Rao C. Medical certification of cause of death for COVID-19. Bull World Health Organ. 2020;98(5):298–298A.
Brooks EG, Reed KD. Principles and pitfalls: a guide to death certification. Clin Med Res. 2015;13:74–82.
McGivern L, Shulman L, Carney JK, Shapiro S, Bundock E. Death certification errors and the effect on mortality statistics. Public Health Rep. 2017;132:669–75.
Watson J, Whiting PF, Brush JE. Interpreting a COVID-19 test result. BMJ. 2020;369:m1808.
Tsang NNY, So HC, Ng KY, Cowling BJ, Leung GM, Ip DKM. Diagnostic performance of different sampling approaches for SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR testing: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2021. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(21)00146-8.
Ibrahimi N, Delaunay-Moisan A, Hill C, Le Teuff G, Rupprecht JF, Thuret JY, Chaltiel D, Potier MC. Screening for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR: Saliva or nasopharyngeal swab? Rapid review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2021 16(6):e0253007.
Viswanathan M, Kahwati L, Jahn B, Giger K, Dobrescu AI, Hill C, Klerings I, Meixner J, Persad E, Teufer B, Gartlehner G. Universal screening for SARS-CoV-2 infection: a rapid review. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 9:CD013718.
Jarrom D, Elston L, Washington J, Prettyjohns M, Cann K, Myles S, Groves P. Effectiveness of tests to detect the presence of SARS-CoV-2 virus, and antibodies to SARS-CoV-2, to inform COVID-19 diagnosis: a rapid systematic review. BMJ Evid Based Med. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjebm-2020-111511.
Dyer O. COVID-19: Peru’s official death toll triples to become world’s highest. BMJ. 2021 373:n1442.
Spiegelhalter D. Use of “normal” risk to improve understanding of dangers of covid-19. BMJ 2020;370:m3259.
https://worldpopulationreview.com/country-rankings/death-rate-by-country. Accessed 9 May 2021.
Ioannidis JPA. Precision shielding for COVID-19: metrics of assessment and feasibility of deployment. BMJ Glob Health 2021;6:e004614.
Gombar S, Chang M, Hogan CA, Zehnder J, Boyd S, Pinsky BA, Shah NH. Persistent detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in patients and healthcare workers with COVID-19. J Clin Virol. 2020;129:104477.
Campioli CC, Cevallos EC, Assi M, Patel R, Binnicker MJ, O’Horoa JC. Clinical predictors and timing of cessation of viral RNA shedding in patients with COVID-19. J Clin Virol. 2020;130:104577.
Wajnberg A, Mansour M, Leven E, Bouvier NM, Patel G, Firpo-Betancourt A, et al. Humoral response and PCR positivity in patients with COVID-19 in the New York City region, USA: an observational study. Lancet Microbe. 2020;1:e283–9.
Moynihan R, Doust J, Henry D. Preventing overdiagnosis: how to stop harming the healthy. BMJ. 2012; 344:e3502.
Ioannidis JPA. Reconciling estimates of global spread and infection fatality rates of COVID-19: an overview of systematic evaluations. Eur J Clin Invest. 2021 26:e13554.
Jeremijenko A, Chemaitelly H, Ayoub HH, Alishaq M, Abou-Samra AB, Al Ajmi JAAA, et al. Herd Immunity against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Infection in 10 Communities. Qatar Emerg Infect Dis. 2021;27:1343–52.
Ioannidis JPA. The infection fatality rate of COVID-19 inferred from seroprevalence data. Bulletin of the WHO. 2021;99:19-33F.
Ioannidis JPA, Axfors CA, Contopoulos-Ioannidis DG. Second versus first wave of COVID-19 deaths: shifts in age distribution and in nursing home fatalities. Environ Res. 2021 195:110856.
https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/data/mortality. Accessed 9 May 2021.
Mwananyanda L, Gill CJ, MacLeod W, Kwenda G, Pieciak R, Mupila Z, Lapidot R, Mupeta F, Forman L, Ziko L, Etter L, Thea D. Covid-19 deaths in Africa: prospective systematic postmortem surveillance study. BMJ. 2021 17;372:n334.
https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/. Accessed 9 May 2021.
Horton R. Offline: COVID-19 is not a pandemic. Lancet. 2020;396(10255):874.
Arons MM, Hatfield KM, Reddy SC, et al. Presymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections and transmission in a skilled nursing facility. N Engl J Med. 2020;382(22):2081–90.
Broad JB, Gott M, Kim H, Boyd M, Chen H, Connolly MJ. Where do people die? An international comparison of the percentage of deaths occurring in hospital and residential aged care settings in 45 populations, using published and available statistics. Int J Public Health. 2013;58:257–67.
Worldwide palliative care alliance. Global Atlas of Palliative Care at the End of Life. 2014.
Kiang MV, Irizarry RA, Buckee CO, Balsari S. Every body counts: measuring mortality from the COVID-19 pandemic. Ann Intern Med. 2020;173(12):1004–7.
Gundlapalli AV, Lavery AM, Boehmer TK, Beach MJ, Walke HT, Sutton PD, Anderson RN. Death Certificate-Based ICD-10 Diagnosis Codes for COVID-19 Mortality Surveillance—United States, January–December 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021;70(14):523–7.
Juyal D, Kumar A, Pal S, Thaledi S, Jauhari S, Thawani V. Medical certification of cause of death during COVID-19 pandemic—a challenging scenario. J Family Med Prim Care. 2020;9(12):5896–8.
Mesnier J, Cottin Y, Coste P, et al. Hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction before and after lockdown according to regional prevalence of COVID-19 and patient profile in France: a registry study. Lancet Public Health. 2020;5:e536–42.
Zumla A, Chakaya J, Khan M, et al. World Tuberculosis Day 2021 Theme—The Clock is Ticking”—and the world is running out of time to deliver the United Nations General Assembly commitments to End TB due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Int J Infect Dis. 2021;S1201–9712(21):00264–72.
Ioannidis JPA. Global perspective of COVID-19 epidemiology for a full-cycle pandemic. Eur J Clin Invest. 2020 Oct 7:e13423.
Poulos J, Zhu L, Shah AD. Data gaps in electronic health record (EHR) systems: An audit of problem list completeness during the COVID-19 pandemic. Int J Med Inform. 2021;150:104452.
Hooper JE, Padera RF, Dolhnikoff M, da Silva LFF, Duarte-Neto AN, Kapp ME, et al. A postmortem portrait of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic: a large multi-institutional autopsy survey study. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2021;145(5):529–35.
Tzankov A, Jonigk D. Unlocking the lockdown of science and demystifying COVID-19: how autopsies contribute to our understanding of a deadly pandemic. Virchows Arch. 2020;9:1–3.
IHME. Estimation of total mortality due to COVID-19. http://www.healthdata.org/special-analysis/estimation-excess-mortality-due-covid-19-and-scalars-reported-covid-19-deaths. Accessed 9 May 2021.
Axfors C, Schmitt AM, Janiaud P, Van’t Hooft J, Abd-Elsalam S, Abdo EF, et al. Mortality outcomes with hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine in COVID-19 from an international collaborative meta-analysis of randomized trials. Nat Commun. 2021;2(1):2349.
Pkrachin Y. The reign of the ventilator: acute respiratory distress syndrome, COVID-19, and technological imperatives in intensive care. Ann Intern Med. 2021. https://doi.org/10.7326/M21-0270.
Kruk ME, Gage AD, Joseph NT, Danaei G, Gacia-Saiso S, Salomon JA. Mortality due to low-quality health systems in the universal health coverage era: a systematic analysis of amenable deaths in 137 countries. Lancet. 2018;392:2203–12.