Three dimensional diagnostic modeling study of the South China Sea circulation before onset of summer monsoon in 1998

Abstract

The wind data from NCEP and hydrographic data obtained from April 22–May 24, 1998 have been used to compute the circulation in the South China Sea (SCS) using three dimensional diagnostic models. The main numerical results with SSHA derived from T/P altimeter are as follows: most of intruded Kuroshio bypasses. However, a part of Kuroshio intrudes westward above 300 m levels. This intruded westward flow is narrowly confined to the continental slope south of China, in agreement with the findings of Qu et al. (2000). The basin-scale cyclonic gyre dominates in the northern SCS and consists of two cyclonic eddies, C2 and C3, above 300 m levels. However, it is separated into two parts by an anti-cyclonic eddy, W4, below 300 m. The basin-scale anti-cyclonic gyre dominates in the central SCS and consists of three anti-cyclonic eddies, W1, W2 and W3, above 300 m levels. However, below 300 m it consists of the anti-cyclonic eddies W1, W2 and W4 and extends northward to near 20°N. A northward coastal jet is present near the coast of Vietnam at depths above 300 m, and develops northward further to about a distance of 3°15′ N than that in cruise 2. The most important dynamical mechanism is due to the joint effect of the baroclinity and relief. The second dynamical mechanism is due to the interaction between the wind stress and relief. The topography effect is more important than the β effect. The Sverdrup relation cannot be satisfied in the SCS.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Chu, P. and R. Li (2000): South China Sea isopycnal-surface circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 30, 2419–2438.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Chu, P. C., N. L. Edmons and C. W. Fan (1999): Dynamical mechanisms for the South China Sea seasonal circulation and thermohaline variabilities. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 29, 2971–2989.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. CLS (2002): SSALTO/DUACS User Handbooks, PP31.

  4. Guo, X. Y., H. Hukuda, Y. Miyazawa and T. Yamagata (2003): A triply nested ocean model for simulating the Kuroshio—Roles of horizontal resolution on JEBAR. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 33, 146–169.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. He, J. H., L. J. Wang and H. M. Xu (1999): Abrupt change in elements around 1998 SCS summer monsoon establishment with analysis of its onset. p. 30–33. In Onset and Evolution of the South China Sea Monsoon and Its Interaction with the Ocean, ed. by Y. Ding and C. Li, China Meteorological Press (in Chinese and English).

  6. Hu, J., H. Kawamura, H. Hong and Y. Qi (2000): A review on the current in the South China Sea: Seasonal circulation, South China Sea Warm Current and Kuroshio intrusion. J. Oceanogr., 56, 607–624.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Huang, Q.-Z., W. Z. Wang, Y. S. Li and C. W. Li (1994): Current characteristics of the South China Sea. p. 39–47. In Oceanography of China Seas, ed. by D. Zhou, Y.-B. Liang and C. K. Tsebgm, Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  8. Kagimoto, T. and T. Yamagata (1997): Seasonal transport variations of the Kuroshio: An OGCM simulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 27, 403–418.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Kevorkian, J. and J. D. Cole (1981): Perturbation Methods in Applied Mathematics. Springer-Verlag, New York Inc. Print, 558 pp.

  10. Kuo, N. J., Q. Zheng and C. R. Ho (2000): Satellite observation of upwelling along the western coast of the South China Sea. Remote Sens. Environme., 74, 463–470.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Liao, G. H., Y. C. Yuan and X. H. Xu (2005): Diagnostic calculation of the circulation in the South China Sea during the winter of 1998. Acta Oceanol. Sinica, 27(2), 8–17 (in Chinese with English abstract).

    Google Scholar 

  12. Liao, G. H., Y. C. Yuan and X. H. Xu (2006): Diagnostic calculation of the circulation in the South China Sea during the summer 1998. J. Oceanogr. (accepted).

  13. Liu, Y. G., Y. C. Yuan, J. L. Su et al. (2000): Circulation in the South China Sea in summer 1998. Chinese Science Bulletin, 45(18), 1648–1655.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Mertz, G. and D. G. Wright (1992): Interpretations of the JEBAR Term. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 22, 301–305.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Metzger, E. J. and H. E. Hurlburt (2001): The importance high horizontal resolution and accurate coastline geometry in modeling South China Sea inflow. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28(6), 1059–1062.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Pohlmann, T. A. (1987): Three-dimensional circulation model of the South China Sea. p. 245–268. In Three-Dimensional Models of Marine and Estuarine Dynamics, ed. by J. J. Nihoul and B. M. Jamart, Elsevier Sci., New York.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Qu, T. D. (2000): Upper-layer circulation in the South China Sea. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 30, 1450–1460.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Qu, T., H. Mitsudera and T. Yamagata (2000): Intrusion of the North Pacific waters into the South China Sea. J. Geophys. Res., 105, 6415–6424.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Qu, T. D., Y. Y. Kim, M. Yaremchuk, T. Tozuka, A. Ishida and T. Yamagata (2004): Can Luzon Strait transport play a role in conveying the impact of ENSO to the South China Sea? J. Climate, 17, 3643–3656.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Sarkisyan, A. S. (1977): The diagnostic calculations of a large-scale oceanic circulation. p. 363–458. In The Sea, Vol. 6, ed. by E. D. Goldberg, I. N. Mccave, J. J. O’Brien et al., A Wiley-Interscience Publication, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Shaw, P. T. and S. Y. Chao (1994): Surface circulation in the South China Sea. Deep-Sea Res. I, 40(11/12), 1663–1683.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. South China Sea Institute of Oceanology (SCSIO), Chinese Academy of Science (1985): Reports on the Integrated Investigation and Research in the South China Sea (II). Beijing Science Press, p. 204–231 (in Chinese).

  23. Su, J. L. (1998): Circulation dynamics of the China Seas: north of 18°N. p. 483–506. In The Sea, Vol. 11, The Global Coastal Ocean: Regional Studies and Syntheses, ed. by A. R. Robinson and K. Brink, John Wiley.

  24. Su, J. L. (2004): Overview of the South China Sea circulation and its influence of the coastal physical oceanography outside the pearl River Estuary. Cont. Shelf Res., 24, 1745–1760.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Su, J. L., B. X. Guan and J. Z. Jiang (1990): The Kuroshio. Part I. Physical Features. Oceanography and Marine Biology. An Annual Review, 28, 11–71.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Su, J. L., J. P. Xu, S. Q. Cai and O. Wang (1999): Gyres and eddies in the South China Sea. p. 66–72 or 272–279. In Onset and Evolution of the South China Sea Monsoon and Its Interaction with the Ocean, ed. by Y. H. Ding and C. Y. Li, China Meteorological Press (in Chinese and English).

  27. Takano, K., A. Harashima and T. Namba (1998): A numerical simulation of the circulation in the South China Sea—Preliminary results. Acta Oceanographica Taiwanica, 37(2), 165–186.

    Google Scholar 

  28. Wang, G. H., D. Chen and J. L. Su (2006): Generation and life cycle of the dipole in the South China Sea summer circulation. J. Geophys. Res., 111, C06002, doi:10.1029/2005JC003314.

  29. Wang, H. Q., Y. C. Yuan, W. B. Guan et al. (2004): Circulation in the South China Sea during summer 2000 as obtained from observation and a generalized topography-following ocean model. J. Geophys. Res., 10, 1–12.

    Google Scholar 

  30. Wyrtki, K. (1961): Physical Oceanography of the Southeast Asia Waters. NAGA Report, 2, 1–195.

    Google Scholar 

  31. Xie, S. P., Q. Xie and D. X. Wang (2003): Summer upwelling in the South China Sea and its role in regional climate variations. J. Geophys. Res., 108(C8), 3261, doi:10.1029/2003JC001867.17-1-17-13.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Xu, X., Z. Qiu and H. Chen (1982): The general descriptions of the horizontal circulation in the South China Sea. p. 119–127. In Proceedings of the 1980 of the Chinese Society of Marine Hydrology and Meteorology, Sci. Press, Beijing.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Xue, H., F. Chai, N. Pettigrew and D. Xu (2004): Kuroshio intrusion and the circulation in the South China Sea. J. Geophys. Res., 109, C02017, doi:10.1029/2002JC001724.

  34. Yamagata, T. (2001a): The circulation and mechanism in the South China Sea (I). Ocean Development News, 29(4), 2–8 (in Japanese).

    Google Scholar 

  35. Yamagata, T. (2001b): The circulation and mechanism in the South China Sea (II). Ocean Development News, 29(5), 25–30 (in Japanese).

    Google Scholar 

  36. Yuan, Y. C. and K. R. He (1982): A computational method of three dimensional ocean current. Acta Oceanol. Sinica, 4(6), 653–666 (in Chinese with English abstract).

    Google Scholar 

  37. Yuan, Y. C. and J. L. Su (1988): The calculation of Kuroshio current structure in the East China Sea—Early summer 1986. Prog. Oceanogr., 21, 343–361.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Yuan, Y. C. and J. L. Su (1992): Numerical study of circulation over the continental shelf. p. 474–542. In Numerical Computation of Physical Oceanography, ed. by S. Feng and W. Sun, Henan Science and Technology Press (in Chinese).

  39. Yuan, Y. C., J. L. Su and S. Y. Xia (1986): A diagnostic model of summer on the northwest of the East China Sea. Prog. Oceanogr., 17, 163–176.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Yuan, Y. C., J. L. Su and Z. Q. Pan (1992): Volume and heat transports of the Kuroshio in the East China Sea in 1989. La mer, 30, 251–262.

    Google Scholar 

  41. Yuan, Y. C., X. W. Bu, G. H. Liao et al. (2004): Diagnostic calculation of the upper-layer circulation in the South China Sea during the winter of 1998. Acta Oceanol. Sinica, 23(2), 187–199.

    Google Scholar 

  42. Yuan, Y. C., Y. G. Liu, G. H. Liao, R. Y. Lou, J. L. Su and K. S. Wang (2005): Calculation of circulation in the South China Sea during summer of 2000 by the modified inverse method. Acta Oceanol. Sinica, 24(1), 14–30.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Yaochu Yuan.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Yuan, Y., Liao, G. & Xu, X. Three dimensional diagnostic modeling study of the South China Sea circulation before onset of summer monsoon in 1998. J Oceanogr 63, 77–100 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10872-007-0007-8

Download citation

Keywords

  • SCS circulation
  • before the onset of summer monsoon in 1998
  • three dimensional diagnostic modeling
  • cyclonic and anti-cyclonic eddies
  • basin-scale gyre
  • dynamical causes JEBAR and IBWSR