Human Ecology

, Volume 43, Issue 2, pp 201–212 | Cite as

Kwakwaka’wakw “Clam Gardens”

Motive and Agency in Traditional Northwest Coast Mariculture
  • Douglas Deur
  • Adam Dick
  • Kim Recalma-Clutesi
  • Nancy J. Turner


The indigenous peoples of the Northwest Coast of North America actively managed natural resources in diverse ways to enhance their productivity and proximity. Among those practices that have escaped the attention of anthropologists until recently is the traditional management of intertidal clam beds, which Northwest Coast peoples have enhanced through techniques such as selective harvests, the removal of shells and other debris, and the mechanical aeration of the soil matrix. In some cases, harvesters also removed stones or even created stone revetments that served to laterally expand sediments suitable for clam production into previously unusable portions of the tidal zone. This article presents the only account of these activities, their motivations, and their outcomes, based on the first-hand knowledge of a traditional practitioner, Kwakwaka’wakw Clan Chief Kwaxistalla Adam Dick, trained in these techniques by elders raised in the nineteenth century when clam “gardening” was still widely practiced.


Clam gardens Mariculture Traditional ecological knowledge Northwest Coast Kwakwaka’wakw Clan Chief Kwaxistalla Adam Dick 



The authors wish to thank two anonymous reviewers for their comments on this manuscript, as we well as our friend and colleague Dr. Dana Lepofsky, Simon Fraser University Department of Archaeology, for her input and encouragement throughout the research and writing of this article. This research was partially funded by a generous grant (NGS #8837-10) from the National Geographic Society.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Portland State UniversityPortlandUSA
  2. 2.Tsawataineuk First NationQualicum BCCanada
  3. 3.Qualicum First NationQualicum BCCanada
  4. 4.School of the Environment, University of VictoriaVictoria BCCanada

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