How does School Experience Relate to Adolescent Identity Formation Over Time? Cross-Lagged Associations between School Engagement, School Burnout and Identity Processing Styles
The existing research findings still do not provide a clear understanding of the links between adolescent school experience and their identity formation. To address this gap, we analyzed the dynamic links between adolescent school experiences and identity formation by exploring the cross-lagged associations between school engagement, school burnout and identity processing styles (information-oriented, normative and diffuse-avoidant) over a 2-year period during middle-to-late adolescence. The sample of this school-based study included 916 adolescents (51.4% females) in the 9th to 12th grades from diverse socio-economic and family backgrounds. The results from the cross-lagged analyses with three time points revealed that (a) school engagement positively predicted information-oriented identity processing over a 2-year period; (b) school burnout positively predicted the reliance on normative and diffuse-avoidant identity styles across the three measurements; (c) the effects were stable over the three time points and across different gender, grade, and socio-economic status groups. The unidirectional effects identified in our study support the general prediction that active engagement in learning at school can serve as a resource for adolescent identity formation, while school burnout, in contrast, can hinder the formation of adolescent identity. This points to the importance of taking developmental identity-related needs of adolescents into account when planning the school curriculum.
KeywordsIdentity styles School engagement School burnout Adolescence
This research was funded by the Erasmus+ Programme of the European Union, strategic partnership project “Innovative Curriculum for Strong Identities in Diverse Europe (INSIDE)”, No. 2016-1-LT01-KA203-023220 and the European Social Fund under the Global Grant measure, No. VP1-3.1-ŠMM-07-K-02-008.
R.E. conceived of the study, participated in its design and implementation and drafted the manuscript; R.V. participated in the design and implementation of the study, performed the statistical analysis and contributed to drafting of the manuscript; I.G. participated in the design and implementation of the study and contributed to drafting of the manuscript; S.R. participated in the design and coordination of the study and contributed to drafting of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Data Sharing Declaration
The data analyzed during the current study are not publicly available but are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Ethical approval was received from the Institute of Psychology, Mykolas Romeris University.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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