Imidacloprid, used against mango hopper, is a persistent insecticide in soil. Microbes have the ability to remove toxic pesticides from soil surface. Metagenomic is an approach for understanding the diversity and related metabolic activities in any environmental sample without culturing the microbes. Metagenomic analysis of mango orchard soil was carried out using 16S rRNA gene sequencing to understand the impact of imidacloprid on soil microbial population. In control and imidacloprid applied soil samples, representative sequences clustered were 0.142930 and 0.082320 million, respectively. At the kingdom level, 85 and 88 percent represented to bacteria, 2 and 1 percent to archaea, and 13 and 11 percent to unassigned for control and treated metagenomes, respectively. At phylum level, 16 and 17 percent of OTUs (operational taxonomic units) were assigned with Proteobacteria, while 13 and 11 percent of OTUs were unassigned in control and imidacloprid-treated samples, respectively. The other abundant phyla in both the samples were Planctomycetes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria. At class level, 9 and 11 percent of OTUs were assigned with Planctomycetia in control as well as imidacloprid-treated samples, respectively. A number of OTUs present in control and imidacloprid applied samples are 31,173 and 21,909, respectively, with 18,018 number of OTUs shared between the two samples. The genus Gemmata totally disappeared in imidacloprid applied soil, while those belonging to class Phycisphaerae, genus Prevotella and species copri were identified in imidacloprid treatment. Bacterial community transformation was evident from this study indicating possible microbial bioremediation of imidacloprid in mango orchard soil.
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Software codes are provided in the materials and methods section.
The authors are grateful to the Council of Science & Technology, Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow, India, for providing financial support of the present study in the form of a project grant vide Council’s Letter No. CST/AAS/D-1542 dated 02/08/2017.
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Garg, N., Bhattacherjee, A.K., Shukla, P.K. et al. Influence of imidacloprid on bacterial community diversity of mango orchard soil assessed through 16S rRNA sequencing-based metagenomic analysis. Environ Monit Assess 193, 102 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-021-08885-7
- Mango orchard soil
- Bacterial diversity
- Metagenomic study