Agrawal, A. (2001). Common property institutions and sustainable governance of resources. World Development,
29(10), 1649–1672. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0305-750X(01)00063-8.
Agrawal, A., & Chhatre, A. (2006). Explaining success on the commons: Community forest governance in the Indian Himalaya. World Development,
34(1), 149–166. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2005.07.013.
Agrawal, A., & Gupta, K. (2005). Decentralization and participation: The governance of common pool resources in Nepal’s Terai. World Development,
33(7), 1101–1114. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2005.04.009.
Agrawal, A., & Yadama, G. (1997). How do local institutions mediate market and population pressures on resources? Forest panchayats in Kumaon. India. Development and Change,
28(3), 435–465. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-7660.00050.
Anderies, J. (2004). A framework to analyze the robustness of social-ecological systems from an institutional perspective. Ecology and Society.,
Baland, J.-M., & Platteau, J.-P. (1996). Halting degradation of natural resources: Is there a role for rural communities? Food and Agriculture Organisation. Biddles Ltd, Guildford King’s Lynn, UK. ISBN: 92-5-103728-0.
Ban, N. C., & Cox, M. (2017). Advancing social-ecological research through teaching: summary, observations, and challenges. Ecology and Society. https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-08949-220106.
Barnes, C., & Van Laerhoven, F. (2013). Helping to self-help? External interventions to stimulate local collective action in Joint Forest Management, Maharashtra, India. International Forestry Review,
15(1), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1505/146554813805927246.
Basurto, X., Gelcich, S., & Ostrom, E. (2013). The social–ecological system framework as a knowledge classificatory system for benthic small-scale fisheries. Global Environmental Change,
23(6), 1366–1380. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2013.08.001.
Berkes, F. (1989). Common property resources: Ecology and community-based sustainable development. Belhaven Press with the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.
Biggs, R., Westley, F. R., & Carpenter, S. R. (2010). Navigating the back loop: Fostering social innovation and transformation in ecosystem management. Ecology and Society,
15(2), 9. https://doi.org/10.2307/26268153.
Blaikie, P. (2006). Is small really beautiful? Community-based natural resource management in Malawi and Botswana. World Development,
34(11), 1942–1957. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2005.11.023.
Bliss, F. (2006). Social and economic change in the Pamirs (Gorno-Badakhshan. Tajikistan): Routledge.
Breu, T., & Hurni, H. (2003). The Tajik Pamirs: Challenges of sustainable development in an isolated mountain region. Berne.
Breu, T., Maselli, D., & Hurni, H. (2005). Knowledge for sustainable development in the Tajik Pamir mountains. Mountain Research and Development,
25(2), 139–146. https://doi.org/10.1659/0276-4741(2005)025[0139:KFSDIT]2.0.CO;2.
Brosius, J. P., Tsing, A. L., & Zerner, C. (1998). Representing communities: Histories and politics of community-based natural resource management. Society & Natural Resources,
11(2), 157–168. https://doi.org/10.1080/08941929809381069.
Chhatre, A., & Agrawal, A. (2008). Forest commons and local enforcement. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America,
105(36), 13286–13291. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0803399105.
Coleman, E. A. (2011). Common property rights, adaptive capacity, and response to forest disturbance. Global Environmental Change,
21(3), 855–865. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2011.03.012.
Cox, M., Arnold, G., & Tomas, S. V. (2010). A review of design principles for community-based natural resource management. Ecology and Society,
15(4), 38. https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-03704-150438.
Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications Inc.
Daedlow, K., Beckmann, V., Schlüter, M., & Arlinghaus, R. (2013). Explaining institutional persistence, adaptation, and transformation in East German recreational-fisheries governance after the German reunification in 1990. Ecological Economics,
96, 36–50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2013.09.005.
Darnhofer, I., Lamine, C., Strauss, A., & Navarrete, M. (2016). The resilience of family farms: Towards a relational approach. Journal of Rural Studies,
44, 111–122. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JRURSTUD.2016.01.013.
Epstein, G., Vogt, J. M., Mincey, S., Cox, M., & Fischer, B. (2013). Missing ecology : integrating ecological perspectives with the social-ecological system framework. International Journal of the Commons,
Folke, C. (2006). Resilience: The emergence of a perspective for social–ecological systems analyses. Global Environmental Change,
Folke, C., Biggs, R., Norström, A. V., Reyers, B., & Rockström, J. (2016). Social-ecological resilience and biosphere-based sustainability science. Ecology and Society. https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-08748-210341.
Folke, C., Carpenter, S. R., Walker, B., Scheffer, M., Chapin, T., & Rockström, J. (2010). Resilience thinking: Integrating resilience, adaptability and transformability. Ecology and Society, 15(4), 10.
Gibson, C. C., Williams, J. T., & Ostrom, E. (2005). Local enforcement and better forests. World Development,
33(2), 273–284. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2004.07.013.
Giffen, J., Earle, L., & Buxton, C. (2005). The development of civil society in central Asia. INTRAC.
GIZ. (2012). Linking natural resource management and adaptation to climate change: Experiences from the Tajik Pamirs. Bonn and Eschborn (Germany).
Goulden, M. C., Adger, W. N., Allison, E. H., & Conway, D. (2013). Limits to resilience from livelihood diversification and social capital in lake social-ecological systems. Annals of the Association of American Geographers,
103(4), 906–924. https://doi.org/10.1080/00045608.2013.765771.
Gunderson, L. H., & Holling, C. S. (2002). Panarchy: Understanding transformations in human and natural systems. Washington DC: Island Press.
Herbers, H. (2001). Transformation in the Tajik Pamirs : Gornyi-Badakhshan—an example of successful restructuring? Central Asian Survey,
20(3), 367–381. https://doi.org/10.1080/0263493012009536.
Hergarten, C. (2004). Investigations on land cover and land use of Gorno Badakhshan (GBAO) by means of land cover classifications derived from LANDSAT 7 data making use of remote sensing and GIS techniques. Bern: Universität Bern.
International Forestry Resource and Institutions. (2008). IFRI field manual. Update.
Kassam, K. S. (2010). Pluralism, resilience, and the ecology of survival: Case studies from the Pamir Mountains of Afghanistann. Ecology and Society, 15(2), 1–19.
Kirchoff, J. F. & Fabian, A. (2010). Forestry sector analysis of the Republic of Tajikistan. Eschborn, Germany: GTZ [Deutsche Gesellshaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit].
Kreutzmann, H. (2003). Ethnic minorities and marginality in the Pamirian Knot: survival of Wakhi and Kirghiz in a harsh environment and global contexts. Distribution,
Kumar, S. (2002). Does “Participation” in common pool resource management help the poor? A social cost-benefit analysis of joint forest management in Jharkhand, India. World Development,
Lacroix, K., & Richards, G. (2015). An alternative policy evaluation of the British Columbia carbon tax: Broadening the application of Elinor Ostrom’s design principles for managing common-pool resources. Ecology and Society. https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-07519-200238.
Leach, M., Mearns, R., & Scoones, I. (1999). Environmental entitlements: Dynamics and institutions in community-based natural resource management. World Development,
27(2), 225–247. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0305-750X(98)00141-7.
Leslie, H. M., Basurto, X., Nenadovic, M., Sievanen, L., Cavanaugh, K. C., Cota-Nieto, J. J., et al. (2015). Operationalizing the social-ecological systems framework to assess sustainability. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America,
112(19), 5979–5984. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1414640112.
Lund, J. F., Rutt, R. L., & Ribot, J. (2018). Trends in research on forestry decentralization policies. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability,
32, 17–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2018.02.003.
Lynch, O. J., Owen, J., & Talbott, K. (1995). Balancing acts: Community-based forest management and national law in Asia and the Pacific. Washington DC: World Resources Institute.
MacNally, R. (2002). Multiple regression and inference in ecology and conservation biology: further comments on identifying important predictor variables. Biodiversity and Conservation,
11, 1397–1401. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1016250716679.
MacNally, R., & Walsh, C. J. (2004). Hierarchical partitioning public-domain software. Biodiversity and Conservation,
13, 659–660. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:BIOC.0000009515.11717.0b.
Mahoney, J. (2000). Path dependence in historical sociology. Theory and Society,
29(4), 507–548. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1007113830879.
McGinnis, M. D., & Ostrom, E. (2014). Social-ecological system framework: initial changes and continuing challenges. Ecology and Society. https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-06387-190230.
Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Mislimshoeva, B., Herbst, P., & Koellner, T. (2016). Current pathways towards good forest governance for ecosystem services in the former Soviet republic Tajikistan. Forest Policy and Economics,
63, 11–19. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.FORPOL.2015.12.002.
Nagendra, H. (2007). Drivers of reforestation in human-dominated forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America,
104(39), 15218–15223. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0702319104.
Ostrom, E. (1990). Governing the commons: The evolution of institutions for collective action (Vol. 1990). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ostrom, E. (2007). A diagnostic approach for going beyond panaceas. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America,
Ostrom, E. (2009). A general framework for analyzing sustainability of social-ecological systems. Science (New York, N.Y.),
325(5939), 419–422. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1172133.
Ostrom, E., Burger, J., Field, C. B., Norgaard, R. B., & Policansky, D. (1999). Revisiting the commons: Local lessons, global challenges. Science. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.284.5412.278.
Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation methods. Thousand Oaks: SAGE.
Pierson, P. (2004). Politics in time: History, institutions, and social analysis. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Poteete, A. R., Janssen, M. A., & Ostrom, E. (2010). Working together: Collective action, the commons, and multiple methods in practice. New York: Princeton University Press.
Quinn, C. H., Huby, M., Kiwasila, H., & Lovett, J. C. (2007). Design principles and common pool resource management: an institutional approach to evaluating community management in semi-arid Tanzania. Journal of Environmental Management,
R Core Team (2013). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Foundation for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria. http://www.r-project.org/.
Resilience Alliance (2010). Assessing resilience in social-ecological systems: Workbook for practitioners 2.0. http://www.resalliance.org/3871.php%0A2.
Robinson, E. J. Z., Kumar, A. M., & Albers, H. J. (2010). Protecting developing countries’ forests: Enforcement in theory and practice. Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research,
2(1), 25–38. https://doi.org/10.1080/19390450903350820.
Saigal, S. (2003). Tajikistan: Issues and approaches to combat desertification. Asian Development Bank: TA 5941-REG: Combating Desertification in Asia.
Shackleton, S., et al. (2002). Devolution and community based natural resource management: Creating space for local people to participate and benefit? Overseas Development Institute: Natural Resources Perspectives,
‘Tajikistan clashes: ‘Many dead in Gorno-Badakshan,’ British Broadcasting Corporation (24 July 2012): http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-18965366. Accessed July 7, 2014.
Taggart-Hodge, T. D., & Schoon, M. (2016). The challenges and opportunities of transboundary cooperation through the lens of the East Carpathians Biosphere Reserve. Ecology and Society. https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-08669-210429.
Tajikistan (2011). The forest code of the Republic of Tajikistan. http://www.wildlife-tajikistan.org/downloads/viewcategory/6. Accessed March 2, 2018.
True, J. L., Jones, B. D., & Baumgartner, F. R. (2007). Punctuated-equilibrium theory explaining stability and change in public policymaking. In P. A. Sabatier (Ed.), Theories of the policy process (pp. 155–188). Boulder: Westview Press.
Tyson, W. (2017). Using social-ecological systems theory to evaluate large-scale comanagement efforts: A case study of the Inuvialuit Settlement Region. Ecology and Society, 22(1), 5.
United Nations Statistics Division (2013). Tajikistan: world statistics pocketbook.
http://data.un.org/CountryProfile.aspx?crname=Tajikistan. Accessed July 7, 2014.
van Oudenhoven, F., & Haider, L. J. (2012). Imagining alternative futures through the lens of food in the Afghan and Tajik Pamir Mountains. Revue D’ethnoecologie, 2, 2–18.
van Oudenhoven, F., & Haider, J. (2015). With our own hands: A celebration of food and life in the Pamir mountains of Afghanistan and Tajikistan. Utrecht: LM Publishers.
Walker, B. H., Carpenter, S. R., Rockstrom, J., Crepin, A.-S., & Peterson, G. D. (2012). Ecology and society: Drivers, “Slow” variables, “Fast” variables, shocks, and resilience. Ecology And Society,
World Bank. (2009). Republic of Tajikistan poverty assessment: Report no. 51341-TJ. Human Development Sector Unit Central Asia Country Unit, Europe and Central Asia Region.
Wright, G. D., Andersson, K. P., Gibson, C. C., Evans, T. P., & Turner, B. L. (2016). Decentralization can help reduce deforestation when user groups engage with local government. Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences,
113(52), 14958–14963. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1610650114.