Influence of SILAR deposition cycles in CdS quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

  • K. Veerathangam
  • Muthu Senthil Pandian
  • P. Ramasamy


The cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dots (QDs) were deposited on the commercial (Degussa-P25) TiO2 nanostructures by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. Three types of films were prepared with CdS 9, 12 and 15 cycles. The PXRD, UV–Vis–NIR absorption and J–V measurements were taken for the CdS QDs deposited for 9, 12 and 15 cycles and the results were compared. The CdS sensitized electrode prepared using 12 cycles of SILAR produces an efficiency of 1.45% on using a liquid (I/I3) electrolyte and platinum counter electrode under the illumination of 100 mW/cm2 which shows the best power conversion efficiency compared with CdS 9 and 15 cycles respectively. Total charge collection efficiency was increased upto 12 deposition cycles and it started to decrease beyond 12 cycles. This might be due to the changes in the photo adsorption behavior of CdS QD as a function of deposition cycles.



The authors acknowledge the Department of Science and Technology (DST), Govt. of India under research Grant No. DST/TM/SERI/2k12/40(G) for financial support.

Supplementary material

10854_2018_8721_MOESM1_ESM.docx (46 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 46 KB)


  1. 1.
    B. O’Regan, M. Gratzel, Nature 353, 737 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    J.M. Luther, M.C. Beard, Q. Song, M. Law, R.J. Ellingson, A.J. Nozik, Nano Lett. 7, 1779 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    M.C. Beard, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2, 1282 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Y. Yang, W. Rodríguez-Co, T. Rdoba, Lian, Nano Lett. 12, 4235 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    L. Wei, F. Li, S. Hu, H. Li, B. Chi, J. Pu, L. Jian, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 98, 3173 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    T. Toyoda, Q. Shen, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 3, 1885 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    K. Fan, M. Liu, T. Peng, L. Ma, K. Dai, Renew. Energy 35, 555–561 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    S.K. Dhungel, J.G. Park, Renew. Energy 35, 2776–2780 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. Atif, W.A. Farooq, A. Fatehmulla, M. Aslam, S. Mansoor Ali, Materials 8, 355–367 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    H. Choi, P.V. Kamat, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 3983 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Y. Hu, B. Wang, J. Zhang, T. Wang, R. Liu, J. Zhang, X. Wang, H. Wang, Nanoscale Res. Lett. 8, 1 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    J. Yang, L. Pan, G. Zhu, X. Liu, H. Sun, Z. Sun, J. Electroanal. Chem. 677, 101 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    R. Zhou, Q. Zhang, J. Tian, D. Myers, M. Yin, G. Cao, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. C 117, 26948 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    H. Lee, M. Wang, P. Chen, D.R. Gamelin, S.M. Zakeeruddin, M. Gratzel, Md.K. Nazeeruddin, Nano Lett. 9, 4221 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    X. Song, M. Wang, H. Zhang, J. Deng, Z. Yang, C. Ran, X. Yao, Electrochim. Acta 108, 449 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    K.S. Leschkies, R. Divakar, J. Basu, E. Enache-Pommer, J.E. Boercker, C. Barry Carter, U.R. Kortshagen, D.J. Norris, E.S. Aydil, Nano Lett. 7, 1793 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    E. Talgorn, M.A. de Vries, L.D.A. Siebbeles, A.J. Houtepen, ACS Nano 5, 3552 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    C. Ratanatawanate, C. Xiong, K.J. Balkus, ACS Nano 2, 1682 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    P.R. Brown, R.R. Lunt, N. Zhao, T.P. Osedach, D.D. Wanger, L.-Y. Chang, M.G. Bawendi, V. Bulovi, Nano Lett. 11, 2955 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    N. Guijarro, T. Lana-Villarreal, T. Lutz, S.A. Haque, R. Gómez, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 3, 3367 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    S. Mostafa Hosseinpour-Mashkani, M. Maddahfar, A. Sobhani-Nasab, S. Afr. J. Chem. 70, 44–48 (2017)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    M. Ramezani, A. Sobhani-Nasab, A. Davoodi, J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 26, 5440–5445 (2015)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    A. Sobhani-Nasab, M. Rangraz-Jeddy, A. Avanes, M. Salavati-Niasari, J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 26, 9552–9560 (2015)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    M. Salavati-Niasari, F. Soofivand, A. Sobhani-Nasab, M. Shakouri-Arani, A. Yeganeh, S. Faal, Bagheri, Adv. Powder Technol. 27, 2066 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    H.M. Pathan, C.D. Lokhande, Bull. Mater. Sci. 27, 85–111 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    V. Senthamilselvi, K. Saravanakumar, N. Jabena Begum, R. Anandhi, A.T. Ravichandran, B. Sakthivel, K. Ravichandran, J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 23, 302 (2012)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    G. Zhu, L. Pan, T. Xu, Z. Sun, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 3, 3146 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Y. Choi, M. Seol, W. Kim, K. Yong, J. Phys. Chem. 118, 5664 (2014)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    S. Corer, G. Hodes, J. Phys. Chem. 98, 5338 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    S. Mathews, P.S. Mukerjeeb, K.P. Vijayakumar, Thin Solid Films 254, 278–284 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    K. Ravichandran, P. Philominathan, Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 5736 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    A. Hartley, S.J.C. Irvine, J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 11, 569 (2000)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    G. Sasikala, R. Dhanasekaran, C. Subramanian, Thin Solid Films 302, 71–76 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    G.S. Paul, J.H. Kim, M.-S. Kim, K. Do, J. Ko, J.-S. Yu, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4, 375–381 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Md.A. Hossain, J.R. Jennings, C. Shen, J.H. Pan, Z.Y. Koh, N. Mathews, Q. Wang, J. Mater. Chem. 22, 16235–16242 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    A. Ranjitha, N. Muthukumarasamy, M. Thambidurai, D. Velauthapillai, R. Balasundaraprabhu, S. Agilan, J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 24, 3014–3020 (2013)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    A. Ranjitha, N. Muthukumarasamy, M. Thambidurai, D. Velauthapillai, J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 25, 2724–2729 (2014)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Veerathangam
    • 1
  • Muthu Senthil Pandian
    • 1
  • P. Ramasamy
    • 1
  1. 1.SSN Research CentreSSN College of EngineeringChennaiIndia

Personalised recommendations