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Review: incorporation of organic PCMs into textiles

Abstract

Phase change materials (PCMs) were characterized to adsorb/release the thermal energy during the phase transition process over a certain temperature range. The PCMs had been incorporated into textiles to enhance the thermal property and the products are labeled as PCM textiles. The thermal behavior of the PCM textiles (the PCM fibers, the PCM yarns, and the PCM fabrics) was investigated for decades. The application of the PCM textiles was also extended to various fields. Based on the numerous research work, the publications related to the PCM textiles were already summarized. However, it was found that some reviews tended to describe the application of the microencapsulation PCMs, and some reviews focused on the fabrication of the PCM ultrafine fibers via electrospinning. In addition, there are some novel technologies to fabricate the PCMs, the novel methods to evaluate the PCM textiles, and the novel applications of the PCM textiles in recent years. In this review, the recent research work related to PCM textiles was summarized, which was aimed to deepen the understanding of the PCM textiles.

Graphical abstract

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Abbreviations

AC:

Active carbon

AMA:

Methyl acrylate

BC:

Bamboo charcoal

BTCA:

Butane tetracarboxylic acid

BN:

Boron nitride

BN-OHs:

Hydroxylated boron nitride

BS:

Butyl stearate

CA:

Capric acid

CNF:

Cellulose nanofiber

CNT:

Carbon nanotube

CS:

Chitosan

DMDHEU:

Dimethyloldihydroxyethyleneurea

E:

Erythritol

EG:

Expanded graphite

FK-g-APEG:

Feather keratin-g-allyloxy polyethylene glycol

GHP:

Galactitol hexa-palmitate

GTL:

Glycerol trilaurate

HD:

Hexadecanol

LA:

Lauric acid

MA:

Myristic acid

MC:

Mesoporous carbon

MF:

Melamine formaldehyde

MP:

Methyl palmitate

MWCNT:

Multiwalled carbon nanotube

OA:

Oleic acid

PA:

Palmitic acid

PA 6:

Polyamide 6

PALMA:

Poly(allyl methacrylate)

PAN:

Polyacrylonitrile

P(AN-co-VDC):

Poly(acrylonitrile-co-vinylidene chloride)

PDDA:

Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)

PDMS:

Polydimethylsiloxane

PEG:

Polyethylene glycol

PES:

Polyethersulfone

PET:

Polyethylene terephthalate

PMIA:

Poly(meta-phenylene isophthalamide)

PMMA:

Poly(methyl methacrylate)

P(MMA-co-AA):

Poly(methyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid)

PP:

Polypropylene

PSS:

Poly-4-styrenesulfonic acid

PUR:

Polyurethane

PUA:

Polyurea

PVA:

Polyvinyl alcohol

PVDF:

Polyvinylidene fluoride

PVP:

Polyvinylpyrrolidone

rGO:

Reduced graphene oxide

SA:

Stearic acid

SAN-g-PA:

Poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)/palmitic acid

SDS:

Sodium dodecyl sulfate

SIC:

Silicon carbide

SS:

Stainless steel

TD:

Tetradecyl alcohol

UF:

Urea formaldehyde

A :

The area of the sample through which the heat transfers (m2)

a :

Thermal diffusivity (m2 s1)

b :

Thermal absorptivity (W s1/2 m2 K1)

\(c_{p}\) :

Specific heat capacity (J kg1 K1)

\(\dot{g}\) :

Volumetric generation (W/m3)

h :

Convective heat transfer coefficient (W m2 K1)

k :

Thermal conductivity (W m1 K1)

L :

Distance or thickness of the sample along which the heat transfers (m)

\(\dot{q}\) :

Heat flux (W/m2)

r :

Thermal resistance (m2 K W1)

T :

Temperature (°C or K)

\(T_{w}\) :

Temperature of the wall (°C or K)

\(T_{\infty }\) :

Temperature of the fluid or ambient temperature (°C or K)

\(\varepsilon\) :

Surface emissivity

\(\sigma\) :

Stefan–Boltzmann constant (5.6704 \(\times\) 108 W m2 K4)

\(\rho\) :

Density of the materials (g/m3)

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Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the project ‘Hybrid Materials for Hierarchical Structures’ (HyHi, Reg. No. CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_019/0000843) granted by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic, European Union – European Structural and Investment Funds in the Frames of Operational Programme Research, Development, and Education, the project ‘design of multilayer micro/nanofibrous structures for air filters applications’ (Reg. No. 8JCH1064) granted by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic in the frames of support for researcher mobility (VES19 China-mobility, Czech–Chinese cooperation). The work was also supported by the project ‘Intelligent thermoregulatory fibers and functional textile coatings based on temperature resistant embedded PCM’ SMARTTHERM (Project No. TF06000048) granted by the Technology Agency of the Czech Republic (DELTA Programme) and the project ‘Advanced structures for thermal insulation in extreme conditions’ (Reg. No. 21-32510M) granted by the Czech Science Foundation (GACR). Last but not least, Kai Yang would like to thank Mr. Yuanfeng Wang for his assistance in organizing the data and providing 3D fabric model for the final manuscript.

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Yang, K., Venkataraman, M., Zhang, X. et al. Review: incorporation of organic PCMs into textiles. J Mater Sci 57, 798–847 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-021-06641-3

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