Skip to main content

Methods of Early Diagnosis and Tracking for Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDDNOS)

Abstract

The tremendous increase in interest and focus on early intensive interventions for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has resulted in additional emphasis on related topics. Perhaps one of the most important of these is the development of methods of early assessment. Due to the nature of the disorders in the autistic spectrum, two disorders can be assessed early on, autism and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDDNOS). Rett syndrome has a genetic marker, while Asperger syndrome and Childhood Disintegrative Disorder do not become evident until later in childhood. A number of scales (we have identified 22) designed to diagnose autism have been adopted for early identification and other scales have been designed specifically to diagnose children at 18–36 months of age and all are briefly discussed in our review. A more detailed review of the ADI-R, ADOS, CHAT and its variants, and the BISCUIT are provided since these have been the most heavily researched measures at this time.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Allison, C., Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Charman, T., Richler, J., Pasco, G., et al. (2008). The Q-CHAT (Quantitative CHecklist for Autism in Toddlers): a normally distributed quantitative measure of autistic traits in 18-24 months of age: Preliminary report. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38, 1414–1425.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Anderson, C. J., Colombo, J., & Shaddy, D. J. (2006). Visual scanning and pupillary responses in young children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 28, 1238–1256.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Baird, G., Charman, T., Baron-Cohen, S., Cox, A., Swettenham, J., Wheelwright, S., et al. (2000). A screening instrument for autism at 18 months of age: a 6-year follow-up study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 694–702.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Baron-Cohen, S., Allen, J., & Gillberg, C. (1992). Can autism be detected at 18 months? A needle, the haystack, and the CHAT. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 839–843.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Cox, A., Baird, G., Charman, T., Swettenham, J., et al. (2000). Early identification of autism by the CHecklist for Autism in Toddlers (CHAT). Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 93, 521–525.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Barthelemy, C., Adrien, J. L., Tanguay, P., Garreau, B., Fermanian, J., Roux, S., et al. (1990). The behavioral summarized evaluation: validity and reliability of a scale for the assessment of autistic behaviors. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 20, 189–204.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Blackwell, P. B. (2002). Screening young children for autism and other social-communication disorders. Journal of Kentucky Medical Association, 100, 390–394.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Brian, J., Bryson, S. E., Garon, N., Roberts, W., Smith, I. M., Szatmari, P., et al. (2008). Clinical assessment of autism in high-risk 18-month-olds. Autism, 12, 433–456.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Carter, S. L., Mayton, M. R., & Wheeler, J. J. (2009). The development of an instrument to evaluate treatment intrusiveness for individuals with severe and challenging behaviors. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 30, 58–69.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Charman, T., Baron-Cohen, S., Baird, G., Cox, A., Wheelwright, S., Swettenham, J., et al. (2001). Commentary: the modified checklist for autism in toddlers. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31, 145–148.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Cheng, H. C., Chen, H. Y., Tsai, C. L., Chen, Y. J., & Cherng, R. J. (2009). Comorbidity of motor and language impairments in preschool children from Taiwan. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 30, 1054–1061.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Chiang, H. M. (2008). Expressive communication of children with autism: the use of challenging behaviour. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 52, 966–972.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Coe, D. A., Matson, J. L., Russell, D. W., Slifer, K. J., Capone, G. T., Baglio, C., et al. (1999). Behavior problems of children with Down syndrome and life events. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 29, 149–156.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Dahlgren, S. O., & Gillberg. (1989). Symptoms in the first two years of life: A preliminary population study of infantile autism. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 238, 169–174.

  15. Davis, T. E., III, Fodstad, J. C., Jenkins, W. S., Hess, J. A., Moree, B. W., Dempsey, T., et al. (2010). Anxiety and avoidance in infants and toddlers with autism spectrum disorders: Evidence for differing symptom of severity and presentation. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders.

  16. Dawson, J. E., Matson, J. L., & Cherry, K. E. (1998). An analysis of maladaptive behaviors in persons with autism, PDD-NOS, and mental retardation. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 19, 439–448.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. de Campos, A. C., Rocha, N. A., & Savelsbergh, G. J. (2009). Reaching and grasping movements in infants at risk: a review. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 30, 819–826.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Dietz, C., Swinkels, S. H. N., van Daalen, E., van Engeland, H., & Buitelaar, J. K. (2006). Screening for autistic spectrum disorders in children aged 14-15 months. II: population screening with the Early Screening of Autistic Traits Questionnaire (ESAT). Design and general findings. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36, 713–722.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Dumont-Mathieu, T., & Fein, D. (2005). Screening for autism in young children: the modified checklist for autism in toddlers (M-CHAT) and other measures. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 11, 253–262.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Duncan, D., Matson, J. L., Bamburg, J. W., Cherry, K. E., & Buckley, T. (1999). The relationship of self-injurious behavior and aggression to social skills in persons with severe and profound learning disability. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 20, 441–448.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Eaves, L. C., & Ho, H. H. (2004). The very early identification of autism: outcome to age 4 1/2–5. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 367–378.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Eikeseth, S. (2009). Outcome of comprehensive psycho-educational interventions for young children with autism. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 30, 158–178.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Eldin, A. S., Habib, D., Noufal, A., Farrag, S., Bazaid, K., Al-Sharbati, M., et al. (2008). Use of the M-CHAT for a multinational screening of young children with autism in Arab countries. International Review of Psychiatry, 20, 281–289.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Filipek, P. A., Accardo, P. J., Ashual, S., Baranek, G. T., Cook, E. H., Jr., Dawson, G., et al. (2000). Practice parameter: screening and diagnosis of autism. Neurology, 55, 468–479.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. Fodstad, J. C., Matson, J. L., Hess, J. A., & Neal, D. (2009). Social and communication behaviours in infants and toddlers with autism and pervasive developmental disorders- not otherwise specified. Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 12, 152–157.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Gal, E., Dyck, M. J., & Passmore, A. (2009). The relationship between stereotyped movements and self-injurious behavior in children with developmental or sensory disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 30, 342–352.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. Ghuman, J. K., Freund, L., Reiss, A., Serwint, J., & Folstein, S. (1998). Early detection of social interaction problems: development of a social interaction instrument in young children. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 19, 411–419.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Gillberg, C. (1992). Subgroups in autism: are there behavioural phenotypes typical of underlying medical conditions? Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 36, 201–214.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Glascoe, F. P., Macias, M. M., Wegner, L. M., & Robertshaw, N. S. (2007). Can a broadband developmental-behavioral screening test identify children likely to have autism spectrum disorders? Clinical Pediatrics, 46, 801–805.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Granpeesheh, D., Dixon, D. R., Tarbox, J., Kaplan, A. M., & Wilke, A. E. (2009). The effects of age and treatment intensity on behavioral intervention outcomes for children with autism spectrum disorder. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 3, 1014–1022.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Gray, K. M., & Tonge, B. J. (2005). Screening for autism in infants and preschool children with developmental delay. Autstralian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 39, 378–386.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Gutierrez, A., Hale, M. N., O'Brien, H. A., Fischer, A. J., Durocher, J. S., & Alessandri, M. (2009). Evaluating the effectiveness of two commonly used discrete trial procedures for teaching receptive discrimination to young children with autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 3, 630–638.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Hansen, R. L., Ozonoff, S., Krakowiak, P., Angkustsiri, K., Jones, C., Deprey, L. J., et al. (2008). Regression in autism: prevalence and associated factors in the CHARGE study. Ambulatory Pediatrics, 8, 25–31.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Hartley, S. L., Sikora, D. M., & McCoy, R. (2008). Prevalence and risk factors of maladaptive behaviour in young children with autistic disorder. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 52, 819–829.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Hus, V., Pickles, A., Cook, E. H., Risi, S., & Lord, C. (2007). Using the autism diagnostic interview—revised to increase phenotypic homogeneity in genetic studies of autism. Biological Psychiatry, 61, 438–448.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Ingersol, B., Schreibman, L., & Stahmer, A. (2001). Brief report: differential treatment outcomes for children with autism spectrum disorder based on level of peer social avoidance. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31, 343–349.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Kamio, Y. (2007). Early detection of and diagnostic tools for Asperger's disorder. Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine, 65, 477–480.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  38. Keen, D., & Ward, S. (2004). Autism spectrum disorder. Autism, 8, 39–48.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Ketelaars, M. P., Cuperus, J. M., van Daal, J., Jansonius, K., & Verhoeven, L. (2009). Screening for pragmatic language impairment: the potential of the children's communication checklist. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 30, 952–960.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Klin, A., Chawarska, K., Paul, R., Rubin, E., Morgan, T., Wiesner, L., et al. (2004). Autism in a 15-month-old child. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 1981–1988.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Kroeger, K. A., & Sorensen-Burnworth, R. (2009). Toilet training individuals with autism and other developmental disabilities: a critical review. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 3, 607–618.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Kuban, K. C., O'Shea, T. M., Allred, E. N., Toger-Flusberg, H., Goldstein, D. J., & Leviton, A. (2009). Positive screening on the Modified CHecklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) in extremely low gestational age newborns. The Journal of Pediatrics, 154, 535–540.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Kuhn, D. E., & Matson, J. L. (2002). A validity study of the Screening Tool of Feeding Problems (STEP). Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 27, 161–167.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Kuhn, D. E., Matson, J. L., Mayville, E. A., & Matson, M. L. (2001). The relationship of social skills as measured by the MESSIER to rumination in persons with profound mental retardation. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 22, 503–510.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Lacroix, A., Guidetti, M., Roge, B., & Reilly, J. (2009). Recognition of emotional and nonemotional facial expressions: a comparison between Williams syndrome and autism. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 30, 976–985.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Lambrechts, G., & Maes, B. (2009). Analysis of staff reports on the frequency of challenging behaviour in people with severe or profound intellectual disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 30, 863–872.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Landa, R. J. (2008). Diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders in the first 3 years of life. Nature Clinical Practice Neurology, 4, 138–147.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Lord, C., & Risi, S. (1998). Frameworks and methods in diagnosing autism spectrum disorders. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 4, 90–96.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Lord, C., Rutter, M., & Couteur, A. (1994). Autism diagnostic interview-revised: a revised version of a diagnostic interview for caregivers of individuals with possible pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 24, 659–685.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Lord, C., Rutter, M., DiLavore, P. C., & Risi, S. (1999). Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-WPS (ADOS-WPS). Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.

    Google Scholar 

  51. Losapio, M. F., & Ponde, M. P. (2008). Translation into Portuguese of the M-CHAT scale for early screening of autism. Revista de Psiquiatria do Rio Grande do Sul, 30, 221–229.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Makita, K., & Umezu, K. (1973). An objective evaluation technique for autistic children: an introduction of CLAC scheme. Acta Paedopsychiatrica, 39, 237–253.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  53. Matson, J. L., & Bamburg, J. W. (1998). Reliability of the Assessment of Dual Diagnosis (ADD). Research in Developmental Disabilities, 19, 89–95.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Matson, J. L., & Boisjoli, J. A. (2007). Differential diagnosis of PDDNOS in children. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 1, 75–84.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Matson, J. L., & Boisjoli, J. A. (2009). The token economy for children with intellectual disability and/or autism: a review. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 30, 240–248.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Matson, J. L., & Minshawi, N. F. (2007). Functional assessment of challenging behavior: toward a strategy for applied settings. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 28, 353–361.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  57. Matson, J. L., & Nebel-Schwalm, M. S. (2007a). Assessing challenging behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorders: a review. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 28, 567–579.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Matson, J. L., & Nebel-Schwalm, M. S. (2007b). Comorbid psychopathology with autism spectrum disorders in children: an overview. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 28, 341–352.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Matson, J. L., & Shoemaker, M. (2009). Intellectual disability and its relationship to autism spectrum disorders. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 30, 1107–1114.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Matson, J. L., & Smith, K. R. M. (2008). Current status of intensive behavioral interventions for young children with autism and PDD-NOS. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 2, 60–74.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  61. Matson, J. L., & Wilkins, J. (2007). A critical review of assessment targets and methods for social skills excesses and deficits for children with autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 1, 28–37.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Matson, J. L., & Wilkins, J. (2008). Antipsychotic drugs for aggression in intellectual disability. The Lancet, 371, 9–10.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  63. Matson, J. L., & Wilkins, J. (2009). Psychometric testing methods for children's social skills. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 30, 249–274.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  64. Matson, J. L., Baglio, C. S., Smiroldo, B. B., Hamilton, M., Packlowskyj, T., Williams, D., et al. (1996). Characteristics of autism as assessed by the Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped—II (DASH-II). Research in Developmental Disabilities, 17, 135–143.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  65. Matson, J. L., Hamilton, M., Duncan, D., Bamburg, J., Smiroldo, B., Anderson, S., et al. (1997). Characteristics of stereotypic movement disorder and self-injurious behavior assessed with the Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped (DASH-II). Research in Developmental Disabilities, 18, 457–469.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  66. Matson, J. L., Mayville, E. A., Bieleck, J., Barnes, W. H., Bamburg, J. W., & Baglio, C. S. (1998). Reliability of the Matson Evaluation of Drug Side Effects (MEDS). Research in Developmental Disabilities, 19, 501–506.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  67. Matson, J. L., Mayville, E. A., Bamburg, J. W., & Eckholdt, C. S. (2001). An analysis of side-effect profiles of anti-seizure medications in persons with intellectual disability using the Matson Evaluation of Drug Side Effects (MEDS). Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 26, 283–295.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  68. Matson, J. L., Dixon, D. R., & Matson, M. L. (2005). Assessing and treating aggression in children and adolescents with developmental disabilities: a 20-year overview. Educational Psychology, 25, 151–181.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  69. Matson, J. L., Nebel-Schwalm, M., & Matson, M. L. (2007). A review of methodological issues in the differential diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders in children. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 1, 38–54.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  70. Matson, J. L., Boisjoli, J. A., Hess, J. A., & Wilkins, J. (2009a). Factor structure and diagnostic fidelity of the Baby and Infant Screen for Children with aUtIsm Traits- Part 1 (BISCUIT- Part 1). Developmental Neurorehabilitation.

  71. Matson, J. L., Boisjoli, J. A., & Mahan, S. (2009b). The relation of communication and challenging behaviors in infants and toddlers with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 21, 253–261.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  72. Matson, J. L., Boisjoli, J. A., Rojahn, J., & Hess, J. A. (2009c). A factor analysis of challenging behaviors assessed with the Baby and Infant Screen for Children with aUtIsm Traits (BISCUIT- Part 3). Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 31, 714–722.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  73. Matson, J. L., Dempsey, T., & Fodstad, J. C. (2009d). The effect of autism spectrum disorders on adaptive independent living skills in adults with severe intellectual disability. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 30, 1203–1211.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  74. Matson, J. L., Dempsey, T., & Fodstad, J. C. (2009e). Stereotypies and repetitive/restrictive behaviours in infants with autism and pervasive developmental disorders. Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 12, 122–127.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  75. Matson, J. L., Dempsey, T., LoVullo, T., Fodstad, J. C., Knight, C., Sevin, J. A., Sharp, B. (in press). The moderating effects of intellectual development on core symptoms of autism and PDD-NOS in toddlers and infants. Research in Developmental Disabilities.

  76. Matson, J. L., Fodstad, J. C., & Dempsey, T. (2009f). What symptoms predict the diagnosis of autism or PDD-NOS in infants and toddlers with developmental delays using the Baby and Infant Screen for aUtIsm Traits. Developmental Neurorehabilitation.

  77. Matson, J. L., Fodstad, J. C., & Mahan, S. (2009g). Cutoffs, norms, and patterns of comorbid difficulties in children with developmental disabilities on the Baby and Infant Screen for Children with aUtIsm Traits (BISCUIT Part-2). Research in Developmental Disabilities, 30, 1221–1228.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  78. Matson, J. L., Fodstad, J. C., Mahan, S., & Rojahn, J. (2010a). Cutoffs, norms, and patterns of problem behaviors in children with developmental disabilities on the Baby and Infant Screen for Children with aUtIsm Traits (BISCUIT- Part 3). Developmental Neurorehabilitation.

  79. Matson, J. L., Fodstad, J. C., Mahan, S., & Sevin, J. (2009h). Cutoffs, norms, and patterns of comorbid difficulties in children with an ASD on the Baby and Infant Screen for Children with aUtIsm Traits (BISCUIT- Part 2). Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 3, 977–988.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  80. Matson, J. L., Hess, J. A., & Boisjoli, J. A. (2010b). Comorbid psychopathology in infants and toddlers with autism and pervasive developmental disorders- not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders.

  81. Matson, J. L., Mahan, S., Fodstad, J. C., Hess, J. A., & Neal, D. (2009i). Motor skill abilities in toddlers with autistic disorder, pervasive developmental disorder- not otherwise specified and atypical development. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders.

  82. Matson, J. L., Mahan, S., Fodstad, J. C., Knight, C., Sevin, J. A., & Sharp, B. (2009j). Cutoffs, norms, and patterns of problem behaviors in children with an ASD on the Baby and Infant Screen for Children with aUtIsm Traits (BISCUIT- Part 3). Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders.

  83. Matson, J. L., Mahan, S., Hess, J. A., & Fodstad, J. C. (2009k). Effect of developmental quotient on symptoms of inattention and impulsivity among toddlers with autism spectrum disorders. Research in Developmental Disabilities.

  84. Matson, J. L., Mahan, S., & LoVullo, T. (2009l). Parent training: a review of methods for children with developmental disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 30, 961–968.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  85. Matson, J. L., Rivet, T. T., Fodstad, J. C., Dempsey, T., & Boisjoli, J. A. (2009m). Examination of adaptive behavior differences in adults with autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 30, 1317–1325.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  86. Matson, J. L., Wilkins, J., & Fodstad, J. C. (2009n). Children with autism spectrum disorders: a comparison of those who regress versus those who do not. Developmental Neurorehabilitation.

  87. Matson, J. L., Wilkins, J., Sevin, J. A., Knight, C., Boisjoli, J. A., & Sharp, B. (2009o). Reliability and item content of the Baby and Infant Screen for Children with aUtIsm Traits (BISCUIT): Parts 1-3. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 3, 336–344.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  88. Matson, J. L., Wilkins, J., Sharp, B., Knight, C., Sevin, J. A., & Boisjoli, J. A. (2009p). Sensitivity and specificity of the Baby and Infant Screen for Children with aUtIsm Traits (BISCUIT): validity and cutoff scores for autism and PDD-NOS in toddlers. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 3, 924–930.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  89. Mawle, E., & Griffiths, P. (2006). Screening for autism is pre-school children in primary care: systematic review of English language tools. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 43, 623–636.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  90. McConnell, S. R. (2002). Interventions to facilitate social interactions for young children with autism: review of available research and recommendations for educational interventions and future research. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 32, 351–372.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  91. Meilleur, A. A., & Fombonne, E. (2009). Regression of language and non-language skills in pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 53, 115–124.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  92. Memisevic, H., & Sinanovic, O. (2009). Epilepsy in children with intellectual disability in Bosnia and Herzegovina: effects of sex, level and etiology of intellectual disability. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 30, 1078–1083.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  93. Miniscalco, C., & Gillberg, C. (2009). Non-word repetition in young school-age children with language impairment and/or neuropsychiatric disorder. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 30, 1145–1154.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  94. Niklasson, L., Rasmussen, P., Oskarsdottir, S., & Gillberg, C. (2009). Autism, ADHD, mental retardation and behavior problems in 100 individuals with 22q11 deletion syndrome. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 30, 763–773.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  95. Paclawskyj, T. R., Rush, K. S., Matson, J. L., & Cherry, K. E. (1999). Factor structure of the Matson Evaluation of Social Skills for Individuals with SEvere Retardation (MESSIER). British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 38, 289–293.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  96. Paclawskyj, T. R., Matson, J. L., Rush, K. S., Smalls, Y., & Vollmer, T. R. (2001). Assessment of the convergent validity of the questions about behavior function scale with analogue functional analysis and the motivational assessment scale. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 45, 484–494.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  97. Pinto-Martin, J. A., Young, L. M., Mandell, R. S., Poghosyan, L., Giarelli, E., & Levy, S. E. (2008). Screening strategies for autism spectrum disorders in pediatric primary care. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 29, 345–350.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  98. Rapin, I., & Dunn, M. (1997). Language disorders in children with autism. Seminars in Pediatric Neurology, 4, 86–92.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  99. Reznick, J. S., Brarnek, G. J., Reavis, S., Watson, L. R., & Crais, E. R. (2007). A parent-report instrument for identifying one-year-olds at risk for an eventual diagnosis of autism: the first year inventory. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37.

  100. Rimland, B. (1971). The differentiation of childhood psychoses: an analysis of checklists for 2, 218 psychotic children. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 1, 161–174.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  101. Robins, D. L., & Dumont-Mathieu, T. M. (2006). Early screening for autism spectrum disorders: update on the modified checklist for autism in toddlers and other measures. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 27, S111–S119.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  102. Robins, D. L., Fein, D., Barton, M. L., & Green, J. A. (2001). The modified checklist for autism in toddlers: an initial study investigating the early detection of autism and pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31, 131–144.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  103. Rojahn, J., Aman, M. G., Matson, J. L., & Mayville, E. (2003). The aberrant behavior checklist and the behavior problems inventory: convergent and divergent validity. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 24, 391–404.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  104. Rojahn, J., Matson, J. L., Mahan, S., Fodstad, J. C., Knight, C., Sevin, J. A., et al. (2009). Cutoff, norms, and patterns of problem behaviors in children with an ASD on the Baby and Infant Screen for Children with aUtIsm Traits (BISCUIT- Part 3). Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 3, 989–998.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  105. Rutter, M. (1978). Diagnosis and definition of childhood autism. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 8, 139–161.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  106. Saint-Georges, C., Cassel, R. S., Cohen, D., Chetouani, M., Laznik, M. C., & Maestro, S. (2009). What studies of family home movies can teach us about autistic infants: a literature review. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders.

  107. Sanua, V. D. (1989). Studies in infanile autism. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 19, 207–227.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  108. Scambler, D. J., Rogers, S. J., & Wehner, E. A. (2001). Can the CHecklist for Autism in Toddlers differentiate young children with autism from those with developmental delays. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 1457–1463.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  109. Scambler, D. J., Hepburn, S. L., Hagerman, R. J., & Rogers, S. J. (2006a). A preliminary study of screening for risk of autism in children with fragile X syndrome: testing two risk cut-offs for the CHecklist for Autism in Toddlers. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 51, 269–276.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  110. Scambler, D. J., Hepburn, S. L., & Rogers, S. J. (2006b). A two-year follow-up on risk status identified by the checklist for autism in toddlers. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 27, S104–S110.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  111. Scheirs, J. G. M., & Timmers, E. A. (2009). Differentiating among children with PDD-NOS, ADHD, and those with combined diagnosis on the basis of the WISC-III profiles. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39, 549–556.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  112. Schopler, E., Reichter, R. J., DeVellis, R. F., & Daly, K. (1980). Toward objective classification of childhood autism: Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 10, 91–103.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  113. Sigafoos, J., Green, V. A., Schlosser, R., O'Reilly, M. F., Lancioni, G. E., Rispoli, M., et al. (2009). Communication intervention in Rett syndrome: a systematic review. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 3, 304–318.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  114. Siklos, S., & Kerns, K. (2007). Assessing the diagnostic experiences of a small sample of parents of children with autism spectrum disorders. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 28, 9–22.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  115. Skovgaard, A. M., Olsen, E. M., Christiansen, E., Houmann, T., Landorph, S. L., & Jorgensen, T. (2008). Predictors (0-10 months) of psychopathology at age 1 1/2 years- a general population study in The Copenhagen Child Cohort CCC 2000. Journal Of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49, 553–562.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  116. Snow, A. V., & Lecavalier, L. (2008). Sensitivity and specificity of the modified checklist for autism in toddlers and the social communication questionnaire in preschoolers suspected of having pervasive developmental disorders. Autism, 12, 627–644.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  117. Spence, S. J., Sharifi, P., & Wiznitzer, M. (2004). Autism spectrum disorder: screening, diagnosis, and medical evaluation. Seminars in Pediatric Neurology, 11, 186–195.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  118. Stone, W. L., Coonrod, E. E., & Ousley, O. Y. (2000). Brief report: Screening Tool for Autism in Two-year-olds (STAT): Development and preliminary data. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30, 607–612.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  119. Stone, W. L., Coonrod, E. E., Pozdol, S. L., & Turner, L. M. (2003). The Parent Interview for Autism- Clinical Version (PIA-CV). Autism, 7, 9–30.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  120. Stone, W. L., Coonrod, E. E., Turner, L. M., & Pozdol, S. L. (2004). Psychometric properties of the STAT for early autism screening. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 691–701.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  121. Sugie, Y., Sugie, H., Fukuda, T., & Ito, M. (2005). Neonatal factors in infants with autistic disorder and typically developing infants. Autism, 9, 487–494.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  122. Swinkels, S. H., Dietz, C., Van Daalen, E., Kerkhof, I. H., van Engeland, H., & Buitelaar, J. K. (2006). Screening for autistic spectrum in children aged 14-15 months. I: the development of the Early Screening of Autistic Traits Questionnaire (ESAT). Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36, 723–732.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  123. Teal, M. B., & Wiebe, M. J. (1986). A validity analysis of selected instruments used to assess autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 16, 485–495.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  124. Tiger, J. H., Fisher, W. W., Toussaint, K. A., & Kodak, T. (2009). Progressing for initially ambiguous functional analyses: three case examples. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 30, 910–926.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  125. Tyrer, P., Oliver-Africano, P. C., Ahmed, Z., Bouras, N., Cooray, S., Deb, S., et al. (2008). Risperidone, haloperidol, and placebo in the treatment of aggressive challenging behaviour in patients with intellectual disability: a randomised controlled trial. The Lancet, 371, 57–63.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  126. VanDenHeuvel, A., Fitzgerald, M., Greiner, B. A., & Perry, I. J. (2007). Screening for autistic spectrum disorder at the 18-month developmental assessment: a population-based study. Irish Medical Journal, 100, 565–567.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  127. Ventola, P., Kleinman, J., Pandey, J., Wilson, L., Esser, E., Boorstein, H., et al. (2006). Differentiating between autism spectrum disorders and other developmental disabilities in children who failed a screening instrument for ASD. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 425–436.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  128. Watson, L. R., Baranek, G. T., Crais, E. R., Reznick, J. S., Dykstra, J., & Perryman, T. (2007). The first year inventory: retrospective parent responses to a questionnaire designed to identify one-year-olds at risk for autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 49–61.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  129. Wetherby, A. M., & Woods, J. (2004). Systematic observation of red flags for autism spectrum disorders in young children. Tallahassee: Florida State University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  130. Wetherby, A. M., Allen, L., Cleary, J., Kublin, K., & Goldstein, H. (2002). Validity and reliability of the communication and symbolic behavior scales developmental profile with very young children. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 45, 1202–1218.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  131. Wetherby, A. M., Woods, J., Allen, L., Cleary, J., Dickerson, H., & Lord, C. (2004). Early indicators of autism spectrum disorders in the second year of life. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 473–493.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  132. Wilkins, J., & Matson, J. L. (2009). A comparison of social skills profiles in intellectual disabled adults with and without ASD. Behavior Modification, 33, 143–155.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  133. Williams, J., & Brayne, C. (2006). Screening for autism spectrum disorders. Autism, 10, 11–35.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  134. Williams, M. E., Atkins, M., & Soles, T. (2009). Assessment of autism in community settings: discrepancies in classification. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39, 660–669.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  135. Wong, V., Hui, L.-H. S., Lee, W.-C., Leung, L.-S. J., Ho, P.-K. P., Lau, W.-L. C., et al. (2004). A modified screening tool for autism (Checklist for Autism in Toddlers [CHAT]) for Chinese children. Pediatrics, 114, e166–e176.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  136. Wuang, Y.-P., & Su, C.-Y. (2009). Reliability and responsiveness of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency- Second Edition in children with intellectual disability. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 30, 847–855.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  137. Zachor, D. A., & Ben-Itzchak, E. (2009). Treatment approach, autism severity and intervention outcomes in young children. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders.

  138. Zachor, D. A., Ilanit, T., & Ben-Itzchak, E. (2009). Autism severity and motor abilities correlates of imitation situations in children with autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders.

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Johnny L. Matson.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Matson, J.L., Sipes, M. Methods of Early Diagnosis and Tracking for Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDDNOS). J Dev Phys Disabil 22, 343–358 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10882-009-9184-2

Download citation

Keywords

  • Autism spectrum disorders
  • Early diagnosis
  • BISCUIT
  • PDDNOS
  • Autism