:312–322

    Google Scholar 

  72. Halvorson AD, Wienhold BJ, Black AL (2002) Tillage, nitrogen, and cropping system effects on soil carbon sequestration. Soil Sci Soc Am J 66:906–912

    Google Scholar 

  73. Halvorson AD, Del Grosso SJ, Alluvione F (2010a) Nitrogen source effects on nitrous oxide emissions from irrigated no-till corn. J Environ Qual 39:1554–1562

    Google Scholar 

  74. Halvorson AD, Del Grosso SJ, Alluvione F (2010b) Tillage and inorganic nitrogen source effects on nitrous oxide emissions from irrigated cropping systems. Soil Sci Soc Am J 74:436–445

    Google Scholar 

  75. Halvorson AD, Del Grosso SJ, Jantalia CP (2011) Nitrogen source effects on soil nitrous oxide emissions from strip-till corn. J Environ Qual 40:1775–1786

    Google Scholar 

  76. Halvorson AD, Snyder CS, Blaylock AD, Del Grosso SJ (2014) Enhanced-efficiency nitrogen fertilizers: Potential role in nitrous oxide emission mitigation. Agron J 106:715–722

    Google Scholar 

  77. Hamza M, Anderson W (2005) Soil compaction in cropping systems: a review of the nature, causes and possible solutions. Soil Tillage Res 82:121–145

    Google Scholar 

  78. Han Z, Walter MT, Drinkwater LE (2017a) Impact of cover cropping and landscape positions on nitrous oxide emissions in northeastern US agroecosystems. Agric Ecosyst Environ 245:124–134

    Google Scholar 

  79. Han Z, Walter MT, Drinkwater LE (2017b) N2O emissions from grain cropping systems: a meta-analysis of the impacts of fertilizer-based and ecologically-based nutrient management strategies. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 107:335–355

    Google Scholar 

  80. Hao X, Chang C, Carefoot J, Janzen H, Ellert B (2001) Nitrous oxide emissions from an irrigated soil as affected by fertilizer and straw management. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 60:1–8

    Google Scholar 

  81. Harrison R, Webb J (2001) A review of the effect of N fertilizer type on gaseous emissions. Adv Agron 73:65–108

    Google Scholar 

  82. Hénault C, Grossel A, Mary B, Roussel M, Léonard J (2012) Nitrous oxide emission by agricultural soils: a review of spatial and temporal variability for mitigation. Pedosphere 22:426–433

    Google Scholar 

  83. Hodge A, Robinson D, Fitter A (2000) Are microorganisms more effective than plants at competing for nitrogen? Trends Plant Sci 5:304–308

    Google Scholar 

  84. Hossain, I., F.M. Epplin, G.W. Horn, and E.R. Krenzer, Jr. 2004. Wheat production and management practices used by Oklahoma grain and livestock producers. Oklahoma Agric. Exp. Stn. B-818. Oklahoma State University, Stillwater.

  85. Hou Y, Velthof GL, Oenema O (2015) Mitigation of ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane emissions from manure management chains: a meta-analysis and integrated assessment. Glob Chang Biol 21:1293–1312

  86. Hristov A (2012) Historic, pre-European settlement, and present-day contribution of wild ruminants to enteric methane emissions in the United States. J Anim Sci 90:1371–1375

    Google Scholar 

  87. Hristov AN, Oh J, Lee C, Meinen R, Montes F, Ott T, Firkins J, Rotz A, Dell C, Adesogan A, Yang W (2013) Nutritional and management strategies to mitigate animal greenhouse gas emissions. Proceedings 2013 24th Ann Florida Ruminant Nutrition Symp 90-98

  88. Huang Y, Zou J, Zheng X, Wang Y, Xu X (2004) Nitrous oxide emissions as influenced by amendment of plant residues with different C: N ratios. Soil Biol Biochem 36:973–981

    Google Scholar 

  89. Huhtanen P, Hetta MJ (2012) Comparison of feed intake and milk production responses in continuous and change-over design dairy cow experiments. Livest Sci 143:184–194

    Google Scholar 

  90. IPCC (2014) Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of climate change. https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/2018/02/ipcc_wg3_ar5_full.pdf. Accessed 3 May, 2019.

  91. Janzen H (2004) Carbon cycling in earth systems—a soil science perspective. Agric Ecosyst Environ 104:399–417

    Google Scholar 

  92. Johnson, E, Geissler, G, & Murray, D (2010) The Oklahoma Forest Resource Assessment, 2010 http://www.forestry.ok.gov/Websites/forestry/Images/Oklahoma%20Forest%20Resource%20Assessment,%20FINAL%20FOR%20WEB.pdf. Accessed 20 May, 2019.

  93. Kainiemi V, Arvidsson J, Kätterer T (2015) Effects of autumn tillage and residue management on soil respiration in a long-term field experiment in Sweden. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 178:189–198

    Google Scholar 

  94. Kandel TP, Gowda PH, Somenahally A, Northup BK, DuPont J, Rocateli AC (2018) Nitrous oxide emissions as influenced by legume cover crops and nitrogen fertilization. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 112:119–131

    Google Scholar 

  95. Kandel, TP, Gowda, PH, Northup, BK, Rocateli, AC (2019) Incorporation and harvest management of hairy vetch-based green manure influence nitrous oxide emissions. Renew Agric Food Syst 1-10

  96. Kaye JP, Quemada M (2017) Using cover crops to mitigate and adapt to climate change. A review. Agron Sustain Dev 37:4

    Google Scholar 

  97. Kebreab E, Clark K, Wagner-Riddle C, France J (2006) Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from Canadian animal agriculture: a review. Can J Anim Sci 86:135–157

    Google Scholar 

  98. Kelley KW, Sweeney DW (2010) Long-term crop rotation and tillage affects wheat and double-crop soybean and selected soil properties. Crop Manag 9:0-0

  99. Kravchenko A, Toosi ER, Guber AK, Ostrom NE, Yu J, Azeem K, Rivers ML, Robertson GP (2017) Hotspots of soil N2O emission enhanced through water absorption by plant residue. Nat Geosci 10:496

  100. Lal R (2004) Soil carbon sequestration impacts on global climate change and food security. Science 304:1623–1627

    Google Scholar 

  101. Lassaletta L, Billen G, Grizzetti B, Anglade J, Garnier J (2014) 50 year trends in nitrogen use efficiency of world cropping systems: the relationship between yield and nitrogen input to cropland. Environ Res Lett 9:105011

    Google Scholar 

  102. Li X, Sørensen P, Olesen JE, Petersen SO (2016) Evidence for denitrification as main source of N2O emission from residue-amended soil. Soil Biol Biochem 92:153–160

    Google Scholar 

  103. Liebig M, Gross J, Kronberg S, Phillips R (2010) Grazing management contributions to net global warming potential: a long-term evaluation in the Northern Great Plains. J Environ Qual 39:799–809

    Google Scholar 

  104. Liu Z, Liu Y (2018) Mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from animal production. Greenh Gases 8:627–638

    Google Scholar 

  105. Liu X, Mosier A, Halvorson A, Zhang F (2005) Tillage and nitrogen application effects on nitrous and nitric oxide emissions from irrigated corn fields. Plant Soil 276:235–249

    Google Scholar 

  106. Liu X, Mosier A, Halvorson A, Zhang F (2006) The impact of nitrogen placement and tillage on NO, N2O, CH4 and CO2 fluxes from a clay loam soil. Plant Soil 280:177–188

    Google Scholar 

  107. Luo J, Lindsey S, Ledgard S (2008) Nitrous oxide emissions from animal urine application on a New Zealand pasture. Biol Fertil Soils 44:463–470

    Google Scholar 

  108. MacKenzie A, Fan M, Cadrin F (1997) Nitrous oxide emission as affected by tillage, corn-soybean-alfalfa rotations and nitrogen fertilization. Can J Soil Sci 77:145–152

    Google Scholar 

  109. MacKenzie A, Fan M, Cadrin F (1998) Nitrous oxide emission in three years as affected by tillage, corn-soybean-alfalfa rotations, and nitrogen fertilization. J Environ Qual 27:698–703

    Google Scholar 

  110. MacKown C, Northup B (2010) Crude protein and nitrate concentrations of fall forage for stocker cattle: wheat vs. perennial cool-season grasses. Crop Sci 50:2140–2147

    Google Scholar 

  111. Majumdar D, Pathak H, Kumar S, Jain M (2002) Nitrous oxide emission from a sandy loam Inceptisol under irrigated wheat in India as influenced by different nitrification inhibitors. Agric Ecosyst Environ 91:283–293

    Google Scholar 

  112. Malla G, Bhatia A, Pathak H, Prasad S, Jain N, Singh J (2005) Mitigating nitrous oxide and methane emissions from soil in rice–wheat system of the Indo-Gangetic plain with nitrification and urease inhibitors. Chemosphere 58:141–147

    Google Scholar 

  113. Mathews B, Sollenberger L, Nair V, Staples C (1994) Impact of grazing management on soil nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and sulfur distribution. J Environ Qual 23:1006–1013

    Google Scholar 

  114. McConkey B, Liang B, Campbell C, Curtin D, Moulin A, Brandt S, Lafond G (2003) Crop rotation and tillage impact on carbon sequestration in Canadian prairie soils. Soil Tillage Res 74:81–90

    Google Scholar 

  115. McGowan AR, Min D-H, Williams JR, Rice CW (2018) Impact of nitrogen application rate on switchgrass yield, production costs, and nitrous oxide emissions. J Environ Qual 47:228–237

    Google Scholar 

  116. Millar N, Robertson GP, Grace PR, Gehl RJ, Hoben JP (2010) Nitrogen fertilizer management for nitrous oxide (N2O) mitigation in intensive corn (maize) production: an emissions reduction protocol for US Midwest agriculture. Mitig Adapt Strat Global Change 15:185–204

    Google Scholar 

  117. Millar N, Doll JE, Robertson GP (2014) Management of nitrogen fertilizer to reduce nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from field crops. Climate Change and Agriculture Fact Sheet Series, MSU Extension Bulletin E 3152 https://www.canr.msu.edu/uploads/resources/pdfs/management_of_nitrogen_fertiler_(e3152).pdf. Accessed 24 April, 2019.

  118. Millar N, Urrea A, Kahmark K, Shcherbak I, Robertson GP, Ortiz-Monasterio I (2018) Nitrous oxide (N2O) flux responds exponentially to nitrogen fertilizer in irrigated wheat in the Yaqui Valley, Mexico. Agric Ecosyst Environ 261:125–132

    Google Scholar 

  119. Misselbrook T, Cardenas L, Camp V, Thorman R, Williams J, Rollett A, Chambers B (2014) An assessment of nitrification inhibitors to reduce nitrous oxide emissions from UK agriculture. Environ Res Lett 9:115006

    Google Scholar 

  120. Mitchell DC, Castellano MJ, Sawyer JE, Pantoja J (2013) Cover crop effects on nitrous oxide emissions: role of mineralizable carbon. Soil Sci Soc Am J 77:1765–1773

    Google Scholar 

  121. Moussadek R, Mrabet R, Dahan R, Zouahri A, El Mourid M, Ranst EV (2014) Tillage system affects soil organic carbon storage and quality in Central Morocco. Appl Environ Soil Sci 2014

  122. Mullens E, Bartush B, Kloesel K, Banner J, Brown DP, Lemery J, Lin X, Loeffler C, McManus G, Nielsen-Gammon JW, Shafer M (2018) Assessing the impacts of a changing climate in the southern great plains. In AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018AGUFMPA31D1172M. Accessed 30 April, 2019.

  123. Myhre G, Samset BH, Schulz M, Balkanski Y, Bauer S, Berntsen TK, Bian H, Bellouin N, Chin M, Diehl T, Easter RC (2013) Radiative forcing of the direct aerosol effect from AeroCom Phase II simulations. Atmos Chem Phys 13:1853

    Google Scholar 

  124. Northup BK, Rao SC (2015) Green manure and forage potential of lablab in the US southern Plains. Agron J 107:1113–1118

    Google Scholar 

  125. Northup BK, Stark J, Turner KE (2019) Stocking methods and soil macronutrient distributions in southern tallgrass paddocks: are there linkages? Agronomy 9:1–16

    Google Scholar 

  126. Núñez P, Demanet R, Matus F, Mora M (2007) Grazing management, ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions: a general view. J Soil Sc Plant Nutr 7:2007

    Google Scholar 

  127. Omonode RA, Smith DR, Gál A, Vyn TJ (2011) Soil nitrous oxide emissions in corn following three decades of tillage and rotation treatments. Soil Sci Soc Am J 75:152–163

    Google Scholar 

  128. Palma R, Rimolo M, Saubidet MI, Conti ME (1997) Influence of tillage system on denitrification in maize-cropped soils. Biol Fertil Soils 25:142–146

    Google Scholar 

  129. Parton W, Schimel DS, Cole C, Ojima D (1987) Analysis of factors controlling soil organic matter levels in Great Plains Grasslands. Soil Sci Soc Am J 51:1173–1179

    Google Scholar 

  130. Parton WJ, Gutmann MP, Merchant ER, Hartman MD, Adler PR, McNeal FM, Lutz SM (2015) Measuring and mitigating agricultural greenhouse gas production in the US Great Plains, 1870–2000. Proc Natl Acad Sci 112:E4681–E4688

    Google Scholar 

  131. Patrignani A, Lollato RP, Ochsner TE, Godsey CB, Edwards J (2014) Yield gap and production gap of rainfed winter wheat in the southern Great Plains. Agron J 106:1329–1339

    Google Scholar 

  132. Paustian K, Cole CV, Sauerbeck D, Sampson N (1998) CO2 mitigation by agriculture: an overview. Clim Chang 40:135–162

    Google Scholar 

  133. Peel D (2003) Beef cattle growing and backgrounding programs. Vet Clinics: Food Anim Prac 19:365–385

    Google Scholar 

  134. Peterson G, Halvorson A, Havlin J, Jones O, Lyon D, Tanaka D (1998) Reduced tillage and increasing cropping intensity in the Great Plains conserves soil C. Soil Tillage Res 47:207–218

    Google Scholar 

  135. Phillips W, Coleman S (1995) Productivity and economic return of three warm season grass stocker systems for the Southern Great Plains. J Prod Agric 8:334–339

    Google Scholar 

  136. Phillips W, Northup B, Mayeux H, Daniel J (2003) Performance and economic returns of stocker cattle on tallgrass prairie under different grazing management strategies. Prof Anim Sci 19:416–423

    Google Scholar 

  137. Pimentel L, Weiler D, Pedroso G, Bayer C (2015) Soil N2O emissions following cover-crop residues application under two soil moisture conditions. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 178:631–640

    Google Scholar 

  138. Piñeiro G, Paruelo JM, Oesterheld M, Jobbágy EG (2010) Pathways of grazing effects on soil organic carbon and nitrogen. Rangel Ecol Manag 63:109–119

    Google Scholar 

  139. Poeplau C, Don A (2015) Carbon sequestration in agricultural soils via cultivation of cover crops–a meta-analysis. Agric Ecosyst Environ 200:33–41

    Google Scholar 

  140. Potter K, Chichester F (1993) Physical and chemical properties of a Vertisol with continuous controlled-traffic, no-till management. Trans ASAE 36:95–99

    Google Scholar 

  141. Potter K, Jones O, Torbert H, Unger P (1997) Crop rotation and tillage effects on organic carbon sequestration in the semiarid southern Great Plains. Soil Sci 162:140–147

    Google Scholar 

  142. Potter K, Torbert H, Jones O, Matocha J, Morrison J Jr, Unger P (1998) Distribution and amount of soil organic C in long-term management systems in Texas. Soil Tillage Res 47:309–321

    Google Scholar 

  143. Puget P, Lal R (2005) Soil organic carbon and nitrogen in a Mollisol in central Ohio as affected by tillage and land use. Soil Tillage Res 80:201–213

    Google Scholar 

  144. Rao S, Northup B (2008) Planting date affects production and quality of grass pea forage. Crop Sci 48:1629–1635

    Google Scholar 

  145. Rao S, Northup B (2009a) Capabilities of four novel warm-season legumes in the southern Great Plains: Biomass and forage quality. Crop Sci 49:1096–1102

    Google Scholar 

  146. Rao S, Northup B (2009b) Water use by five warm-season legumes in the southern Great Plains. Crop Sci 49:2317–2324

    Google Scholar 

  147. Rao S, Northup B (2011) Grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) as a pre-plant nitrogen source for continuous conventionally tilled winter wheat. Crop Sci 51:1325–1333

    Google Scholar 

  148. Rao S, Northup B (2012) Pigeon pea potential for summer grazing in the southern Great Plains. Agron J 104:199–203

    Google Scholar 

  149. Raun W, Johnson G (1999) Improving nitrogen use efficiency for cereal production. Agron J 91:357–363

    Google Scholar 

  150. Redmon L, Horn G, Krenzer E, Bernardo D (1995) A review of livestock grazing and wheat grain yield: boom or bust? Agron J 87:137–147

    Google Scholar 

  151. Reicosky D, Dugas W, Torbert H (1997) Tillage-induced soil carbon dioxide loss from different cropping systems. Soil Tillage Res 41:105–118

    Google Scholar 

  152. Ribaudo M, Hansen L, Livingston M, Mosheim R, Williamson J, Delgado J (2011) Nitrogen in agricultural systems: Implications for conservation policy. USDA-ERS Economic Res Report. https://www.ers.usda.gov/webdocs/publications/44918/6767_err127.pdf?v=0. Accessed 2 July, 2019.

  153. Robertson G, Vitousek P (2009) Nitrogen in agriculture: balancing the cost of an essential resource. Annu Rev Environ Resour 34:97–125

    Google Scholar 

  154. Rosecrance R, McCarty G, Shelton D, Teasdale J (2000) Denitrification and N mineralization from hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) and rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop monocultures and bicultures. Plant Soil 227:283–290

    Google Scholar 

  155. Sainju U, Lenssen A, Caesar-Tonthat T, Waddell J (2006) Tillage and crop rotation effects on dryland soil and residue carbon and nitrogen. Soil Sci Soc Am J 70:668–678

    Google Scholar 

  156. Sainju U, Jabro J, Stevens W (2008) Soil carbon dioxide emission and carbon content as affected by irrigation, tillage, cropping system, and nitrogen fertilization. J Environ Qual 37:98–106

    Google Scholar 

  157. Salinas-Garcia J, Hons F, Matocha J (1997) Long-term effects of tillage and fertilization on soil organic matter dynamics. Soil Sci Soc Am J 61:152–159

    Google Scholar 

  158. Sanz-Cobena A, Sánchez-Martín L, García-Torres L, Vallejo A (2012) Gaseous emissions of N2O and NO and NO3− leaching from urea applied with urease and nitrification inhibitors to a maize (Zea mays) crop. Agric Ecosyst Environ 149:64–73

    Google Scholar 

  159. Savage D, Costello D (1948) The southern great plains. U.S. Dept. Agr., Yearbook 1948: 503–522.

  160. Schneider J, Garbrecht J (2003) A measure of the usefulness of seasonal precipitation forecasts for agricultural applications. Trans ASAE 46:257

    Google Scholar 

  161. Sharrow S (2007) Soil compaction by grazing livestock in silvopastures as evidenced by changes in soil physical properties. Agrofor Syst 71:215–223

    Google Scholar 

  162. Shcherbak I, Millar N, Robertson G (2014) Global metaanalysis of the nonlinear response of soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions to fertilizer nitrogen. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences:201322434

  163. Sherrod L, Peterson G, Westfall D, Ahuja L (2003) Cropping intensity enhances soil organic carbon and nitrogen in a no-till agroecosystem. Soil Sci Soc Am J 67:1533–1543

    Google Scholar 

  164. Signor D, Cerri C (2013) Nitrous oxide emissions in agricultural soils: a review. Tropical Farming Res 43:322–338

    Google Scholar 

  165. Šimek M, Cooper J (2002) The influence of soil pH on denitrification: progress towards the understanding of this interaction over the last 50 years. Eur J Soil Sci 53:345–354

    Google Scholar 

  166. Simpson H, Taylor E, Barber B (2013) Texas Statewide Assessment of Forest Ecosystem Services A comprehensive analysis of regulating and cultural services provided by Texas’ forests. College Station, TX Texas A&M Forest Service. https://tfsweb.tamu.edu/uploadedFiles/TFSMain/Data_and_Analysis/Contact_Us(3)/Ecosystem%20Services%20-%20TX%20Statewide%20Assessment.pdf. Accessed 5 July, 2019.

  167. Singh J, Saggar S, Giltrap D, Bolan NS (2008) Decomposition of dicyandiamide (DCD) in three contrasting soils and its effect on nitrous oxide emission, soil respiratory activity, and microbial biomass—an incubation study. Soil Res 46:517–525

    Google Scholar 

  168. Singh H, Kandel TP, Gowda PH, Somenahally A, Northup BK, Kakani VJ (2019) Influence of contrasting soil moisture conditions on CO 2 and N2O emissions from terminated green manures. https://doi.org/10.2134/age2019.03.0012

  169. Sistani K, Jn-Baptiste M, Lovanh N, Cook K (2011) Atmospheric emissions of nitrous oxide, methane, and carbon dioxide from different nitrogen fertilizers. J Environ Qual 40:1797–1805

    Google Scholar 

  170. Six J, Ogle SM, Jay Breidt F, Conant RT, Mosier AR, Paustian K (2004) The potential to mitigate global warming with no-tillage management is only realized when practised in the long term. Glob Chang Biol 10:155–160

    Google Scholar 

  171. Smith K, Conen F (2004) Impacts of land management on fluxes of trace greenhouse gases. Soil Use Manag 20:255–263

    Google Scholar 

  172. Smith P, Martino D, Cai Z, Gwary D, Janzen H, Kumar P, McCarl B, Ogle S, O'Mara F, Rice C, Scholes B (2007) Greenhouse gas mitigation in agriculture. Philos Trans R Soc B 363(1492):789–813

    Google Scholar 

  173. Song X, Liu M, Ju X, Gao B, Su F, Chen X, Rees RM (2018) Nitrous oxide emissions increase exponentially when optimum nitrogen fertilizer rates are exceeded in the North China plain. Environ Sci Technol 52:12504–12513

    Google Scholar 

  174. Sperow M, Eve M, Paustian K (2001) Estimating soil C sequestration potential in US agricultural soils using the IPCC approach. Proceedings, First National Conference on Carbon Sequestration, May 14-17, 2001 Washington, DC. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.205.1296&rep=rep1&type=pdf Accessed 5 July, 2019.

  175. Steiner JL, Schneider JM, Pope C, Pope S, Ford P, Steele RF, Anderson T (2015) Southern Plains assessment of vulnerability and preliminary adaptation and mitigation strategies for farmers, ranchers, and forest land owners. http://www.climatehubs.oce.usda.gov/southernplains Accessed 12 April, 2019.

  176. Stone LR, Schlegel AJ (2010) Tillage and crop rotation phase effects on soil physical properties in the west-central Great Plains. Agron J 102:483–491

    Google Scholar 

  177. Subbarao G, Ito O, Sahrawat KL, Berry WL, Nakahara K, Ishikawa T, Watanabe T, Suenaga K, Rondon M, Rao IM (2006) Scope and strategies for regulation of nitrification in agricultural systems—challenges and opportunities. Crit Rev Plant Sci 25(4):303–335

    Google Scholar 

  178. Sun L, Lu Y, Yu F, Kronzucker HJ, Shi W (2016) Biological nitrification inhibition by rice root exudates and its relationship with nitrogen-use efficiency. New Phytol 212:646–656

    Google Scholar 

  179. Szanto G, Hamelers H, Rulkens W, Veeken A (2007) NH3, N2O and CH4 emissions during passively aerated composting of straw-rich pig manure. Bioresour Technol 98:2659–2670

    Google Scholar 

  180. Tan Z, Liu S, Johnston CA, Loveland TR, Tieszen LL, Liu J, Kurtz R (2005) Soil organic carbon dynamics as related to land use history in the northwestern Great Plains. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 19(3)

  181. Taylor M, Brix M (2013) Profitability of non-irrigated corn and grain sorghum under yield and price uncertainty. At the Southern Agricultural Economics Association (SAEA) Annual Meeting, Orlando, Florida, 3-5 February 2013. https://ideas.repec.org/p/ags/saea13/143071.html Accessed 26 June, 2019.

  182. Teague R, Provenza F, Kreuter U, Steffens T, Barnes MJ, Jo EM (2013) Multi-paddock grazing on rangelands: why the perceptual dichotomy between research results and rancher experience? J Environ Manag 128:699–717

    Google Scholar 

  183. Tenuta M, Beauchamp EG (2000) Nitrous oxide production from urea granules of different sizes. J Environ Qual 29:1408–1413

    Google Scholar 

  184. Tolk JA, Howell TA (2008) Field water supply: yield relationships of grain sorghum grown in three USA Southern Great Plains soils. Agric Water Manag 95:1303–1313

    Google Scholar 

  185. Tonitto C, David M, Drinkwater L (2006) Replacing bare fallows with cover crops in fertilizer-intensive cropping systems: a meta-analysis of crop yield and N dynamics. Agric Ecosyst Environ 112:58–72

    Google Scholar 

  186. Tribouillois H, Cohan J-P, Justes E (2016) Cover crop mixtures including legume produce ecosystem services of nitrate capture and green manuring: assessment combining experimentation and modelling. Plant Soil 401:347–364

    Google Scholar 

  187. U.S. EPA (2008) Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse gas emissions and sinks: 1990-2006. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington DC https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-12/documents/08_cr.pdf Accessed 15 May, 2019.

  188. Unger PW, Baumhardt RL (2001) Historical development of conservation tillage in the Southern Great Plains. Presentation at the 24th Annual Southern Conservation Tillage Conference for Sustainable Agriculture, Oklahoma City, OK, 2001. 9-11 http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download;jsessionid=F510EB58355E51485713E8D5F2498E3E?doi=10.1.1.67.6103&rep=rep1&type=pdf Accessed 21 May, 2019.

  189. USDA-ERS (2018) All fertilizer use and price tables in a single workbook USDA ERS. https://www.ers.usda.gov/data-products/fertilizer-use-and-price.aspx Accessed 14 April, 2019.

  190. USDA-NASS (2014) Oklahoma Agricultural Statistics. http://digitalprairie.ok.gov/cdm/fullbrowser/collection/stgovpub/id/22654/rv/compoundobject/cpd/11177 Accessed 14 April, 2019.

  191. USDA-NRCS. 2007. Soil Survey of Woods County Oklahoma. Retrived from https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE_MANUSCRIPTS/oklahoma/OK151/0/Woods.pdf Accessed 14 April, 2019.

  192. Ussiri DA, Lal R, Jarecki MK (2009) Nitrous oxide and methane emissions from long-term tillage under a continuous corn cropping system in Ohio. Soil Tillage Res 104:247–255

    Google Scholar 

  193. Van Der Weerden T, Luo J, Di HJ, Podolyan A, Phillips R, Saggar S, de Klein C, Cox N, Ettema P, Rys G (2016) Nitrous oxide emissions from urea fertiliser and effluent with and without inhibitors applied to pasture. Agric Ecosyst Environ 219:58–70

    Google Scholar 

  194. Van Groenigen J, Kasper VG, Velthof G, Van den Pol-van Dasselaar A, Kuikman P (2004) Nitrous oxide emissions from silage maize fields under different mineral nitrogen fertilizer and slurry applications. Plant Soil 263:101–111

    Google Scholar 

  195. Van Groenigen J, Velthof G, Oenema O, Van Groenigen K, Van Kessel C (2010) Towards an agronomic assessment of N2O emissions: a case study for arable crops. Eur J Soil Sci 61:903–913

    Google Scholar 

  196. Van Kessel C, Venterea R, Six J, Adviento-Borbe MA, Linquist B, van Groenigen KJ (2013) Climate, duration, and N placement determine N 2O emissions in reduced tillage systems: a meta-analysis. Glob Chang Biol 19:33–44

    Google Scholar 

  197. Velthof G, Oenema O, Postma R, Van Beusichem M (1996) Effects of type and amount of applied nitrogen fertilizer on nitrous oxide fluxes from intensively managed grassland. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 46:257–267

    Google Scholar 

  198. Venterea RT, Stanenas AJ (2008) Profile analysis and modeling of reduced tillage effects on soil nitrous oxide flux. J Environ Qual 37:1360–1367

    Google Scholar 

  199. Venterea RT, Burger M, Spokas KA (2005) Nitrogen oxide and methane emissions under varying tillage and fertilizer management. J Environ Qual 34:1467–1477

    Google Scholar 

  200. Venterea RT, Coulter JA, Dolan MS (2016) Evaluation of intensive “4R” strategies for decreasing nitrous oxide emissions and nitrogen surplus in rainfed corn. J Environ Qual 45:1186–1195

    Google Scholar 

  201. Wagle P, Gowda P, Northup B, Turner K, Neel J, Manjunatha P, Zhou Y (2018) Variability in carbon dioxide fluxes among six winter wheat paddocks managed under different tillage and grazing practices. Atmos Environ 185:100–108

    Google Scholar 

  202. Wagle P, Gowda P, Manjunatha P, Northup B, Rocateli A, Taghvaeian S (2019) Carbon and water dynamics in co-located winter wheat and canola fields in the U.S. Southern Great Plains. Agric Forest Meteorol 279:1–14

    Google Scholar 

  203. Waldrip H, Todd R, Cole N (2013) Prediction of nitrogen excretion by beef cattle: a meta-analysis. J Anim Sci 91:4290–4302

    Google Scholar 

  204. Wang T, Teague W, Park S, Bevers S (2015) GHG mitigation potential of different grazing strategies in the United States Southern Great Plains. Sustainability 7:13500–13521

    Google Scholar 

  205. Wang H, Wang S, Zhang Y, Wang X, Wang R, Li J (2018) Tillage system change affects soil organic carbon storage and benefits land restoration on loess soil in North China. Land Degrad Dev 29:2880–2887

    Google Scholar 

  206. Whitehead D (2000) Nutrient elements in grassland: soil-plant-animal relationships. Cabi

  207. Wilson D, Blain D, Couwenberg J, Evans C, Murdiyarso D, Page S, Renou-Wilson F, Rieley JO, Sirin A, Strack M, Tuittila E (2016) Greenhouse gas emission factors associated with rewetting of organic soils. Mires Peat 2016:17

    Google Scholar 

  208. Yan X, Hosen Y, Yagi K (2001) Nitrous oxide and nitric oxide emissions from maize field plots as affected by N fertilizer type and application method. Biol Fertil Soils 34:297–303

    Google Scholar 

  209. Zaman M, Nguyen M (2010) Effect of lime or zeolite on N2O and N2 emissions from a pastoral soil treated with urine or nitrate-N fertilizer under field conditions. Agric Ecosyst Environ 136:254–261

    Google Scholar 

  210. Zaman M, Nguyen M (2012) How application timings of urease and nitrification inhibitors affect N losses from urine patches in pastoral system. Agric Ecosyst Environ 156:37–48

    Google Scholar 

  211. Zaman M, Nguyen M, Blennerhassett J, Quin B (2008) Reducing NH3, N2O and NO3–N losses from a pasture soil with urease or nitrification inhibitors and elemental S-amended nitrogenous fertilizers. Biol Fertil Soils 44:693–705

    Google Scholar 

  212. Zaman M, Saggar S, Blennerhassett J, Singh J (2009) Effect of urease and nitrification inhibitors on N transformation, gaseous emissions of ammonia and nitrous oxide, pasture yield and N uptake in grazed pasture system. Soil Biol Biochem 41:1270–1280

    Google Scholar 

  213. Zebarth B, Rochette P, Burton D (2008) N2O emissions from spring barley production as influenced by fertilizer nitrogen rate. Can J Soil Sci 88:197–205

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Hardeep Singh.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Singh, H., Northup, B.K., Baath, G.S. et al. Greenhouse mitigation strategies for agronomic and grazing lands of the US Southern Great Plains. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Change 25, 819–853 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11027-019-09894-1

Download citation

Keywords

  • Carbon dioxide
  • Nitrous oxide
  • Summer fallow
  • Fertilizer
  • Cover crops
  • Nitrification inhibitors