Adesodun, J. K., Atayese, M. O., Agbaje, T. A., Osadiaye, B. A., Mafe, O. F., & Soretire, A. A. (2010). Phytoremediation potentials of sunflowers (Tithonia diversifolia and Helianthus annuus) for metals in soils contaminated with zinc and lead nitrates. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 207(1–4), 195–201.
Agnew, A. D. Q. & Agnew, S. (1994). Upland kenya Wild flowers, 2nd ed. Nairobi: East Africa Natural History Society.
Alonso Castillo, M. L., Sánchez Trujillo, I., Vereda Alonso, E., García de Torres, A., & Cano Pavón, J. M. (2013). Bioavailability of heavy metals in water and sediments from a typical Mediterranean Bay (Málaga Bay, Region of Andalucía, Southern Spain). Marine Pollution Bulletin, 76(1–2), 427–434.
Amnesty International. (2009). Kenya: the unseen majority: Nairobi’s two million slum-dwellers:1–39.
Authority, E. P. (2000). A guide to the sampling and analysis of waters, wastewaters, soils and wastes.
Awuor, O. J. (2008). Paleoclimate of Ondiri Swamp.
Bandtock, J., & Hanson E. P. (1974). Success in chemistry. London: John Murray publishers
Bauddh, K., Singh, K., Singh, B., & Singh, R. P. (2015). Ricinus communis: a robust plant for bio-energy and phytoremediation of toxic metals from contaminated soil. Ecological Engineering, 84, 640–652.
Birongo, J. M., & Le, N. Q. (2005). An analysis of water governance in Kibera. Kenya, 135.
Bonnelle, C. (1987). X-ray spectroscopy. Annual Reports Section“ C”(Physical Chemistry).
Budambula, N. L. M., & Mwachiro, E. C. (2006). Metal status of Nairobi River waters and their bioaccumulation in Labeo cylindricus. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 169(1–4), 275–291.
Chu, T., & Rienzo, M. (2012). Bloom-forming cyanobacteria and other phytoplankton in northern New Jersey FreshWater bodies. INTECH, 1–24.
City Council of Nairobi. (2013). Environment outlook report (NHDP) 2003-2007. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 209(Suppl), i-86.
Cobbina, S., Duwiejuah, A., Quansah, R., Obiri, S., & Bakobie, N. (2015). Comparative assessment of heavy metals in drinking water sources in two small-scale mining communities in northern Ghana. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 12(9), 10620–10634.
Cui, L., Ouyang, Y., Lou, Q., Yang, F., Chen, Y., Zhu, W., & Luo, S. (2010). Removal of nutrients from wastewater with Canna indica L. under different vertical-flow constructed wetland conditions. Ecological Engineering, 36(8), 1083–1088.
Dan’azumi, M. H., & Bichi, S. (2006). Industrial pollution and implication on source of water supply in Kano, Nigeria. International Journal of Engineering & Technology, 10(1), 101–109.
Enderlein, Rainer E, Enderlein, U. S., & Peter, W. W. (1996). Water quality requirements. Water quality assessments—a guide to use of biota, Sediments and Water in Environmental Monitoring.
Farrag, H. F., & Fawzy M. (2012). Phytoremediation potentiality of Cyperus articulatus L. Life Science Journal, 9(4), 4032–4040.
Ferati, F., Kerolli-Mustafa, M., & Kraja-Ylli, A. (2015). Assessment of heavy metal contamination in water and sediments of Trepça and Sitnica rivers, Kosovo, using pollution indicators and multivariate cluster analysis. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 187(6), 338.
Frenesius, W., Quentin, K. E., & Schneider, W. (1988). A practical guide to physicochemical, chemical and microbiological water examination and quality assurance. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Gomes, M. V. T., de Souza, R. R., Teles, V. S., & Araújo Mendes, É. (2014). Phytoremediation of water contaminated with mercury using Typha domingensis in constructed wetland. Chemosphere, 103, 228–233.
Gordon, B., Callan, P., & Vickers, C. (2008). WHO guidelines for drinking-water quality. WHO Chronicle, 38(3), 564.
Huang, X., Sillanpää, M., Duo, B., & Gjessing, E. T. (2008). Water quality in the Tibetan Plateau: metal contents of four selected rivers. Environmental Pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987), 156(2), 270–277.
Ideriah, T. J. K., David-Omiema, S., & Ogbonna, D. N. (2012). Distribution of heavy metals and sediment along Abonnema shoreline, Nigeria. Resouce and environment, 2(1), 33–40.
John, F. B. (2000). Collecting Water-Quality Samples for Dissovled Metals-In-Water.
Karanja, N., Njenga, M., Prain, G., Kironchi, G., Githuku, C., Kinyari, P., et al. (2010). Assessment of environmental and public health hazards in wastewater used for urban agriculture in Nairobi, Kenya. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems, 12, 85–97.
Khan, K., Lu, Y., Khan, H., Zakir, S., Khan, S., Khan, A. A., et al. (2013a). Health risks associated with heavy metals in the drinking water of Swat, northern Pakistan. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 25(10), 2003–2013.
Khan, K., Wasserman, G. A., Liu, X., Ahmed, E., Parvez, F., Slavkovich, V., et al. (2012). Manganese exposure from drinking water and children’s academic achievement. Neurotoxicology, 33(1), 91–97.
Khan, S., Shahnaz, M., Jehan, N., Rehman, S., Shah, M. T., & Din, I. (2013b). Drinking water quality and human health risk in Charsadda district, Pakistan. Journal of Cleaner Production, 60, 93–101.
Kifayatullah, K., Lu, Y., Khan, H., Zakir, S., Ihsanullah., Khan, S., et al. (2013). Health risk associated with heavy metal in the drinking water of Swat, northern Pakistan. Journal of environmental sciences, 25(10), 2003–2013.
Kithiia, S. M. (1997). Land use changes and their effects on sediment transport and soil erosion within the Athi drainage basin. Kenya, 245, 145–150.
Krhoda, G. O. (2006). Kenya national water development report, 1–244.
Li, S., & Zhang, Q. (2010). Spatial characterization of dissolved trace elements and heavy metals in the upper Han River (China) using multivariate statistical techniques. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 176(1–3), 579–588.
Liu, J., Zhang, X., You, S., Wu, Q., & Zhou, K. (2015). Function of Leersia hexandra Swarts in constructed wetland for Cr (VI) decontamination. A comparative study of planted and unplanted mesocosms. Ecological engeenering, 81, 70–75.
Makokha, V. A., Shen, Y., & Wang, J. (2015). Concentrations, distribution, and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in the East Dongting and Honghu Lake, China. Exposure and Health. doi:10.1007/s12403-015-0180-8.
Mazumdar, K., & Das, S. (2015). Phytoremediation of pb, zn, fe, and mg with 25 wetland plant species from a paper mill contaminated site in north east india. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 22(1), 701–710.
Method 365. 3. (1978). Phosphorous, All Forms ( Colorimetric, Ascorbic Acid, Two Reagent ):3–7.
Mohiuddin, K. M., Ogawa, Y., Zakir, H. M., Otomo, K., & Shikazono, N. (2011). Heavy metals contamination in water and sediments of an urban river in a developing country. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology : (IJEST), 8(4), 723–736.
Muiruri, J. M., Nyambaka, H. N., & Nawiri, M. P. (2013). Heavy metals in water and tilapia fish from Athi-Galana-Sabaki tributaries, Kenya. International Food Research Journal, 20(2), 891–896.
Musyoki, A., Suleiman, M., Mbithi, J., & Maingi, M. (2013). Water-borne bacterial pathogens in surface waters of Nairobi river and health implication to communities downstream Athi river. Life, 3(1).
Ngumba, E., Gachanja, A., & Tuhkanen, T. (2016). Occurrence of selected antibiotics and antiretroviral drugs in Nairobi River Basin, Kenya. Science of the Total Environment, 539, 206–213.
Ogunfowokan, A. O., Oyekunle, J. A. O., Atoyebi, A. O., & Lawal, A. (2013). Speciation study of heavy metals in water and sediments from Asunle River of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. International Journal of environmental protection, 3, 6–16.
Pegram, G. (2010). Global water scarcity risks and challenges for business. Lloyd’s, 32.
Petrucio, M. M., & Esteves, F. a. (2000). Influence of photoperiod on the uptake of nitrogen and phosphorus in the water by Eichhornia crassipes and Salvinia auriculata. Revista Brasileira de Biologia, 60(3), 373–379.
Population Reference Bureau. (2011). Kenya Population Data Sheet, 8.
REV 00. (2012). Site, settlement, watershed: Nairobi River Basin—baseline report.
Riemersma, S., Little, J., Ontkean, G., & Moskal-Hebert, T. (2006). Phosphorus sources and sinks in watersheds: a review, 92.
Salati, S., & Moore, F. (2010). Assessment of heavy metal concentration in the Khoshk River water and sediment, Shiraz, Southwest Iran. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 164(1–4), 677–689.
Sharpley, A. N., Daniel, T., Sims, T., Lemunyon, J., Stevens, R., & Parry, R. (2003). Agricultural phosphorus and eutrophication second edition agricultural phosphorus and eutrophication second edition. Environmental Protection ARS, 149, 1–43.
Sood, A., Uniyal, P. L., Prasanna, R., & Ahluwalia, A. S. (2012). Phytoremediation potential of aquatic macrophyte, Azolla. Ambio, 41(2), 122–137.
Study, A. P. F. (2011). Constructed wetland for water treatment and recreation, Ngong river.
Suhr, D. (2005). Principal component analysis vs. exploratory factor analysis. SUGI 30 Proceedings:203–230.
Sultana, M. Y., Akratos, C. S., Pavlou, S., & Vayenas, D. V. (2014). Chromium removal in constructed wetlands: a review. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 96, 181–190.
Swamy, A V. V. S. (2014). Phytoremediation of cadmium and chromium contaminated soils by Cyperus Rotundus. L:97–101.
Tangahu, B. V., Sheikh Abdullah, S. R., Basri, H., Idris, M., Anuar, N., & Mukhlisin, M. (2011). A review on heavy metals (As, Pb, and Hg) uptake by plants through phytoremediation. International Journal of Chemical Engineering.
Thuku, G. K., Paul, G., & Almadi, O. (2013). The impact of population change on economic growth in kenya. Management Journals, 2(6), 43–60.
UN. (2007). World Urbanization Prospects The 2007 Revision Highlights. New York, ESA/P/WP/2(4), 883.
UNEP/Nairobi, C., & Wiomsa. (2009). An assessment of hydrological and land use characteristics affecting river-coast interactions in the West Indian Ocean Region.
USEPA. (1994). Method 200.8: determination of trace elements in waters and wastes by inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry. Federal Register, Revision 5, 57.
Vardanyan, L., Schmieder, K., Sayadyan, H., Heege, T., Heblinski, J., & Agyemang, T. (2008). Heavy metal accumulation by certain aquatic macrophytes from Lake Sevan ( Armenia ). Proceedings of Taal 2007: The 12th World Lake Conference, (February 2016), 1028–1038.
Varol, M., & Şen, B. (2012). Assessment of nutrient and heavy metal contamination in surface water and sediments of the upper Tigris River, Turkey. Catena, 92, 1–10.
Volterra, L., Boualam, M., Menesguen, A, Duguet, J. P., Duchemin, J., & Bonnefoy, X. (2002). Eutrophication and Health.
Vymazal, J., & Brezinova, T. (2014). Long term treatment performance of constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment in mountain areas: four case studies from the Czech Republic. Ecological Engineering, 71, 578–583.
Wang, Z., Yao, L., Liu, G., & Liu, W. (2014). Heavy metals in water, sediments and submerged macrophytes in ponds around the Dianchi Lake, China. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 107, 200–206.
Water Environment, & APHA. (1999). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater part 1000 standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater.
Water Research Australia. (2013). Manganese in drinking water:1–2.
WHO. (2010). Exposure to arsenic: a major public health concern. Agriculture, 5.
World Health Organization. (2007). Nitrate and nitrite in drinking water. Background Document for Development of WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality 31.
Wu, H., Zhang, J., Ngo, H. H., Guo, W., Hu, Z., Liang, S., et al. (2015). A review on the sustainability of constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment: design and operation. Bioresource Technology, 175, 594–601.
Yao, H., Qian, X., Gao, H., Wang, Y., & Xia, B. (2014). Seasonal and spatial variations of heavy metals in two typical Chinese rivers: concentrations, environmental risks, and possible sources. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 11(11), 11860–11878.
Zhang, H., Cui, B., Xiao, R., & Zhao, H. (2010a). Heavy metals in water, soils and plants in riparian wetlands in the Pearl River Estuary, South China. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 2(5), 1344–1354.
Zhang, X., Zhang, S., Xu, X., Li, T., Gong, G., Jia, Y., et al. (2010b). Tolerance and accumulation characteristics of cadmium in Amaranthus hybridus L. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 180(1–3), 303–308.
Zhang, H., Guo, Q., Yang, J., Shen, J., Chen, T., Zhu, G., et al. (2015). Subcellular cadmium distribution and antioxidant enzymatic activities in the leaves of two castor (Ricinus communis L.) cultivars exhibit differences in Cd accumulation. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 120, 184–192.
Zhang, Z., Juying, L., & Mamat, Z. (2016). Sources identification and pollution evaluation of heavy metals in the surface sediments of Bortala River, Northwest China. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 126, 94–101.