Hair geochemical composition of children from Vilnius kindergartens as an indicator of environmental conditions

Abstract

The research is based on analysis data of Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, V, Zn (metals) and S in the hair of 47 girls and 63 boys from eight Vilnius kindergartens and the distribution pattern of high metal concentrations and bioavailability in snow-cover dust, also dust samples from vents of characteristic pollution sources. The kindergartens were selected according to topsoil total contamination index and dust-related indices. Significantly higher Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn concentrations in the hair of girls (means are 1.1, 1.9, 1.3, 1.2 times higher) and the differences between hair of genders according to inter-element correlation and clustering were found. Analysis of Spearman correlation coefficients between metal concentrations in hair of each gender and dust metal concentrations or metal loading rates at their residence sites revealed that for Mn, Cu and Zn, they are insignificant, while for Cr, Ni, Pb and V, they are mainly significant positive (except V in female hair). The correlation of the contents of Cr, Ni and V in dust with respective concentrations in hair was more significant for boys (p < 0.001) than for girls. Only a few cases with a significant Cr, Ni, Cu, Pb and Zn increase were revealed in hair of children attending polluted kindergartens in comparison with control. It was concluded that relationship between metal concentrations in hair and dust-related indices is more expressed for children’s residence sites than for their kindergarten sites. The gender-based grouping and site-by-site study design are recommended in the studies of reflection of environmental exposure in hair.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

References

  1. Ahmed, A. P. M., & Elmubarak, A. H. (1991). Assessment of trace elements in hair of a Saudi Arabian suburban adult male population. Environmental Technology, 12(4), 387–392.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Amaral, A. F. S., Arruda, M., Cabral, S., & Rodrigues, A. S. (2008). Essential and non-essential trace metals in scalp hair of men chronically exposed to volcanogenic metals in the Azores. Portugal. Environment International, 34(8), 1104–1108.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Bakaeva, E. A., & Eremeyshvili, A. V. (2016). Contents of some trace elements in biosubstrates of preschool children of northern European in Russia. Ekologiya cheloveka [Human Ecology]., 4, 26–31.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Banerjee, A. D. (2003). Heavy metal levels and solid phase speciation in street dusts of Delhi, India. Environmental Pollution, 123(1), 95–105.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Baranowska, I., Barchanski, L., Bak, M., Smolec, B., & Mzyk, Z. (2004). X-ray fluorescence spectrometry in multielemental analysis of hair and teeth. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 13(6), 639–646.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Barlow, P. J., Sylvester, P. E., & Dickerson, J. W. T. (1981). Hair trace metal levels in Down syndrome patients. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 25(3), 161–168.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Bates, D. V. (1995). The effects of air pollution on children. Environmental Health Perspectives, 103(6), 49–53.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Bini, C., & Bech, J. (Eds.). (2014). PHEs, Environment and Human Health: Potentially harmful elements in the environment and the impact on human health. Berlin: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Bressi, M., Sciare, J., Ghersi, V., Mihalopoulos, N., Petit, J. E., Nicolas, J. B., et al. (2014). Sources and geographical origins of fine aerosols in Paris (France). Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 14(16), 8813–8839.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Caforio, A. (1986). Inquinamento atmosferico da piombo. Inquinamento, 28(11), 54–57.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Čaplinskas, A. R. (2010). Vilnius history. Vilnius: Legend and reality. (in Lithuanian).

    Google Scholar 

  12. Caroli, S., Senofonte, O., Violante, N., Fornarelli, L., & Powar, A. (1992). Assessment of reference values for elements in hair of urban normal subjects. Microchemistry Journal, 46, 174–183.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Chimiko-spektralnyje metody. (1978). Instrukcija Nr 155-XC. Ministerstvo geologii CCCR, VIMS. p 29.

  14. Chiu, S. F., Wang, P. C., Kao, P. F., Lin, J. B., Lin, D. B., & Chen, C. Y. (2011). Trace metals analysis of hair samples from students in metropolitan area high schools. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 289(3), 873–882.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Chojnacka, K., Górecka, H., & Górecki, H. (2006). The effect of age, sex, smoking habit and hair color on the composition of hair. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 22(1), 52–57.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Chojnacka, K., Michalak, I., Zielińska, A., Górecka, H., & Górecki, H. (2010). Interelationship between elements in human hair: the effect of gender. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 73(8), 2022–2028.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Contiero, E., & Folin, M. (1994). Trace elements nutritional status use of hair as a diagnostic tool. Biological Trace Element Research, 40(2), 151–160.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. Creason, J. P., Hinners, T. A., Bumgarner, J. E., & Pinkerton, C. (1975). Trace elements in hair, as related to exposure in metropolitan New York. Clinical Chemistry, 21(4), 603–612.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. de Miguel, E., Llamas, J. F., Chacón, E., Berg, T., Larssen, S., Røyset, O., et al. (1997). Origin and patterns of distribution of trace elements in street dust: unleaded petrol and urban lead. Atmospheric Environment, 31(17), 2733–2740.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Demetriades, A., Li, X., Ramsey, M. H., & Thornton, I. (2010). Chemical speciation and bioaccessibility of lead in surface soil and house dust, Lavrion urban area, Attiki, Hellas. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 32(6), 529–552.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. Detkov, V Yu., & Skalny, A. V. (2013). The content of chemical elements in the hair of children living in Saint-Petersburg. Becтник Poccийcкoй вoeннo-мeдицинcкoй aкaдeмии, 44(4), 155–158.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Detkov, V Yu., Skalny, A. V., & Lomakin, Yu V. (2013). Essential trace elements in the hair of children from Saint Petersburg. Mикpoэлeмeнты в мeдицинe, 13(3), 41–44 (in Russian).

    Google Scholar 

  23. Dongarrà, G. A. E. T. A. N. O., Lombardo, M., Tamburo, E., Varrica, D., Cibella, F., & Cuttitta, G. (2011). Concentration and reference interval of trace elements in human hair from students living in Palermo, Sicily (Italy). Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 32(1), 27–34.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Dongarra, G., Varrica, D., Tamburo, E., & D’Andrea, D. (2012). Trace elements in scalp hair of children living in differing environmental contexts in Sicily (Italy). Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 34, 160–169.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. Fenger, J. (1993). Energy, Environment and Natural Resources Management in the Baltic Sea Region. Nordic Council of Ministers. p 491.

  26. Furuta, N., Iijima, A., Kambe, A., Sakai, K., & Sato, K. (2005). Concentrations, enrichment and predominant sources of Sb and other trace elements in size classified airborne particulate matter collected in Tokyo from 1995 to 2004. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 7(12), 1155–1161.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. Galitskaya, I. V., & Rumyantseva, N. A. (2012). Snow-cover contamination in urban territories (Lefortovo district, Moscow). Annals of Glaciology, 53(61), 23–26.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. Gebel, T. W., Suchenwirth, R. H., Bolten, C., & Dunkelberg, H. H. (1998). Human biomonitoring of arsenic and antimony in case of an elevated geogenic exposure. Environmental Health Perspectives, 106(1), 33.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. Gorbunov, A. V., Lyapunov, S. M., Okina, O. I., Frontas’eva, M. V., Pavlov, S. S., & Il’chenko, I. N. (2015). Nuclear-physical analysis methods in medical geology: Assessment of the impact of environmental factors on human health. Physics of Particles and Nuclei, 46(3), 424–451.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. Grabeklis, A. R., Skalny, A. V., Nechiporenko, S. P., & Lakarova, E. V. (2011). Indicator ability of biosubstances in monitoring the moderate occupational exposure to toxic metals. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, 25, S41–S44.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. Gregorauskiene, V., & Kadunas, V. (1997). Experience and goals of geochemical mapping for environmental protection in Lithuania. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 60(1), 67–76.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  32. Gregorauskienė, V., Taraškevičius, R., Kadūnas, V., Radzevičius, A., & Zinkutė, R. (2011). Geochemical characteristics of Lithuanian urban areas. In Mapping the chemical environment of urban areas, 393–409.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Hall, G. E., Bonham-Carter, G. F., & Buchar, A. (2014). Evaluation of portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) in exploration and mining: Phase 1, control reference materials. Geochemistry: Exploration, Environment, Analysis, 14(2), 99–123.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  34. Kabata-Pendias, A. (2011). Trace elements in soils and plants (4th ed.). Boca Raton, London, New York: Taylor & Francis Group.

    Google Scholar 

  35. Kadar, I., & Marton, L. (2012). Element composition of the accumulating air dust in Budapest and its surroundings. Crop Production, 61, 109–124.

    Google Scholar 

  36. Kadūnas, V., Budavičius, R., Gregorauskienė, V., Katinas, V., Kliaugienė, E., Radzevičius, A., et al. (1999). Geochemical atlas of Lithuania. Vilnius, Lithuania: Geological Institute.

    Google Scholar 

  37. Kadūnas, V., Budavičius, R., Gregorauskienė, V., Katinas, Vl., Radzevičius, A., Taraškevičius, R., Zinkutė, R. (2005). Natural geochemical field of the living environment and its anthropogenic transformation in Lithuania. Evolution of geological environment in Lithuania. Edited by A. Zuzevičius. Vilnius. Institute of Geology and Geography. P. 246–262. ISBN 9955-555-05-X 48–60.

  38. Khalique, A., Ahmad, S., Anjum, T., Jaffar, M., Shah, M. H., Shaheen, N., et al. (2005). A comparative study based on gender and age dependence of selected metals in scalp hair. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 104(1), 45–57.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  39. Kicińska, A., & Bożęcki, P. (2017). Metals and mineral phases of dusts collected in different urban parks of Krakow and their impact on the health of city residents. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 1–16.

  40. Krasilščikovas, D., Jatulienė, N., Taraškevičius, R., Barysienė, R., & Michailenko, N. (1988). Quality of outdoor environment and morbidity of preschool children in major industrial centre. Sveikatos apsauga, 11, 11–13 (in Lithuanian).

    Google Scholar 

  41. Kumpiene, J., Brännvall, E., Taraškevičius, R., Aksamitauskas, Č., & Zinkutė, R. (2011). Spatial variability of topsoil contamination with trace elements in preschools in Vilnius, Lithuania. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 108(1), 15–20.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  42. Lee, H. Y., Chon, H. T., Sager, M., & Marton, L. (2012). Platinum pollution in road dusts, roadside soils, and tree barks in Seoul, Korea. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 34, 5–12. 

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  43. Lombeck, I., Wilhelm, M., Hafner, D., Roloff, K., & Ohnesorge, F. K. (1988). Hair zinc of young children from rural and urban areas in North Rhine-Westphalia, Federal Republic of Germany. European Journal of Pediatrics, 147(2), 179–183.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  44. Moncevičiūtė-Eringienė, E. V., Milašienė, V. E., Characiejus, D. A., & Taraškevičius, P. M. (1989). Disturbances of human immune state as possible oncological risk factors. Experimental Oncology, 11, 60–63 (in Russian).

    Google Scholar 

  45. Morrison, S., Fordyce, F. M., & Scott, E. M. (2014). An initial assessment of spatial relationships between respiratory cases, soil metal content, air quality and deprivation indicators in Glasgow, Scotland, UK: relevance to the environmental justice agenda. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 36(2), 319–332.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  46. Nowak, B. (1998). Contents and relationship of elements in human hair for a non-industrialised population in Poland. The Science of the Total Environment, 209(1), 59–68.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  47. Nowak, B., & Chmielnicka, J. (2000). Relationship of lead and cadmium to essential elements in hair, teeth, and nails of environmentally exposed people. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 46(3), 265–274.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  48. Nowak, B., & Kozłowski, H. (1998). Heavy metals in human hair and teeth. Biological Trace Element Research, 62(3), 213–228.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  49. Ohmori, S. (1984). Hair as a monitor for environmental pollution, variations in element concentrations for different lead processing, workers and different washing methods of their hair. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 84(2), 451–459.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  50. Ordonez, A., Loredo, J., De Miguel, E., & Charlesworth, S. (2003). Distribution of heavy metals in the street dusts and soils of an industrial city in Northern Spain. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 44(2), 0160–0170.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  51. Park, H.-S., Shin, K.-O., & Kim, J.-S. (2007). Assessment of reference values for hair minerals of Korean preschool children. Biological Trace Element Research, 116, 119–130.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  52. Pena-Fernandez, A., Gonzalez-Munoz, M. J., & Lobo-Bedmarb, M. C. (2014). “Reference values” of trace elements in the hair of a sample group of Spanish children (aged 6–9 years)—Are urban topsoils a source of contamination? Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 38, 141–152.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  53. Pereira, R., Ribeiro, R., & Goncalves, F. (2004). Scalp hair analysis as a tool in assessing human exposure to heavy metals (S. Domingos mine, Portugal). Science of the Total Environment, 327(1), 81–92.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  54. Plant, J. A., Voulvoulis, N., & Ragnarsdottir, K. V. (Eds.). (2012). Pollutants, human health and the environment: a risk based approach. Hoboken: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  55. Potts, P. J., Tindle, A. G., & Webb, P. C. (1992). Geochemical reference material compositions: rocks, minerals, sediments, soils, carbonates, refractories & ores used in research & industry. London: Taylor & Francis.

    Google Scholar 

  56. Qu, Y., An, J., He, Y., & Zheng, J. (2016). An overview of emissions of SO 2 and NO x and the long-range transport of oxidized sulfur and nitrogen pollutants in East Asia. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 44, 13–25.

    Google Scholar 

  57. Rasmussen, P. E., Levesque, C., Chénier, M., Gardner, H. D., Jones-Otazo, H., & Petrovic, S. (2013). Canadian House Dust Study: Population-based concentrations, loads and loading rates of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc inside urban homes. Science of the Total Environment, 443, 520–529.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  58. Robbins, C. R. (2012). Chemical composition of different hair types. CR Robbins, Chemical and physical behavior of human hair (pp. 105–176). Berlin: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  59. Ryan, D. E., Holzbecher, J., & Stuart, D. C. (1978). Trace elements in scalp-hair of persons with multiple sclerosis and of normal individuals. Clinical Chemistry, 24(11), 1996–2000.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  60. Saghatelyan, A. K., Sahakyan, L. V., Belyaeva, O. A., Tepanosyan, G. H., Maghakyan, N. R., & Kafyan, M. H. (2013). Dust and stream of heavy metals in the atmosphere of the city of Yerevan. Electronic Journal of Natural Sciences. National Academy of Sciences of RA Ecology, 1(20), 38–44.

    Google Scholar 

  61. Sakai, T., Wariishi, M., & Nishiyama, K. (2000). Changes in trace element concentrations in hair of growing children. Biological Trace Element Research, 77(1), 43–51.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  62. Samanta, G., Sharma, R., Roychowdhury, T., & Chakraborti, D. (2004). Arsenic and other elements in hair, nails, and skin-scales of arsenic victims in West Bengal, India. Science of the Total Environment, 326(1), 33–47.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  63. Schwar, M. J. R., Moorcroft, J. S., Laxen, D. P. H., Thompson, M., & Armorgie, C. (1988). Baseline metal-in-dust concentrations in Greater London. Science of the Total Environment, 68, 25–43.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  64. Senofonte, O., Violante, N., & Caroli, S. (2000). Assessment of reference values for elements in human hair of urban schoolboys. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, 14(1), 6–13.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  65. Shearer, T. R., Larson, K., Neuschwander, J., & Gedney, B. (1982). Minerals in the hair and nutrient intake of autistic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 12(1), 25–34.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  66. Silanpää, M. (1982). Micronutrients and the nutrient status of soils: a global study. FAO Soils Bulletin 48: 444 p., Rome.

  67. Skalny, A.V., Karganov, M. Yu., Skalnaya, M. G., Grabeklis, A. R., Lobanova, Yu. N., Medvedeva, U. S., & Cherepov, A. B. (2013). Polysystemic Investigation of Children, Living in a Megalopolis: Environmental Aspect. In: Karganov, M., Polysystemic Approach to School, Sport and Environment Medicine. 93–117. doi: 10.4172/978-1-63278-000-3-001-08.

    Google Scholar 

  68. Soroko, S. I., Maximova, I. A., & Protasova, O. V. (2014). Age and gender features of the content of macro and trace elements in the organisms of children from the European North. Human Physiology, 40(6), 603–612.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  69. Spalinger, S. M., von Braun, M. C., Petrosyan, V., & von Lindern, I. H. (2007). Northern Idaho house dust and soil lead levels compared to the bunker hill superfund site. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 130(1), 57–72.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  70. Sturaro, A., Parvoli, G., Doretti, L., Allegri, G., & Costa, C. (1994). The influence of color, age, and sex on the content of zinc, copper, nickel, manganese, and lead in human hair. Biological Trace Element Research, 40(1), 1–8.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  71. Sturman, V. I. (2010). Mapping and rehabilitation of brownfields in the city of Izhevsk. Brownfields V PII-39. WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, 141. WIT Press. www.witpress.com, ISSN 1743-3541 (on-line).

  72. Taraškevičius, R. (1989). Technogenical chemical elements in the city. Žinija, 37–37 (in Lithuanian).

  73. Taraškevičius, R. (1992). Technogenical geochemical flows of industrial city (on an example of Vilnius). Thesis of doctoral dissertation. Institute of geochemistry and geophysics, Minsk (in Russian).

  74. Taraškevičius, R. (1998a). Snow cover investigations—data about air quality. Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry, 28(2), 155.

    Google Scholar 

  75. Taraškevičius, R. (1998b). Heavy metals in topsoils of dwelling districts. Critical Rewiews in Analytical Chemistry, 28(2), 156.

    Google Scholar 

  76. Taraškevičius, R., Radžiūnienė, J., Zinkutė, R., Petrauskienė, A., & Jankauskaitė, M. (2016). Conditions to obtain results analysing small amount of plant material by EDXRF. Chemija, 27(2), 114–122.

    Google Scholar 

  77. Taraškevičius, R., & Zinkutė, R. (2003). New areas for hygienical investigation in Vilnius according to change of topsoil total contamination index distribution in Medical Geology. Health and the Environment. Abstracts of Presentations by Participants of the Short Course, Vilnius, pp. 55–58.

  78. Taraškevičius, R., & Zinkutė, R. (2008). Distribution of heavy metals in upper layers of soil from Vilnius sites exposed to different type of pollution. Polish Geological Institute Special Papers, 24, 111–116.

    Google Scholar 

  79. Taraškevičius, R., & Zinkutė, R. (2011). Lietuvos miestų geocheminės anomalijos ir jų sklaida (Urban geochemical anomalies and their spread). Special Issue “Geosciences in Lithuania: challenges and perspectives”. Baltica, 24, 163–168.

  80. Taraškevičius, R., Zinkutė, R., Čyžius, G. J., Kaminskas, M., & Jankauskaitė, M. (2013). Soil contamination in one of preschools influenced by metal working industry, In Environment. Technology. Resources: Proceedings of the 9th International Scientific and Practical Conference. Volume 1, 83–86.

    Google Scholar 

  81. Tessier, A., Campbell, P. G., & Bisson, M. (1979). Sequential extraction procedure for the speciation of particulate trace metals. Analytical Chemistry, 51(7), 844–851.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  82. Torrente, M., Colomina, M. T., & Domingo, J. L. (2005). Metal concentrations in hair and cognitive assessment in an adolescent population. Biological Trace Element Research, 4, 215–221.

    Google Scholar 

  83. Valiulis, D., Čeburnis, D., Šakalys, J., & Kvietkus, K. (2002). Estimation of atmospheric trace metal emissions in Vilnius City, Lithuania, using vertical concentration gradient and road tunnel measurement data. Atmospheric Environment, 36(39), 6001–6014.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  84. Vanaelst, B., Huybrechts, I., Michels, N., Vyncke, K., Sioen, I., de Vriendt, T., et al. (2012). Mineral concentrations in hair of Belgian elementary school girls: reference values and relationship with food consumption frequencies. Biological Trace Element Research, 150(1–3), 56–67.

    Google Scholar 

  85. Varrica, D., Tamburo, E., Dongarrà, G., & Sposito, F. (2014). Trace elements in scalp hair of children chronically exposed to volcanic activity (Mt. Etna, Italy). Science of the Total Environment, 470, 117–126.

    Google Scholar 

  86. Violante, N., Senofonte, O., Marsili, G., Meli, P., Soggiu, M. E., & Caroli, S. (2000). Human hair as a marker of pollution by chemical elements emitted by a thermoelectric power plant. Microchemical Journal, 67(1), 397–405.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  87. Wang, T., Fu, J., Wang, Y., Liao, C., Tao, Y., & Jiang, G. (2009). Use of scalp hair as indicator of human exposure to heavy metals in an electronic waste recycling area. Environmental Pollution, 157(8), 2445–2451.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  88. Wołowiec, P., Michalak, I., Chojnacka, K., & Mikulewicz, M. (2013). Hair analysis in health assessment. Clinica Chimica Acta, 419, 139–171.

    Google Scholar 

  89. Yaghi, B., & Abdul-Wahab, S. A. (2004). Levels of heavy metals in outdoor and indoor dusts in Muscat, Oman. International Journal of Environmental Studies, 61(3), 307–314.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  90. Zaichik, S., & Zaichik, V. (2010). The effect of age and gender on 37 chemical element contents in scalp hair of healthy humans. Biological Trace Element Research, 134(1), 41–54.

    Google Scholar 

  91. Zakrgynska-Fontaine, V., Doré, J. C., Ojasoo, T., Poirier-Duchêne, F., & Viel, C. (1998). Study of the age and sex dependence of trace elements in hair by correspondence analysis. Biological Trace Element Research, 61(2), 151–168.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  92. Zhang, C. (2006). Using multivariate analyses and GIS to identify pollutants and their spatial patterns in urban soils in Galway, Ireland. Environmental Pollution, 142(3), 501–511.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  93. Zinkutė R., Taraškevičius R., Jankauskaitė M. (2009). Variation of accumulating associations in topsoil of the oldest part of Vilnius, In Environment. Technology. Resources: Proceedings of the 7th International Scientific and Practical Conference (June 2527, 2009, Rezekne):241–248.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to doctor of medicine Laima Paplauskaitė for hair sampling, all anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments and suggestions that helped to improve our manuscript and to Stephen Conlon (Brussels) for his linguistic advice.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ričardas Taraškevičius.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Taraškevičius, R., Zinkutė, R., Gedminienė, L. et al. Hair geochemical composition of children from Vilnius kindergartens as an indicator of environmental conditions. Environ Geochem Health 40, 1817–1840 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-017-9977-7

Download citation

Keywords

  • Heavy metals
  • EDXRF analysis
  • Snow-cover dust metal concentrations
  • Metal loading rates
  • Gender-related elements