Skip to main content

Impact of climate change on pastoralists’ resilience and sustainable mitigation in Punjab, Pakistan

Abstract

Climate change has adversely affected pastoral community in Pakistan through increased severity of livestock diseases, floods, and drought. These climatic hazards caused extensive livestock loss and worsen livelihood of pastoralists’ households. Pastoralists are higher vulnerable to these climate shocks and livestock major source of their nutrition and income. This research work focused to analyze the factors affecting resilience of pastoral community in Punjab province of Pakistan. Understanding shocks of climate change in historical perspective of pastoral community, consultation for key information, and focus group discussions were managed. The study collected data of 768 pastoral households’ regarding pastoral shocks experience, long-term adaptation measures, and coping strategies through external support for resilience upright. Principal component analysis was used for construction of resilience index of pastoral households. In estimating institutional factors, adaptive practice and socio-demographic effects on pastoral households’ resilience structured probit regression were employed in the study. Extension services access, availability of adequate formal credit, pastoral household income, schooling years and adaptive practice like afforestation, the practice of ethno-veterinary, improved stock breeding, beekeeping, enclosures, and grazing of crop fields post-harvest affect significantly and positively in developing pastoral household resilience to shocks. In the past scenario long-term adaptation strategies, policy measures ignored, while investment priority was focused on risk-reducing measures. To enhance long-run pastoral household resilience status regarding climate change shocks, there is need for direct investment to increase adaptive capacity pastoral community.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

Notes

  1. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

  2. Government of Pakistan.

References

  • Abate, T. (2016). Contribution of indigenous knowledge to climate change and adaptation response in Southern Ethiopia. Journal of Earth Science & Climatic Change, 7(11), 1–9.

    Google Scholar 

  • Abbas, A., Amjath-Babu, T. S., Kächele, H., & Müller, K. (2016). Participatory adaptation to climate extremes: An assessment of households’ willingness to contribute labor for flood risk mitigation in Pakistan. Journal of Water and Climate Change, 7(3), 621–636.

    Google Scholar 

  • Abbas, Q., Han, J., Adeel, A., & Ullah, R. (2019). Dairy Production under climatic risks: Perception, perceived impacts and adaptations in Punjab, Pakistan. International journal of environmental research and public health, 16(20), 4036.

    Google Scholar 

  • Abid, M., Scheffran, J., Schneider, U. A., & Ashfaq, M. (2015). Farmers perceptions of and adaptation strategies to climate change and their determinants: The case of Punjab province. Pakistan. Earth System Dynamics, 6(1), 225.

    Google Scholar 

  • Adger, W. N., Dessai, S., Goulden, M., Hulme, M., Lorenzoni, I., Nelson, D. R., & Wreford, A. (2009). Are there social limits to adaptation to climate change? Climatic change, 93(3–4), 335–354.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ahmad, D., & Afzal, M. (2019). Household vulnerability and resilience in flood hazards from disaster-prone areas of Punjab Pakistan. Natural Hazards, 99(1), 337–354.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ahmad, D., & Afzal, M. (2020). Flood hazards and factors influencing household flood perception and mitigation strategies in Pakistan. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 27, 15375–15387. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-08057-z.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ahmad, D., Afzal, M., & Rauf, A. (2019). Analysis of wheat farmers’ risk perceptions and attitudes: Evidence from Punjab Pakistan. Natural Hazards, 95(3), 845–861.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ahmad, D., Afzal, M., & Rauf, A. (2020). Flood hazards adaptation strategies: A gender-based disaggregated analysis of farm-dependent Bait community in Punjab (pp. 1–22). Development and Sustainability: Pakistan. Environment.

    Google Scholar 

  • Alam, G. M., Alam, K., & Mushtaq, S. (2017). Climate change perceptions and local adaptation strategies of hazard-prone rural households in Bangladesh. Climate Risk Management, 17, 52–63.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ali, A. (2018). Impact of climate-change risk-coping strategies on livestock productivity and household welfare: Empirical evidence from Pakistan. Heliyon, 4(10), e00797.

    Google Scholar 

  • Alinovi, L., D’errico, M., Mane, E., Romano, D. (2010). Livelihoods strategies and household resilience to food insecurity: An empirical analysis to Kenya. In conference organized by the European Report of Development, Dakar, Senegal, june (pp. 28–30).

  • Ambelu, A., Birhanu, Z., Tesfaye, A., Berhanu, N., Muhumuza, C., Kassahun, W., & Woldemichael, K. (2017). Intervention pathways towards improving the resilience of pastoralists: A study from Borana communities, southern Ethiopia. Weather and Climate Extremes, 17, 7–16.

    Google Scholar 

  • Arjjumend, H. (2018). Review of pastoralists’ resilience and adaptation to climate change: Can technology help pastoralists mitigate the risks? International Journal of Bio-resource and Stress Management, 9(1), 118–128.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ashfaq, M., Razzaq, A., & Hassan, S. (2015). Factors affecting the economic losses due to livestock diseases: A case study of district Faisalabad. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 52(2), 503–508.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ateniese, G., Dagdelen, Ö., Damgård, I., & Venturi, D. (2016). Entangled cloud storage. Future Generation Computer Systems, 62, 104–118.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ayal, D. Y., Desta, S., Gebru, G., Kinyangi, J., Recha, J., & Radeny, M. (2015). Opportunities and challenges of indigenous biotic weather forecasting among the Borena herders of southern Ethiopia. SpringerPlus, 4(1), 1–11.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ayal, D. Y., Radeny, M., Desta, S., & Gebru, G. (2018). Climate variability, perceptions of pastoralists and their adaptation strategies. International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, 10(4), 596–615.

    Google Scholar 

  • Barrett, C. B., Carter, M. R., Chavas, J. P., & Carter, M. R. (Eds.). (2019). The economics of poverty traps. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bett, B., Kiunga, P., Gachohi, J., Sindato, C., Mbotha, D., Robinson, T., & Grace, D. (2017). Effects of climate change on the occurrence and distribution of livestock diseases. Preventive veterinary medicine, 137, 119–129.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bohmanova, J., Misztal, I., & Cole, J. B. (2007). Temperature-humidity indices as indicators of milk production losses due to heat stress. Journal of dairy science, 90(4), 1947–1956.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bollig, M., & Schulte, A. (1999). Environmental change and pastoral perceptions: Degradation and indigenous knowledge in two African pastoral communities. Human ecology, 27(3), 493–514.

    Google Scholar 

  • Browne, M., Ortmann, G. F., & Hendriks, S. L. (2014). Household food security monitoring and evaluation using a resilience indicator: An application of categorical principal component analysis and simple sum of assets in five African countries. Agrekon, 53(2), 25–46.

    Google Scholar 

  • Burki, A. A., & Khan, M. A. (2016). Pakistan’s dairy sector: Lessons from the past to build a resilient dairy industry. Retrieved from doi10.

  • Carter, M. R., Little, P. D., Mogues, T., Negatu, W., & Ababa, A. (2005). The long-term impacts of short-term shocks: Poverty traps and environmental disasters in Ethiopia and Honduras. Basis Brief, 28, 835–856.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chatty, D., & Sternberg, T. (2015). Climate effects on nomadic pastoralist societies. Forced Migration Review, 49, 25–27.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ciani, F., & Romano, D. (2014). Testing for household resilience to food insecurity: Evidence from Nicaragua (No. 1053-2016-85948).

  • Daniell, J., Wenzel, F., & Schaefer, A. (2016). The economic costs of natural disasters globally from 1900–2015: Historical and normalised floods, storms, earthquakes, volcanoes, bushfires, drought and other disasters. In EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts 18 1899.

  • Dantas-Torres, F. (2015). Climate change, biodiversity, ticks and tick-borne diseases: The butterfly effect. International Journal for Parasitology: parasites and wildlife, 4(3), 452–461.

    Google Scholar 

  • Davies, J., & Nori, M. (2008). Managing and mitigating climate change through pastoralism. Policy Matters, 16, 127–141.

    Google Scholar 

  • Debela, N., Mohammed, C., Bridle, K., Corkrey, R., & McNeil, D. (2015). Perception of climate change and its impact by smallholders in pastoral/agropastoral systems of Borana. South Ethiopia. SpringerPlus, 4(1), 236.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dinucci, A., & Fre, Z. (2003). Understanding the indigenous knowledge and information systems of pastoralists in Eritrea. Communication for Development Case Study (FAO).

  • Dong, S., Kassam, K. A. S., Tourrand, J. F., Boone, R. B (2016). Building resilience of human-natural systems of pastoralism in the developing world. In K. A. S Kassam, J. F Tourrand, R. B Boone (Eds.), Shikui Dong, Karim-Aly S. Switzerland: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  • Doocy, S., Daniels, A., Packer, C., Dick, A., Kirsch, T. D. (2013). The human impact of earthquakes: A historical review of events 1980–2009 and systematic literature review. PLoS Currents5.

  • Elum, Z. A., Modise, D. M., & Marr, A. (2017). Farmer’s perception of climate change and responsive strategies in three selected provinces of South Africa. Climate Risk Management, 16, 246–257.

    Google Scholar 

  • Erena, N., & Gemechu, A. (2016). Analysis on determinants of adaptation options to climate change of maize smallholder farmers in the south eastern part of Ethiopia. Journal of Natural Sciences Research, 6(17), 32–50.

    Google Scholar 

  • FAO, (2016). Resilience index measurement and analysis–II, Food and agriculture organization of the united nations Rome 2016.

  • FAO. (2017). The future of food and agriculture–trends and challenges. Annual report.

  • Feleke, F. B., Berhe, M., Gebru, G., & Hoag, D. (2016). Determinants of adaptation choices to climate change by sheep and goat farmers in Northern Ethiopia: The case of Southern and Central Tigray Ethiopia. SpringerPlus, 5(1), 1692.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fenta, M., Jordaan, A., & Melka, Y. (2019). Vulnerability of Southern Afar pastoralists to climate variability and change, Ethiopia. Jàmbá: Journal of Disaster Risk Studies, 11(1), 1–8.

    Google Scholar 

  • Field, C. B., Barros, V., Stocker, T. F., & Dahe, Q. (Eds.). (2012). Managing the risks of extreme events and disasters to advance climate change adaptation: special report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Galvin, K. A., Boone, R. B., Smith, N. M., & Lynn, S. J. (2001). Impacts of climate variability on East African pastoralists: Linking social science and remote sensing. Climate Research, 19(2), 161–172.

    Google Scholar 

  • Galvin, K. A., Thornton, P. K., Boone, R. B., & Sunderland, J. (2004). Climate variability and impacts on East African livestock herders: the Maasai of Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Tanzania. African Journal of Range and Forage Science, 21(3), 183–189.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gorst, A., Groom, B., and Dehlavi, A., 2015. Crop productivity and adaptation to climate change in Pakistan. Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment Working paper, (189).

  • Government of Pakistan, (2019). Pakistan bureau of statistics, economic survey of Pakistan (2018–19) Ministry of finance Islamabad, Pakistan.

  • Government of Pakistan, (2017). Pakistan bureau of statistics, economic survey of Pakistan (2017–18) Ministry of finance Islamabad, Pakistan.

  • Government of Pakistan. (2016). Pakistan livestock census 2006: Agriculture census organization, Statistics division.

  • Government of Punjab. (2018). Livestock census Punjab 2018: Agriculture census organization, statistics division Punjab Pakistan.

  • Grace, D., Bett, B. K., Lindahl, J. F., & Robinson, T. P. (2015). Climate and livestock disease: assessing the vulnerability of agricultural systems to livestock pests under climate change scenarios.

  • Harrison, M. T., Cullen, B. R., & Armstrong, D. (2017). Management options for dairy farms under climate change: Effects of intensification, adaptation and simplification on pastures, milk production and profitability. Agricultural Systems, 155, 19–32.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hasnain, H. (1983, March). Feed–the key to more food in Pakistan. In Proc. FAO PARC Workshop on Least Cost Formulation, Islamabad March (pp. 12–14).

  • Hidosa, D., & Guyo, M. (2017). Climate change effects on livestock feed resources: A Review. Journal of Fisheries & Livestoc Production, 5, 259.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hirabayashi, Y., Mahendran, R., Koirala, S., Konoshima, L., Yamazaki, D., Watanabe, S., & Kanae, S. (2013). Global flood risk under climate change. Nature Climate Change, 3(9), 816.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hunt, A., & Watkiss, P. (2011). Climate change impacts and adaptation in cities: A review of the literature. Climatic change, 104(1), 13–49.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hurst, M., Jensen, N., Pedersen, S., Shama, A., & Zambriski, J. (2012). Changing climate adaptation strategies of Boran pastoralists in southern Ethiopia. https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/55865/1/MPRA_paper_55865.pdf.

  • IIRR and CTA, (2013).Moving herds, moving markets: Making markets work for African pastoralists. International institute of rural reconstruction, Nairobi and the technical centre for agricultural and rural cooperation, Wageningen, Netherlands, 2013.

  • IPCC, (2014). In: Core Writing Team, Pachauri, R.K., Meyer, L.A. (Eds.), Climate Change 2014: Synthesis report, Contribution of working groups I, II and III to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, 151 pp.

  • IPCC, (2017). Stockhause, M, Lautenschlager, M. (2017), April. CMIP6 citation services and the data services of the IPCC data distribution centre for AR6. In EGU general assembly conference abstracts (Vol. 19, p. 4325).

  • Joseph, L. (2016). Pastoralists’ resilience and adaptation to the impact of climate change in semi-arid rangelands: A case of Longido district-Tanzania (Doctoral dissertation, The University of Dodoma).

  • Joshi, S., Jasra, W. A., Ismail, M., Shrestha, R. M., Yi, S. L., & Wu, N. (2013). Herders’ perceptions of and responses to climate change in northern Pakistan. Environmental management, 52(3), 639–648.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kabubo-Mariara, J. (2008). Climate change adaptation and livestock activity choices in Kenya: An economic analysis. Natural Resources Forum, 32(2), 131–141.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kagunyu, A., Wandibba, S., & Wanjohi, J. G. (2016). The use of indigenous climate forecasting methods by the pastoralists of Northern Kenya. Pastoralism, 6(1), 7.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kasulo, V., Chikagwa-Malunga, S., Chagunda, M., & Roberts, D. (2012). The perceived impact of climate change and variability on smallholder dairy production in northern Malawi. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 7, 4830–4837.

    Google Scholar 

  • Keil, A., Zeller, M., Wida, A., Sanim, B., & Birner, R. (2008). What determines farmers’ resilience towards ENSO-related drought? An empirical assessment in Central Sulawesi. Indonesia. Climatic Change, 86(3–4), 291.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kgosikoma, K. R., Lekota, P. C., & Kgosikoma, O. E. (2018). Agro-pastoralists’ determinants of adaptation to climate change. International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, 10(3), 488–500.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kgosikoma, O. E., & Batisani, N. (2014). Livestock population dynamics and pastoral communities adaptation to rainfall variability in communal lands of Kgalagadi South Botswana. Pastoralism, 4(1), 19.

    Google Scholar 

  • Khan, A. N. (2013). Analysis of 2010-flood causes, nature and magnitude in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. Natural hazards, 66(2), 887–904.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kimaro, E. G., & Chibinga, O. C. (2013). Potential impact of climate change on livestock production and health in East Africa: A review. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 25(7), 2013.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kimaro, E. G., Mor, S. M., & Toribio, J. A. L. (2018). Climate change perception and impacts on cattle production in pastoral communities of northern Tanzania. Pastoralism, 8(1), 19.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kimaro, E. G., Toribio, J. A. L., & Mor, S. M. (2017). Climate change and cattle vector-borne diseases: Use of participatory epidemiology to investigate experiences in pastoral communities in Northern Tanzania. Preventive veterinary medicine, 147, 79–89.

    Google Scholar 

  • Krausmann, E., & Mushtaq, F. (2008). A qualitative Natech damage scale for the impact of floods on selected industrial facilities. Natural Hazards, 46(2), 179–197.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kreft, S., Eckstein, D., Dorsch, L., & Fischer, L. (2016). Global climate risk index 2016: Who suffers most from extreme weather events? Weather-related loss events in 2014 and 1995 to 2014. Bonn, Germany: Germanwatch eV.

    Google Scholar 

  • Krejcie, R. V., & Morgan, D. W. (1970). Determining sample size for research activities. Educational and psychological measurement, 30(3), 607–610.

    Google Scholar 

  • Limantol, A. M., Keith, B. E., Azabre, B. A., & Lennartz, B. (2016). Farmers’ perception and adaptation practice to climate variability and change: A case study of the Vea catchment in Ghana. SpringerPlus, 5(1), 830.

    Google Scholar 

  • Little, P. D., & McPeak, J. G. (2014). Resilience and pastoralism in Africa south of the Sahara. In 2020 Conference Brief (Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute) (pp. 75–82).

  • Locatelli, B. (2011). Climate change and forests in the Congo Basin: Synergies between Adaptation and Mitigation.

  • Luseno, W. K., McPeak, J. G., Barrett, C. B., Little, P. D., & Gebru, G. (2003). Assessing the value of climate forecast information for pastoralists: Evidence from Southern Ethiopia and Northern Kenya. World development, 31(9), 1477–1494.

    Google Scholar 

  • Magita, S. Y., & Sangeda, A. Z. (2017). Effects of climate stress to pastoral communities in Tanzania: A case of Mvomero district. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 29(8), 1–11.

    Google Scholar 

  • Maguza-Tembo, F., Mangison, J., Edris, A. K., & Kenamu, E. (2017). Determinants of adoption of multiple climate change adaptation strategies in Southern Malawi: An ordered probit analysis. Journal of Development and Agricultural Economics, 9(1), 1–7.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mahonge, C., Mwilawa, A., Ngendello, M., & Mtambuki, A. (2014). Policies issues for enhancing pastoralists’ resilience to climate variability versus reality in Longido district Tanzania. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 26(12), 47–61.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mandal, D. K., Subba Rao, A. V. M., Singh, K., & Singh, S. P. (2002). Effects of macroclimatic factors on milk production in a frieswal herd@. Indian Journal of dairy science, 55(3), 166–170.

    Google Scholar 

  • Markakis, J. (2004). Pastoralism on the margin (pp. 2–37). London: Minority Rights Group International.

    Google Scholar 

  • McCarthy, J. J., Canziani, O. F., Leary, N. A., Dokken, D. J., & White, K. S. (Eds.). (2001). Climate change 2001: Impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability: contribution of Working Group II to the third assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change (Vol. 2). Cambridge University Press.

  • Megersa, B., Markemann, A., Angassa, A., Ogutu, J. O., Piepho, H. P., & Zaráte, A. V. (2014). Impacts of climate change and variability on cattle production in southern Ethiopia: Perceptions and empirical evidence. Agricultural systems, 130, 23–34.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mekuyie, M., Jordaan, A., & Melka, Y. (2018). Understanding resilience of pastoralists to climate change and variability in the Southern Afar Region, Ethiopia. Climate Risk Management, 20, 64–77.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mirza, M. M. Q. (2003). Climate change and extreme weather events: Can developing countries adapt? Climate policy, 3(3), 233–248.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mohammad, N. (1989). Rangeland management in Pakistan. International Center for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD): Kathmandu/Nepal.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mote, S. S., Chauhan, D. S., & Ghosh, N. (2016). Effect of environment factors on milk production and lactation length under different seasons in crossbred cattle. Indian Journal of Animal Research, 50(2), 175–180.

    Google Scholar 

  • Muricho, D. N., Otieno, D. J., Oluoch-Kosura, W., & Jirström, M. (2019). Building pastoralists’ resilience to shocks for sustainable disaster risk mitigation: Lessons from West Pokot County, Kenya. International journal of disaster risk reduction, 34, 429–435.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nardone, A., Ronchi, B., Lacetera, N., Ranieri, M. S., & Bernabucci, U. (2010). Effects of climate changes on animal production and sustainability of livestock systems. Livestock Science, 130(1–3), 57–69.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nassef, M., Anderson, S., & Hesse, C. (2009). Pastoralism and climate change. Enabling adaptive capacity (p. 35). London: Humanitarian Policy Group. Overseas Development Institute.

  • Ngigi, M., Mueller, U., & Birner, R. (2015). The role of livestock portfolios and group-based approaches for building resilience in the face of accelerating climate change: an asset-based panel data analysis from rural Kenya. Available at SSRN 2676574.

  • Nori, M. (2019). Herding Through Uncertainties–Regional Perspectives. Exploring the interfaces of pastoralists and uncertainty. Results from a literature review. Exploring the Interfaces of Pastoralists and Uncertainty. Results from a Literature Review (September 2019). Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies Research Paper No. RSCAS68.

  • Nüsser, M., & Holdschlag, A. (2012). Herding on high grounds: diversity and typology of pastoral systems in the Eastern Hindukush (Chitral, Northwest Pakistan). In Pastoral practices in High Asia (pp. 31–52). Springer: Dordrecht.

  • Nyberg, G., Knutsson, P., Ostwald, M., Öborn, I., Wredle, E., Otieno, D. J., & Grönvall, A. (2015). Enclosures in West Pokot, Kenya: Transforming land, livestock and livelihoods in drylands. Pastoralism, 5(1), 25.

    Google Scholar 

  • Opiyo, F. E., Wasonga, O. V., & Nyangito, M. M. (2014). Measuring household vulnerability to climate-induced stresses in pastoral rangelands of Kenya: Implications for resilience programming. Pastoralism, 4(1), 10.

    Google Scholar 

  • Opiyo, F., Wasonga, O., Nyangito, M., Schilling, J., & Munang, R. (2015). Drought adaptation and coping strategies among the Turkana pastoralists of northern Kenya. International Journal of Disaster Risk Science, 6(3), 295–309.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pachauri, R. K., & Reisinger, A. (2008). Climate change 2007. Synthesis report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the fourth assessment report. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

  • PBS. (2006). Pakistan livestock census 2006. Economic Survey of Pakistan, Ministry of Finance, Government of Pakistan: Pakistan Bureau of Statistics.

    Google Scholar 

  • PBS. (2017). 6th Population and housing Census–2017 Population and housing Census–2017. Economic Survey of Pakistan, Ministry of Finance, Government of Pakistan: Pakistan Bureau of Statistics.

    Google Scholar 

  • PMD, (2019). Monthly weather report, 2019. National weather forecasting centre pakistan meteorological department (PMD) Islamabad, Government of Pakistan. http://nwfc.pmd.gov.pk/new/assets/monthly-weather-reports/2019-08.pdf

  • Provincial Disaster Management Authority, (PDMA). (2014). Punjab Disaster Response plan report 2014. Pakistan: Punjab.

    Google Scholar 

  • PDMA, Punjab. (2018). District Disaster Management Plan District Muzaffargarh (June, 2018 - July 2023) Provincal Disaster Management Authority Punjab, Pakistan. https://info.undp.org/docs/pdc/Documents/PAK/DDMP%20for%20District%20Muzaffargarh%20(New%20Design.pdf.

  • Regasa, D. T., & Akirso, N. A. (2019a). Determinants of climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies: An application of protection motivation theory in konta District, South Western Ethiopia. European Review of Applied Sociology, 12(19), 49–73.

    Google Scholar 

  • Regasa, D. T., & Akirso, N. A. (2019b). Determinants of climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies: An application of protection motivation theory. Rural Sustainability Research, 42(337), 9–25.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rehman, A., Jingdong, L., Chandio, A. A., & Hussain, I. (2017). Livestock production and population census in Pakistan: Determining their relationship with agricultural GDP using econometric analysis. Information Processing in Agriculture, 4(2), 168–177.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rojas-Downing, M. M., Nejadhashemi, A. P., Harrigan, T., & Woznicki, S. A. (2017). Climate change and livestock: Impacts, adaptation, and mitigation. Climate Risk Management, 16, 145–163.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sarwar, M., Nisa, M., Hassan, Z., & Shahzad, M. A. (2006). Influence of urea molasses treated wheat straw fermented with cattle manure on chemical composition and feeding value for growing buffalo calves. Livestock science, 105(1–3), 151–161.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sharma, V. B., Verma, M. R., Qureshi, S., & Bharti, P. (2016). Effects of diseases on milk production and body weight of cattle in Uttar Pradesh. International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Biotechnology, 9(3), 463–465.

    Google Scholar 

  • Shikuku, K. M., Winowiecki, L., Twyman, J., Eitzinger, A., Perez, J. G., Mwongera, C., & Läderach, P. (2017). Smallholder farmers’ attitudes and determinants of adaptation to climate risks in East Africa. Climate Risk Management, 16, 234–245.

    Google Scholar 

  • Shreve, C. M., & Kelman, I. (2014). Does mitigation save? Reviewing cost-benefit analyses of disaster risk reduction. International journal of disaster risk reduction, 10, 213–235.

    Google Scholar 

  • Silvestri, S., Bryan, E., Ringler, C., Herrero, M., & Okoba, B. (2012). Climate change perception and adaptation of agro-pastoral communities in Kenya. Regional Environmental Change, 12(4), 791–802.

    Google Scholar 

  • State Bank of Pakistan. (2010). State Bank publications 2010, Government of Pakistan.

  • Steinfeld, H., Gerber, P., Wassenaar, T. D., Castel, V., Rosales, M., Rosales, M., & de Haan, C. (2006). Livestock's long shadow: environmental issues and options. Food & Agriculture Org.

  • Stifel, D., & Minten, B. (2008). Isolation and agricultural productivity. Agricultural Economics, 39(1), 1–15.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stocker, T.F., Dahe, Q., Plattne, G., (2013). Climate change 2013: The physical science basis. Working group I contribution to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Summary for policymakers (IPCC, 2013).

  • Teo, M., Goonetilleke, A., Ahankoob, A., Deilami, K., & Lawie, M. (2018). Disaster awareness and information seeking behaviour among residents from low socio-economic backgrounds. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 31, 1121–1131.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tesso, G., Emana, B., & Ketema, M. (2012). Analysis of vulnerability and resilience to climate change induced shocks in North Shewa. Ethiopia. Agricultural Sciences, 3(06), 871.

    Google Scholar 

  • Thornton, P. K. (2010). Livestock production: recent trends, future prospects. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 365(1554), 2853–2867.

    Google Scholar 

  • Thornton, P. K., & Gerber, P. J. (2010). Climate change and the growth of the livestock sector in developing countries. Mitigation and adaptation strategies for global change, 15(2), 169–184.

    Google Scholar 

  • Thornton, P. K., Herrero, M. T., Freeman, H. A., Okeyo Mwai, A., Rege, J. E. O., Jones, P. G., & McDermott, J. J. (2007). Vulnerability, climate change and livestock-opportunities and challenges for the poor. 4(1).

  • Thornton, P. K., van de Steeg, J., Notenbaert, A., & Herrero, M. (2009). The impacts of climate change on livestock and livestock systems in developing countries: A review of what we know and what we need to know. Agricultural systems, 101(3), 113–127.

    Google Scholar 

  • Udmale, P., Ichikawa, Y., Manandhar, S., Ishidaira, H., & Kiem, A. S. (2014). Farmers׳ perception of drought impacts, local adaptation and administrative mitigation measures in Maharashtra State, India. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 10, 250–269.

    Google Scholar 

  • United Nations, (2016). Resilience index measurement and analysis (RIMA) –II, Food and agriculture organization of the united nations. http://www.fao.org/3/a-i5665e.pdf.

  • Verdoodt, A., Mureithi, S. M., & Van Ranst, E. (2010). Impacts of management and enclosure age on recovery of the herbaceous rangeland vegetation in semi-arid Kenya. Journal of Arid Environments, 74(9), 1066–1073.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wako, G., Tadesse, M., & Angassa, A. (2017). Camel management as an adaptive strategy to climate change by pastoralists in southern Ethiopia. Ecological Processes, 6(1), 1–12.

    Google Scholar 

  • Watete, P. W., Makau, W. K., Njoka, J. T., AderoMacOpiyo, L., & Mureithi, S. M. (2016). Are there options outside livestock economy? Diversification among households of northern Kenya. Pastoralism, 6(1), 3.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wilkinson, E., & Brenes, A. (2014). Risk-informed decision-making: an agenda for improving risk assessments under HFA2. Produced for the climate and development knowledge network (CDKN) Learning network on the use of climate and disaster risk assessments project, London.

  • Wooldridge, J. M. (2015). Introductory econometrics: A modern approach: Nelson Education. Scarborough, ON, Canada.

  • World Initiative for Sustainable Pastoralism (WISP). (2010). Building climate change resilience forafrican livestock in sub-saharan Africa–A program of IUCN–The international union for conservation of nature.

  • York, L., Heffernan, C., Rymer, C., & Panda, N. (2017). A deterministic evaluation of heat stress mitigation and feed cost under climate change within the smallholder dairy sector. Animal, 11(5), 900–909.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Younas, M.; Ishaq, K.; Ali, I.(2012). Effect of climate change on livestock production in Pakistan. In proceedings of the international seminar on animal Industry, Jakarta, Indonesia, 5–6 July 2012.

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Dilshad Ahmad.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Ahmad, D., Afzal, M. Impact of climate change on pastoralists’ resilience and sustainable mitigation in Punjab, Pakistan. Environ Dev Sustain 23, 11406–11426 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-020-01119-9

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-020-01119-9

Keywords

  • Pastoralists
  • Resilience
  • Vulnerability
  • Punjab
  • Pakistan