Higher Education

, Volume 52, Issue 2, pp 215–250 | Cite as

Changing Patterns in the Middle Management of Higher Education Institutions: The Case of Portugal

  • Rui Santiago
  • Teresa Carvalho
  • Alberto Amaral
  • V. Lynn Meek


Much of the writing on higher education in recent years has tended to assume that the new management push in higher education is both universal and irreversible. This paper, however, presents evidence from Portugal to challenge that assumption. While elements of the new managerialism are clearly evident in the perceptions and attitudes of academics in charge of the basic academic units (departments/schools and faculties) in the country’s universities and polytechnics, academic management remains faced with a complex, contradictory and conflicting set of demands and expectations which is likely to take a considerable time to resolve.


academic profession change strategies collegiality higher education policy managerialism new public management 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adams, M., Marshall, S. and Cameron, A. (1999). Strategic academic program development: heads of school’s perceptions of the role of professional development. Paper presented at Melbourne: HERDSA/Annual International Conference.Google Scholar
  2. Altbach, P., Gumport, P., Johnstone, D.B. 2001In Defense of the American Public UniversityThe Johns Hopkins University PressBaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  3. Amaral, A., Magalhães, A., Santiago, R.A. 2003‘The rise of academic managerialism in Portugal’Amaral, A.Meek, L.Larsen, I.M. eds. The Higher Education Managerial Revolution?Kluwer Academic PublishersDordrecht101123Google Scholar
  4. Askling, B. 2001‘Higher education and academic staff in a period of policy and system change’Higher Education41157181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Association for Tertiary Education Management2002Submission 106 Higher Education at the Crossroads: Ministerial Discussion PaperDepartment of Education Science and TrainingCanberraGoogle Scholar
  6. Baldridge, J.V. 1971Power and Conflict in the UniversityJohn Wiley & SonsNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. Becher, T., Kogan, M. 1992Process and Structure in Higher EducationRoutledgeLondonGoogle Scholar
  8. Bertrand D., Faucher R. (1994). ‘Comparaison entre l’amenagement souhaitéet reél des taches’. In: Bertrand D., Faucher R., Fabi B., Beaulieu P. (eds), Le Travail Professoral Remesuré, Unitée Diversité. Presse de l’Universitédu Québec, Québec, pp. 354-386Google Scholar
  9. Bertrand, D., Faucher, R., Fabi, B., Beaulieu, P. 1994Le Travail Professoral Remesuré, Unitée DiversitéPresse de l’Universitédu QuébecQuébecGoogle Scholar
  10. Birnbaum, R. 2000Management Fads in Higher Education, Where They Come From, What They Do, Why They FailJossey-BassSan FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  11. Buchbinder, H. 1993‘The market oriented university and the changing role of knowledge’Higher Education26331347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Clark, B.R. 1983The Higher Education System, Academic Organization in Cross-national PerspectiveUniversity of California PressCaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  13. Clark, B. 1998Creating Entrepreneurial Universities: Organisational Pathways of TransformationPergamonOxfordGoogle Scholar
  14. Clark, B. 2003‘Sustaining change in universities: Continuities in case studies and concepts’Tertiary Education and Management999116Google Scholar
  15. Clark, J., Newman, J. 1997The Managerial StateSage PublicationsLondonGoogle Scholar
  16. Cohen, M.D., March, J.G. 1986Leadership and Ambiguity - The American College PresidentCarnegie/McGraw-HillNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. Cohen, M.D., March, J.G., Olsen, J.P. 1992‘A garbage can model of organizational choice’Administrative Science Quarterly17125Google Scholar
  18. Crozier, M. 1990L’évaluation des perfomances pédagogiques des établissements universitairesLa Documentation FrançaiseParisGoogle Scholar
  19. Currie, J., DeAngelis, R., Boer, H., Huisman, J., Lacotte, C. 2003Globalizing Practices and University ResponsesPraegerWestport, ConnecticutGoogle Scholar
  20. Currie, J.Newson, J. eds. 1998Universities and Globalization: Critical PerspectivesSageLondonGoogle Scholar
  21. Dearlove, J. 2002‘A continuing role for academics: The governance of UK universities in the post-Dearing era’Higher Education Quarterly56257275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Boer, H. 2003‘Who’s Afraid of Red ,Yellow and Blue? The Colourful World of Management Reforms’Amaral, A.Meek, L.Larsen, I.M. eds. , The Higher Education Managerial Revolution?Kluwer Academic PublishersDordrecht89108Google Scholar
  23. Boer, H., Goedegebuure, L. 1995‘Decision-making in higher education: A comparative perspective’Australian Universities’ Review384147Google Scholar
  24. Deem, R. 1998‘New-managerialism and higher education: The management of performances and cultures in universities in the United Kingdom’International Studies in Sociology of Education84770CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Deem, R. 2001‘Globalisation, new managerialism, academic capitalism and entrepreneurialism in universities: Is the local dimension important?’Comparative Education37720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Weert, E. 2001‘Pressures and prospects facing the academic profession in the Netherlands’Higher Education4177101Google Scholar
  27. Enders, J. 2001‘A chair system in transition: Appointments, promotions and gate-keeping in German higher education’Higher Education41325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Friedberg, E., Musselin, C. 1992En quête d’universités: etude comparée des universités en France et en RFAL’HarmattanParisGoogle Scholar
  29. Fulton, O. 2003‘Managerialism in UK universities: Unstable hybridity and the complications of implementation’Amaral, A.Meek, L.Larsen, I.M. eds. The Higher Education Managerial Revolution?Kluwer Academic PublishersDordrecht155178Google Scholar
  30. Gornitzka A., Kyvik S., Larsen I. (1998). ‘The bureaucratisation of universities’, Minerva 36, 21-47.Google Scholar
  31. Gornitzka, A, Larsen, I. 2004‘Towards professionalisation? Restructuring of administrative work force in universities’Higher Education47455471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Greene, L., Loughridge, B. and Wilson, T. (1996). The management needs of academic heads of department in universities: A critical success factors approach. (University of Sheffield) British Library Research and Development Department Report 6252.Google Scholar
  33. Gumport, P. 2003‘Beyond Dead Reckoning: Research priorities for redirecting American higher education’International Higher Education Winter113Google Scholar
  34. Harley, S., Lowe, P. 1998Academics divided: The research assessment exercise and the academic labour processLeicester Business SchoolLeicesterOccasional Paper 48.Google Scholar
  35. Harman, G. 2002‘Academic leaders or corporate managers: Deans and heads in Australian higher education’Higher Education Management and Policy145370Google Scholar
  36. Henninger, E.A. 1998‘Dean’s role in change: The case of professional academic reform of American Collegiate business education’Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management20203213Google Scholar
  37. Johnson, R. 2002‘Learning to manage the university: Tales of training and experience’Higher Education Quarterly563351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kekäle, J. 2003‘Academic leaders as thermostats’Tertiary Education and Management 9281298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kogan, M., Bauer, M. 2000‘Change and continuity: Some conclusions’Kogan, M.Bauer, M.Bleiklie, I.Henkel, M. eds. Transforming Higher Education a Comparative StudyJessica Kingsley PublishersLondon199214Google Scholar
  40. Kogan, M., Bauer, M., Bleiklie, I., Henkel, M. 2000Transforming Higher Education, a Comparative StudyJessica Kingsley PublishersLondonGoogle Scholar
  41. Kyvik, S. 1995‘Are big university departments better than small ones?’Higher Education30295304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Marginson, S., Considine, M. 2000The Enterprise University: Power, Governance and Reinvention in AustraliaCambridge University PressMelbourneGoogle Scholar
  43. Marginson, S., Rhoades, G. 2002‘Beyond national states, markets, and systems of higher education: A glonacal agency heuristic’Higher Education43281309Google Scholar
  44. Meek, L. 2002‘On the road to mediocrity? Governance and management of Australian higher education in the market place’Amaral, A.Jones, G.A.Karseth, B. eds. Governing Higher Education: National Perspectives on Institutional GovernanceKluwer Academic PublishersDordrecht235260Google Scholar
  45. Meek, V.L. 2003‘Governance and management of Australian higher education: Enemies within and without’Amaral, A.Meek, V.L.Larsen, I. eds. The Higher Education Managerial Revolution?Kluwer Academic PublishersDordrecht149171Google Scholar
  46. Meek, V.L., Wood, F. 1997Higher Education Governance and Management: An Australian StudyAustralian Government Printing ServiceCanberraGoogle Scholar
  47. Middlehurst, R. 1993Leading AcademicsThe Society for Research into Higher Education/Open University PressBuckinghamGoogle Scholar
  48. Miller, H. 1998‘Managing academics in Canada and the United Kingdom’International Studies in Sociology of Education8324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Miller, H. 1995The Management of Changes in UniversitiesSHRE/Open UniversityBuckinghamGoogle Scholar
  50. Mintzberg, H. 1990Le management - voyage au centre des organisationsLes Éditions D’OrganisationParisGoogle Scholar
  51. Mintzberg, H. 1994Estrutura e dinâmica das organizaçõesD. QuixoteLisboaGoogle Scholar
  52. Mouwen, K. 2000‘Strategy, structure and culture of the hybird university: Towards the university of the 21st Century’Tertiary Education and Management64756CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Neave, G. 2002‘The stakeholder perspective historically explored’Enders, J.Fulton, O. eds. Higher Education in a Globalising WorldKluwer Academic PublishersDordrecht1738Google Scholar
  54. Neave, G.Vught, F. eds. 1991Prometheus BoundPergamonOxfordGoogle Scholar
  55. Newson, J. 1993‘Constructing the ‘Post-Industrial’ University: Institutional Budgeting and University Corporate Links’Altbach, P.Johnstone, B. eds. The Funding of Higher Education: International PerspectivesGarland PublishingNew York285304Google Scholar
  56. Olsen, D. 1993‘Work satisfaction and stress in the first and third year of academic appointment’Journal of Higher Education64453471Google Scholar
  57. Reed, M. 2002‘New managerialism, professional power and organisational governance in UK universities: A review and assessment’Amaral, A.Jones, G.A.Karseth, B. eds. Governing Higher Education: National Perspectives on Institutional GovernanceKluwer Academic PublishersDordrecht163186Google Scholar
  58. Rhoades, G. 1998Managed Professionals: Unionized Faculty and Restructuring Academic LaborState University of New York PressAlbanyGoogle Scholar
  59. Rhoades, G., Sporn, B. 2002‘New models of management and shifting modes and costs of production: Europe and the United States’Tertiary Education and Management8328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Rousseau, R., Trembley, Y., Potvin, P., Papillon, S., Santiago, R.A.,  et al. 1993‘Perceptions du professeur d’université en éducation’Canadian and International Education221749Google Scholar
  61. Sarros, J., Gmelch, W., Tanewski, G. 1997‘The role of department head in Australian Universities: Tasks and stress’Higher Education Research & Development16283292Google Scholar
  62. Scott, P. 1993Respondent The Transition from Elite to Mass Higher Education. DEET Higher Education Division Occasional Paper SeriesAustralian Government Publishing ServiceCanberraGoogle Scholar
  63. Shattock, M. 2002‘Re-balancing concepts of university governance’Higher Education Quarterly56235244Google Scholar
  64. Simão, J.V., Santos, S.M., Costa, A.A. 2002Ensino superior: uma visão para a próxima décadaGradivaLisboaGoogle Scholar
  65. Slaughter, S., Leslie, L. 1997Academic Capitalism: Politics, Policies and the Entrepreneurial UniversityJohn Hopkins PressBaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  66. Slaughter, S., Rhoades, G. 2003‘Contested intellectual property: The role of the institution in United States higher education’Amaral, A.Meek, L.Larsen, I.M. eds. The Higher Education Managerial Revolution?Kluwer Academic PublishersDordrecht203228Google Scholar
  67. Sporn, B. 1995‘Adaptation processes at universities: Organizational implications of a complex environment’Tertiary Education and Management17275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Sporn, B. 1996‘Managing university culture: An analysis of the relationship between institutional culture and management approaches’Higher Education324161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Sporn, B. 1999Adaptive University StructuresJessica Kingsley PublishersLondonGoogle Scholar
  70. Teichler, U. 2003‘The future of higher education and the future of higher education research’Tertiary Education and Management9171185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Tight M. (2000). The Higher Education Management Literature: An Analysis and Critique. Paper presented at EAIR Forum, Berlin, 6-9 September.Google Scholar
  72. Trow, M. 1994‘Manageralism and the academic profession: The case of England’Higher Educational Policy71118Google Scholar
  73. Trowler, P. 1998Academics Responding to Change: New Higher Education FrameWorks and Academic CulturesSociety for Research into Higher Education and Open University PressBuckinghamGoogle Scholar
  74. Winter, R., Sarros, J. 2003Corporate Reforms to Australian Universities: Views from the Academic HeartlandMonash UniversityClaytonGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rui Santiago
    • 1
  • Teresa Carvalho
    • 1
  • Alberto Amaral
    • 1
  • V. Lynn Meek
    • 2
  1. 1.CIPES - University of PortoMatosinhosPortugal
  2. 2.Centre for Higher Education Management and PolicyUniversity of New EnglandArmidaleAustralia

Personalised recommendations