Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
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Association of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection with autism spectral disorder (ASD) has been suggested since 1980s. Despite the observed association, its role as a risk factor for ASD remains to be defined. In the present review, we systematically evaluated the available evidence associating congenital CMV infection with ASD using PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Embase databases. Any studies on children with CMV infection and ASD were evaluated for eligibility and three observational studies were included in meta-analysis. Although a high prevalence of congenital CMV infection in ASD cases (OR 11.31, 95% CI 3.07–41.66) was indicated, too few events (0–2 events) in all included studies imposed serious limitations. There is urgent need for further studies to clarify this issue.
KeywordsCongenital CMV infection ASD Risk factor Prenatal environment Maternal immune activation Neurodevelopmental disorder
We thank Prof. Takashi Omori (Clinical and Translational Research Center, Kobe University Hospital) for statistical analysis.
All authors were involved in the design of the study. KM, KT, HN, and NN performed the literature search, evaluated the relevant records for inclusion in the systematic review and meta-analysis, and conducted the statistical analysis. KM and NN drafted the initial manuscript. MY, YT, TK, MM, SK, ST, MN, NS, MN, MTI, IM, and KI revised the article critically for important points. All authors approved the final manuscript as submitted.
This work was supported in part by Grants for the Research on Child Development and Diseases (16gk0110021s0101) from the Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED) and the Young Scientists (B) (17K16299) of JSPS KAKENHI.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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