This paper aims to work towards a factual framework to substantiate the linkage between corporate social responsibility (CSR) reporting and economic activity and between CSR reporting and CO2 pollution, continent-wide. The document summarizes the conclusions of the dynamic analysis of CSR reports and the correlation analysis between CSR reports and economic—environmental variables, always using evidence from continent-level data. We draw on growth—environmental data and CSR reports from 1999 to 2017 to perform an analysis that quantifies the direction, the strength and the nature of the dependence structure between the two variables. Continents’ position according to their CSR reporting performance, CSR report trends over time, comparative schemes among continents, compose a global view on continents’ differentiation on CSR practices and strategies. Overall, the paper contributes to the understanding of how the CSR policies have been integrated and evolved worldwide.
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Thanks are due to the Editor Professor Hans Amman and to three anonymous reviewers for their helpful and constructive comments. Any errors are solely the authors’ responsibility.
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Appendix: Hoeffding’s D Calculations
Appendix: Hoeffding’s D Calculations
Hoeffding’s D calculations for growth variables (gross national income growth (annual %), gross national income, exports of goods and services growth (annual % growth), exports of goods and services volumes correspond to GNIG, GNI$, EXPORTGR, EXPORT$ variables respectively).
Latin America and the Caribbean
Hoeffding’s D calculations for environmental variables (CO2 emissions (measured in kt) correspond to CO2EMS variable and CO2 intensity (in kg per kg of oil equivalent energy use) corresponds to CO2INTENS variable) in Africa.
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Halkos, G., Nomikos, S. & Tsilika, K. Evidence for Novel Structures Relating CSR Reporting and Economic Welfare: Environmental Sustainability—A Continent-Level Analysis. Comput Econ (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10614-020-10091-5
- Corporate social responsibility
- Exploratory data analysis
- Correlation measures
- Continent levels