Journal of Religion and Health

, Volume 51, Issue 4, pp 1017–1041 | Cite as

Relationships Among Spirituality, Religious Practices, Personality Factors, and Health for Five Different Faith Traditions

  • Brick JohnstoneEmail author
  • Dong Pil Yoon
  • Daniel Cohen
  • Laura H. Schopp
  • Guy McCormack
  • James Campbell
  • Marian Smith
Original paper


To determine: (1) differences in spirituality, religiosity, personality, and health for different faith traditions; and (2) the relative degree to which demographic, spiritual, religious, and personality variables simultaneously predict health outcomes for different faith traditions. Cross-sectional analysis of 160 individuals from five different faith traditions including Buddhists (40), Catholics (41), Jews (22), Muslims (26), and Protestants (31). Brief multidimensional measure of religiousness/spirituality (BMMRS; Fetzer in Multidimensional measurement of religiousness/spirituality for use in health research, Fetzer Institute, Kalamazoo, 1999); NEO-five factor inventory (NEO-FFI; in Revised NEO personality inventory (NEO PI-R) and the NEO-five factor inventory (NEO-FFI) professional manual, Psychological Assessment Resources, Odessa, Costa and McCrae 1992); Medical outcomes scale-short form (SF-36; in SF-36 physical and mental health summary scores: A user’s manual, The Health Institute, New England Medical Center, Boston, Ware et al. 1994). (1) ANOVAs indicated that there were no significant group differences in health status, but that there were group differences in spirituality and religiosity. (2) Pearson’s correlations for the entire sample indicated that better mental health is significantly related to increased spirituality, increased positive personality traits (i.e., extraversion) and decreased personality traits (i.e., neuroticism and conscientiousness). In addition, spirituality is positively correlated with positive personality traits (i.e., extraversion) and negatively with negative personality traits (i.e., neuroticism). (3) Hierarchical regressions indicated that personality predicted a greater proportion of unique variance in health outcomes than spiritual variables. Different faith traditions have similar health status, but differ in terms of spiritual, religious, and personality factors. For all faith traditions, the presence of positive and absence of negative personality traits are primary predictors of positive health (and primarily mental health). Spiritual variables, other than forgiveness, add little to the prediction of unique variance in physical or mental health after considering personality. Spirituality can be conceptualized as a characterological aspect of personality or a distinct construct, but spiritual interventions should continue to be used in clinical practice and investigated in health research.


BMMRS Health NEO-FFI Personality Religion SF-36 Spirituality 



This article was supported with funding from the Pew Charitable Trusts.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brick Johnstone
    • 1
    Email author
  • Dong Pil Yoon
    • 2
  • Daniel Cohen
    • 3
  • Laura H. Schopp
    • 1
  • Guy McCormack
    • 4
  • James Campbell
    • 5
  • Marian Smith
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Health Psychology, DC116.88University of MissouriColumbiaUSA
  2. 2.School of Social WorkUniversity of MissouriColumbiaUSA
  3. 3.Department of Religious StudiesUniversity of MissouriColumbiaUSA
  4. 4.Department of Occupational TherapySamuel Merritt CollegeSan FranciscoUSA
  5. 5.Department of Family and Community MedicineUniversity of MissouriColumbiaUSA
  6. 6.Via Christi Behavioral HealthPittsburgUSA

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