European Journal of Population

, Volume 32, Issue 4, pp 511–542 | Cite as

Partner Choice in Sweden Following a Failed Intermarriage

Article

Abstract

This paper is based on the assumption that divorced and separated individuals bring with them the experience of a failed union which may shape their future choices on the marriage market. It aims to contribute to our knowledge of intermarriage, and social interaction in Sweden in general, by comparing the repartnering choices of immigrants and natives in Sweden who had made what is still considered an atypical choice of entering a native-immigrant union with the partner choices of natives and immigrants whose previous union was endogamous. The empirical analysis in this paper is based on the Swedish register data from the STAR data collection (Sweden over Time: Activities and Relations) and covers the period 1990–2007. All the analyses in the paper include individuals aged 20–55 at the time of union dissolution. The multivariate analysis is based on discrete-time multinomial logistic regression. The results show that for all four groups defined by sex and nativity (native men, native women, immigrant men, and immigrant women), there is a positive association between the previous experience of intermarriage and the likelihood of initiating another intermarriage after union dissolution. Another important finding is that the magnitude of this positive association increases with the degree of social distance between the groups involved in the union. Gender differences are modest among natives and somewhat more pronounced among immigrants.

Keywords

Intermarriage Immigrants in Sweden Repartnering Remarriage 

Supplementary material

10680_2016_9377_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (84 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 83 kb)

References

  1. Adserà, A., & Ferrer, A. (2014). Immigrants and demography: Marriage, divorce, and fertility. IZA Discussion Paper Series No. 7982. Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor.Google Scholar
  2. Agell, A., & Brattström, M. (2008). Äktenskap, samboskap, partnerskap [marriage, cohabitation, partnership] (4th ed.). Uppsala: Iustus förlag.Google Scholar
  3. Aguirre, B. E., Saenz, R., & Hwang, S.-S. (1995). Remarriage and intermarriage of Asians in the United States of America. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 26(2), 207–215.Google Scholar
  4. Alba, R. D., & Golden, R. M. (1986). Patterns of ethnic marriage in the United States. Social Forces, 65(1), 202–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Andersson, G. (1998). Trends in marriage formation in Sweden 1971–1993. European Journal of Population/Revue européenne de Démographie, 14(2), 157–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Andersson, G. (2004). Children’s experience of family disruption and family formation: Evidence from 16 FFS countries. Vienna Yearbook of Population Research, 2, 313–332.Google Scholar
  7. Andersson, G., & Philipov, D. (2002). Life-table representations of family dynamics in Sweden, Hungary, and 14 other FFS countries: A project of descriptions of demographic behavior. Demographic Research, 7(4), 67–144.Google Scholar
  8. Blau, P. M., Beeker, C., & Fitzpatrick, K. M. (1984). Intersecting social affiliations and intermarriage. Social Forces, 62(3), 585–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Blau, P. M., Blum, T. C., & Schwartz, J. E. (1982). Heterogeneity and intermarriage. American Sociological Review, 47(1), 45–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bogardus, E. S. (1925). Measuring social distance. Journal of Applied Sociology, 9, 299–308.Google Scholar
  11. Booth, A., & Edwards, J. N. (1992). Starting over why remarriages are more unstable. Journal of Family Issues, 13(2), 179–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bratter, J. L., & King, R. B. (2008). But will it last? Marital instability among interracial and Same-Race couples. Family Relations, 57(2), 160–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bustamante, R. M., Nelson, J. A., Henriksen, R. C., & Monakes, S. (2011). Intercultural couples: Coping with culture-related stressors. The Family Journal, 19(2), 154–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chiswick, B. R., & Houseworth, C. (2011). Ethnic intermarriage among immigrants: Human capital and assortative mating. Review of Economics of the Household, 9(2), 149–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Choi, K. H., Tienda, M., Cobb-Clark, D., & Sinning, M. (2012). Immigration and status exchange in Australia and the United States. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, 30(1), 49–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Coviello, V., & Boggess, M. (2004). Cumulative incidence estimation in the presence of competing risks. STATA Journal, 4, 103–112.Google Scholar
  17. Darvishpour, M. (2002). Immigrant women challenge the role of men: How the changing power relationship within Iranian families in Sweden intensifies family conflicts after immigration. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 33(2), 271–296.Google Scholar
  18. De Graaf, P. M., & Kalmijn, M. (2003). Alternative routes in the remarriage market: Competing-risk analyses of union formation after divorce. Social Forces, 81(4), 1459–1498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dean, G., & Gurak, D. T. (1978). Marital homogamy the second time around. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 40(3), 559–570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dewilde, C., & Uunk, W. (2008). Remarriage as a way to overcome the financial consequences of divorce—A test of the economic need hypothesis for European women. European Sociological Review, 24(3), 393–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dribe, M., & Lundh, C. (2008). Intermarriage and immigrant integration in Sweden an exploratory analysis. Acta Sociologica, 51(4), 329–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dribe, M., & Lundh, C. (2011). Cultural dissimilarity and intermarriage. A longitudinal study of immigrants in Sweden 1990–2005. International Migration Review, 45(2), 297–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dribe, M., & Lundh, C. (2012). Intermarriage, value context and union dissolution: Sweden 1990–2005. European Journal of Population/Revue européenne de Démographie, 28(2), 139–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Duvander, A.-Z. E. (1999). The transition from cohabitation to marriage—A longitudinal study of the propensity to marry in Sweden in the early 1990s. Journal of Family Issues, 20(5), 698–717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Feng, Z., Boyle, P., van Ham, M., & Raab, G. M. (2012). Are mixed-ethnic unions more likely to dissolve than co-ethnic unions? New evidence from Britain. European Journal of Population/Revue européenne de Démographie, 28(2), 159–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fu, V. K. (2001). Racial intermarriage pairings. Demography, 38(2), 147–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fu, V. K. (2010). Remarriage, delayed marriage, and Black/White intermarriage, 1968–1995. Population Research and Policy Review, 29(5), 687–713.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Furtado, D., & Theodoropoulos, N. (2011). Interethnic marriage: A choice between ethnic and educational similarities. Journal of Population Economics, 24(4), 1257–1279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Furtado, D., & Trejo, S. (2012). Interethnic marriages and their economic effects. IZA Discussion Paper Series No. 6399. Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor.Google Scholar
  30. Gelissen, J. (2004). Assortative mating after divorce: A test of two competing hypotheses using marginal models. Social Science Research, 33(3), 361–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Glenn, N. D. (1982). Interreligious marriage in the United States: Patterns and recent trends. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 44(3), 555–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. González-Ferrer, A. (2006). Who do immigrants marry? Partner choice among single immigrants in Germany. European Sociological Review, 22(2), 171–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gordon, M. M. (1964). Assimilation in American life: The role of race, religion and national origins. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Haandrikman, K. (2014). Binational marriages in Sweden: Is there an EU effect? Population, Space and Place, 20(2), 177–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hohmann-Marriott, B. E., & Amato, P. (2008). Relationship quality in interethnic marriages and cohabitations. Social Forces, 87(2), 825–855.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Holland, J. A. (2012). Home and where the heart is: Marriage timing and joint home purchase. European Journal of Population/Revue européenne de Démographie, 28(1), 65–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hwang, S.-S., Saenz, R., & Aguirre, B. E. (1997). Structural and assimilationist explanations of Asian American intermarriage. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 59(3), 758–772.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Inglehart, R. (1997). Modernization and postmodernization: Cultural, economic, and political change in 43 societies. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ Press.Google Scholar
  39. Jacobs, J. A., & Furstenberg, F. F. (1986). Changing places: Conjugal careers and women’s marital mobility. Social Forces, 64(3), 714–732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Jones, F. L. (1996). Convergence and divergence in ethnic divorce patterns: A research note. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 58(1), 213–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kalmijn, M. (1993). Trends in black/white intermarriage. Social Forces, 72(1), 119–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kalmijn, M. (1998). Intermarriage and homogamy: Causes, patterns, trends. Annual Review of Sociology, 24, 395–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kalmijn, M., de Graaf, P. M., & Janssen, J. P. (2005). Intermarriage and the risk of divorce in the Netherlands: The effects of differences in religion and in nationality, 1974–94. Population Studies, 59(1), 71–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kalmijn, M., & Flap, H. (2001). Assortative meeting and mating: Unintended consequences of organized settings for partner choices. Social Forces, 79(4), 1289–1312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kalmijn, M., Liefbroer, A. C., Van Poppel, F., & Van Solinge, H. (2006). The family factor in Jewish-Gentile intermarriage: A sibling analysis of the Netherlands. Social Forces, 84(3), 1347–1358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kalmijn, M., & Van Tubergen, F. (2006). Ethnic intermarriage in the Netherlands: Confirmations and refutations of accepted insights. European Journal of Population/Revue européenne de Démographie, 22(4), 371–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kiernan, K. (2001). The rise of cohabitation and childbearing outside marriage in Western Europe. International Journal of Law, Policy and the Family, 15(1), 1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kolk, M. (2012). Age differences in Unions - Continuity and divergence in Sweden between 1932 and 2007. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, 25, 1–37.Google Scholar
  49. Kulu, H., & González-Ferrer, A. (2014). Family dynamics among immigrants and their descendants in Europe: Current research and opportunities. European Journal of Population, 30(4), 411–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Lanzieri, G. (2012). A look at marriages with foreign-born persons in European countries. Eurostat: Statistics in Focus 29/2012.Google Scholar
  51. Lehrer, E. L. (1998). Religious intermarriage in the United States: Determinants and trends. Social Science Research, 27(3), 245–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lievens, J. (1998). Interethnic marriage: Bringing in the context through multilevel modelling. European Journal of Population/Revue européenne de Démographie, 14(2), 117–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lucassen, L., & Laarman, C. (2009). Immigration, intermarriage and the changing face of Europe in the post war period. The History of the Family, 14(1), 52–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lyngstad, T. H., & Jalovaara, M. (2010). A review of the antecedents of union dissolution. Demographic Research, 23(10), 257–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Medrano, J. D., Cortina, C., Safranoff, A., & Castro-Martín, T. (2014). Euromarriages in Spain: Recent trends and patterns in the context of European integration. Population, Space and Place, 20(2), 157–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Milewski, N., & Kulu, H. (2014). Mixed marriages in Germany: A high risk of divorce for immigrant-native couples. European Journal of Population/Revue européenne de Démographie, 30(1), 89–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Muttarak, R., & Heath, A. (2010). Who intermarries in Britain? Explaining ethnic diversity in intermarriage patterns. The British Journal of Sociology, 61(2), 275–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. O’Leary, R., & Finnäs, F. (2002). Education, social integration and minority-majority group intermarriage. Sociology, 36(2), 235–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Pagnini, D. L., & Morgan, S. P. (1990). Intermarriage and social distance among US immigrants at the turn of the century. American Journal of Sociology, 96(2), 405–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Perelli-Harris, B., & Gassen, N. S. (2012). How similar are cohabitation and marriage? Legal approaches to cohabitation across Western Europe. Population and Development Review, 38(3), 435–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Pettigrew, T. F., & Tropp, L. R. (2008). How does intergroup contact reduce prejudice? Meta-analytic tests of three mediators. European Journal of Social Psychology, 38(6), 922–934.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Qian, Z. (1997). Breaking the racial barriers: Variations in interracial marriage between 1980 and 1990. Demography, 34(2), 263–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Qian, Z., & Lichter, D. T. (2001). Measuring marital assimilation: Intermarriage among natives and immigrants. Social Science Research, 30(2), 289–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Qian, Z., & Lichter, D. T. (2007). Social boundaries and marital assimilation: Interpreting trends in racial and ethnic intermarriage. American Sociological Review, 72(1), 68–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Sánchez-Domínguez, M., De Valk, H., & Reher, D. (2011). Marriage strategies among immigrants in Spain. Revista Internacional De Sociología, 69(M1), 139–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Sherkat, D. E. (2004). Religious intermarriage in the United States: Trends, patterns, and predictors. Social Science Research, 33(4), 606–625.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Smith, S., Maas, I., & van Tubergen, F. (2012). Irreconcilable differences? Ethnic intermarriage and divorce in the Netherlands, 1995–2008. Social Science Research, 41(5), 1126–1237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Smits, J. (2010). Ethnic intermarriage and social cohesion. What can we learn from Yugoslavia? Social Indicators Research, 96(3), 417–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Sweeney, M. M. (1997). Remarriage of women and men after divorce the role of socioeconomic prospects. Journal of Family Issues, 18(5), 479–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Tolsma, J., Lubbers, M., & Coenders, M. (2008). Ethnic competition and opposition to ethnic intermarriage in the Netherlands: A multi-level approach. European Sociological Review, 24(2), 215–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Tucker, M. B., & Mitchell-Kernan, C. (1990). New trends in black American interracial marriage: The social structural context. Journal of Marriage and Family, 52(1), 209–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Van Tubergen, F., & Maas, I. (2007). Ethnic intermarriage among immigrants in the Netherlands: An analysis of population data. Social Science Research, 36(3), 1065–1086.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Vikat, A., Thomson, E., & Hoem, J. M. (1999). Stepfamily fertility in contemporary Sweden: The impact of childbearing before the current union. Population Studies, 53(2), 211–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Whyte, M. K. (1990). Dating, mating, and marriage. Hawthorne, NY: Aldine de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  75. Wiik, K. A., Bernhardt, E., & Noack, T. (2009). A study of commitment and relationship quality in Sweden and Norway. Journal of Marriage and Family, 71(3), 465–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Wu, Z., & Schimmele, C. M. (2005). Repartnering after first union disruption. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67(1), 27–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Zantvliet, V., Pascale, I., Kalmijn, M., & Verbakel, E. (2014). Parental involvement in partner choice: The case of Turks and Moroccans in the Netherlands. European Sociological Review, 30(3), 387–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Zhang, Y., & Van Hook, J. (2009). Marital dissolution among interracial couples. Journal of Marriage and Family, 71(1), 95–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Stockholm University Demography Unit (SUDA)StockholmSweden

Personalised recommendations