Alha, K., Kinnunen, J., Koskinen, E. & Paavilainen, J. (2018). Free-to-play games: Paying players’ perspectives. In Proceedings of the 22nd International Academic Mindtrek Conference. Tampere: ACM.
Alha, K., Koskinen, E., Paavilainen, J., Hamari, J., & Kinnunen, J. (2014). Free-to-play games: Professionals’ perspectives. In Proceedings of DiGRA Nordic 2014, Gotland, Sweden. http://www.digra.org/digital-library/publications/free-to-play-games-professionals-perspectives/ Accessed Mar. 4, 2019.
Allison, J. A. (2013). The financial crisis and the free market cure: Why pure capitalism is the world economy’s only hope. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Aristotle. (Circa 350 BCA). Nicomachean Ethics.
Arkes, H. R., & Blumer, C. (1985). The psychology of sunk costs. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 35, 124–140.
Arrington, M. (2009a). Zynga settles Mob Wars litigation as it settles into Playdom fight. TechCrunch. https://techcrunch.com/2009/09/13/zynga-settles-mob-wars-litigation-as-it-settles-in-to-playdom-war/ Accessed Mar. 4, 2019.
Arrington, M. (2009b). Zynga CEO Mark Pincus: “I did every horrible thing in the book just to get revenues”. TechCrunch. https://techcrunch.com/2009/11/06/zynga-scamville-mark-pinkus-faceboo/ Accessed Mar. 4, 2019.
Belk, R. W. (2013). Extended self in a digital world. Journal of Consumer Research, 40, 477–500.
Bell, D. E. (1982). Regret in decision-making under uncertainty. Operations Research, 30(5), 961–981.
Brook, Y., & Watkins, D. (2012). Free market revolution: How Ayn Rand’s ideas can end big government. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.
Caioli, E. (2010). Top Facebook games still dominated by Zynga titles. Gamasutra. https://www.gamasutra.com/view/news/119661/Top_Facebook_Games_Still_Dominated_By_Zynga_Titles.php Accessed Mar. 4, 2019.
Carlson, N. (2009). How social games lead-generation scams work. Business Insider. http://www.businessinsider.com/how-social-games-lead-gen-scams-work-2009-11?r=US&IR=T&IR=T Accessed Mar. 4, 2019.
Cheng, T., Leung, H., & Snell, R. S. (2017). Attraction or distraction? Corporate social responsibility in Macao’s gambling industry. Journal of Business Ethics, 145(3), 637–658.
Cifaldi, F. (2012). No more special Facebook perks for Zynga. Gamasutra. https://www.gamasutra.com/view/news/182607/No_more_special_Facebook_perks_for_Zynga.php Accessed Mar. 4, 2019.
Czarnota, J. (2016). Do EVE online players dream of Icelandic spaceships? The role and mechanisms of co-creation in CCP’s success. In M. Carter, K. Bergström, & D. Woolford (Eds.), Internet spaceships are serious business (pp. 167–188). Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
Davidovici-Nora, M. (2014). Paid and free digital business models innovations in the video game industry. Digiworld Economic Journal, 94, 83–102.
Drake, J. R. (2016). Asking for Facebook logins: An egoist case for privacy. Journal of Business Ethics, 139(3), 429–441.
Fields, T., & Cotton, B. (2012). Social game design: Monetization methods and mechanics. Waltham, MA: Morgan Kauffman.
Gladsteim, M. R. (1999). The new Ayn Rand companion. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
Gotthelf, H. (2016). The morality of life. In H. Gotthelf & G. Salmieri (Eds.), A companion to Ayn Rand (pp. 73–104). West Sussex: Wiley Blackwell.
Gotthelf, H., & Salmieri, G. (Eds.). (2016). A companion to Ayn Rand. West Sussex: Wiley Blackwell.
Grubb, J. (2013). Zynga and Electronic Arts settle the Ville lawsuit. VentureBeat. https://venturebeat.com/2013/02/15/zynga-and-electronic-arts-settle-in-the-ville-lawsuit/ Accessed Mar. 4, 2019.
Ha, A. (2012). Zynga loosens its deal with Facebook: No longer tied to Facebook ad units, credits, or exclusivity. TechCrunch. https://techcrunch.com/2012/11/29/zynga-facebook-deal-amendment/ Accessed Mar. 4, 2019.
Hamari, J. (2011). Perspectives from behavioral economics to analyzing game design patterns: Loss aversion in social games. In Proceedings of CHI’2011 (Social games workshop). Vancouver, Canada. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/262261651_Perspectives_from_behavioral_economics_to_analyzing_game_design_patterns_loss_aversion_in_social_games Accessed Mar. 4, 2019.
Hamari, J., Alha, K., Järvelä, S., Kivikangas, J. M., Koivisto, J., & Paavilainen, J. (2017a). Why do players buy in-game content? An empirical study on concrete purchase motivations. Computers in Human Behavior, 68, 538–546.
Hamari, J., Hanner, N., & Koivisto, J. (2017b). Service quality explains why people use freemium services but not if they go premium: An empirical study in free-to-play games. International Journal of Information Management, 37(1), 1449–1459.
Hamari, J., & Järvinen, A. (2011). Building customer relationship through game mechanics in social games. In M. Cruz-Cunha, V. Carvalho, & P. Tavares (Eds.), Business, technological and social dimensions of computer games: Multidisciplinary developments (pp. 348–365). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.
Hamari, J., & Lehdonvirta, V. (2010). Game design as marketing: How game mechanics create demand for virtual goods. International Journal of Business Science & Applied Management, 5, 14–29.
Harviainen, J. T., Ojasalo, J., & Nanda Kumar, S. (2018). Using service design in mobile game pricing: A case study. Electronic Markets, 28(2), 191–203.
Heimo, O. I., Harviainen, J. T., Kimppa, K. K., & Mäkilä, T. (2018). Virtual to virtuous money: A virtue ethics perspective on video game business logic. Journal of Business Ethics, 153(1), 95–103.
Huizinga, J. (1955). Homo Ludens: A study of the play-element in culture. Boston, MA: Beacon.
Jordan, B., Buente, W., Silva, P. A., & Rosenbaum, H. (2016). Selling out the magic circle: free-to-play games and developer ethics. In Proceedings of 1st International Joint Conference of DiGRA and FDG.
Juul, J. (2002). The open and the closed: Game of emergence and games of progression. In F. Mäyrä (Ed.), Computer games and digital cultures conference proceedings (pp. 323–329). Tampere: Tampere University Press.
Kahneman, D., & Tversky, A. (1974). Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases. Science, 185, 1124–1131.
Kapeliushnikov, R. (2015). Behavioral economics and the’new’ paternalism. Russian Journal of Economics, 1(1), 81–107.
Keinonen, T. (2017). Designers, users and justice. New York: Bloomsbury.
Kimppa, K., Heimo, O., & Harviainen, J. T. (2015). First dose is always freemium. ACM SIGCAS Computers and Society, 45(3), 132–137.
King, D. L., & Delfabbo, P. H. (2014). The cognitive psychology of Internet gaming disorder. Clinical Psychology Review, 34(4), 298–308.
Koeder, M. J., Tanaka, E., & Mitomo, H. (2018). “Lootboxes” in digital games—A gamble with consumers in need of regulation? An evaluation based on leanings from Japan. In The 22nd Biennial Conference of the International Telecommunications Society: “Beyond the boundaries: Challenges for business, policy and society”, Seoul, Korea, June 24th–27th, 2018.
Koehn, D. (2003). The nature of and conditions for online trust. Journal of Business Ethics, 43(1–2), 3–19.
Kracher, B., & Corritore, C. L. (2004). Is there a special e-commerce ethics? Business Ethics Quarterly, 14(1), 71–94.
Laczniak, G. R., & Murphy, P. E. (2006). Marketing, consumers and technology: Perspectives for enhancing ethical transactions. Business Ethics Quarterly, 16(3), 313–321.
Lehdonvirta, V., & Castronova, E. (2014). Virtual economies: Design and analysis. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Lehtonen, M. J., & Harviainen, J. T. (2016). Mobile games and player communities: Designing for and with clans. Design Management Review, 27(3), 20–26.
Lin, H., & Sun, C.-T. (2011). Cash trade in free-to-play online games. Games and Culture, 6(3), 270–287.
Locke, E. A., & Woiceshyn, J. (1995). Why businessmen should be honest: The argument from rational egoism. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 16(5), 405–414.
Luton, W. (2013). Free-to-play: Making money from games you give away. San Francisco, CA: New Riders.
Mäyrä, F., Stenros, J., Paavilainen, J., & Kultima, A. (2017). From social play to social games and back: The emergence and development of social network games. In R. Kowert & T. Quandt (Eds.), New perspectives on the social aspects of digital gaming: Multiplayer 2 (pp. 11–31). New York, NY: Routledge.
McPherson, D. (2013). Vocational virtue ethics: Prospects for a virtue ethic approach to business. Journal of Business Ethics, 116(2), 283–296.
Moor, J. H. (1999). Just consequentialism and computing. Ethics and Information Technology, 1, 65–69.
Mosco, V. (2009). The political economy of communication. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.
Murphy, D. (2014). Battle on the metric front: Dispatches from call of Duty’s update war. Game Studies, 14(2).
Nieborg, D. B. (2015). Crushing candy: The free-to-play game in its connective commodity form. Social Media + Society, 1(2), 1–12.
Nieborg, D. B. (2017). App advertising: The rise of the player commodity. In J. F. Hamilton, R. Bodle, & E. Korin (Eds.), Explorations in critical studies of advertising (pp. 28–41). New York: Routledge.
O’Donnell, C. (2014). The developer’s dilemma: The secret world of videogame creators. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Paavilainen, J., Alha, K., & Korhonen, H. (2015). Domain-specific playability problems in social network games. International Journal of Arts and Technology, 8(4), 282–306.
Paavilainen, J., Hamari, J., Stenros, J., & Kinnunen, J. (2013). Social network games: Players’ perspectives. Simulation & Gaming, 44(6), 794–820.
Paavilainen, J., Korhonen, H., Alha, K., Stenros, J., Koskinen, E. & Mäyrä, F. (2017). The Pókemon GO experience: a location-based augmented reality mobile game goes mainstream. In Proceedings of the 2017 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. New York: ACM.
Paul, C. A. (2018). The toxic meritocracy of video games: Why gaming culture is the worst. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
Peikoff, L. (1991). Objectivism: The philosophy of Ayn Rand. New York: Penguin.
Popper, K. (1972). Objective knowledge: An evolutionary approach. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ramanathan, J., & Swain, B. (2017). Are marketers egoists? A typological explication. Journal of Business Ethics, 155(2), 611–621.
Rand, A. (1943). The fountainhead. New York: Bobbs-Merrill.
Rand, A. (1957). Atlas shrugged. New York: Random House.
Rand, A. (1961). For the new intellectual. New York: Random House.
Rand, A. (1963). The money-making personality. Cosmopolitan, 154(4), 1.
Rand, A. (1964/2014). The virtue of selfishness. 50th Anniversary Edition. New York: Penguin.
Rand, A. (1967). Capitalism: The unknown ideal (2nd ed.). New York: New American Library.
Salen, K., & Zimmermann, E. (2004). Rules of play: Game design fundamentals. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Salmieri, G. (2016). An introduction to the study of Ayn Rand. In H. Gotthelf & G. Salmieri (Eds.), A companion to Ayn Rand (pp. 3–21). West Sussex: Wiley Blackwell.
Seufert, E. B. (2014). Freemium economics: Leveraging analytics and user segmentation to drive revenue. Boston, MA: Morgan Kaufmann.
Sicart, M. (2009). The ethics of computer games. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Simpson, B. P. (2005). Markets don’t fail!. Lanham, MD: Lexington.
Simpson, B. P. (2009). Wealth and income inequality: An economic and ethical analysis. Journal of Business Ethics, 89, 525.
Smith, T. (1998). The practice of pride. Social Philosophy & Policy, 15(1), 71–90.
Smith, T. (2006). Ayn Rand’s normative ethics: The virtuous egoist. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Smith, T. (2014). On altruism, and on the role of virtue in Rand’s egoism: Response to Swanton. In H. Gotthelf, H. Cullyer, I. Khawaja, & J. G. Lennox (Eds.), Metaethics, egoism and virtue: Studies in Ayn Rand’s normative theory (pp. 143–148). Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press.
Švelch, J. (2017). Playing with and against microtransactions: The discourses of microtransactions acceptance and rejection in mainstream video games”. In C. B. Hart (Ed.), The evolution and social impact of video game economics (pp. 101–120). Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.
Swanton, C. (2014). Virtuous egoism and virtuous altruism. In H. Gotthelf, H. Cullyer, I. Khawaja, & J. G. Lennox (Eds.), Metaethics, egoism and virtue: Studies in Ayn Rand’s normative theory (pp. 131–142). Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press.
Thaler, R. H., & Sunstein, C. R. (2009). Nudge: Improving decisions about health, wealth and happiness. London: Penguin.
Tyni, H., Sotamaa, O., & Toivonen, S. (2011). Howdy pardner! On free-to-play, sociability and rhythm design in Frontierville. In Proceedings of the 15th International Academic MindTrek Conference: Envisioning Future Media Environments. New York: ACM. http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=2181037.2181042 Accessed Mar. 4, 2019.
Van Roessel, L., & Katzenbach, C. (2018). Navigating the grey area: Game production between inspiration and imitation. Convergence. https://doi.org/10.1177/1354856518786593.
Woiceshyn, J. (2011). A model for ethical decision making in business: Reasoning, intuition, and rational model principles. Journal of Business Ethics, 104(3), 311–323.
Woiceshyn, J. (2012). How to be profitable and moral? A rational egoist approach to business. Lanham, MD: Hamilton.
Wright, D. (2016). “A human society”: Rand’s social philosophy. In H. Gotthelf & G. Salmieri (Eds.), A companion to Ayn Rand (pp. 159–186). West Sussex: Wiley Blackwell.
Zagal, J. P., Björk, S., & Lewis, C. (2013). Dark patterns in the design of games. In Proceedings of the Foundations of Digital Games 2013 Conference. http://www.fdg2013.org/program/papers/paper06_zagal_etal.pdf Accessed Mar. 4, 2019.
Zhu, Y. (2016). How Niantic is profiting off tracking where you go while playing ‘Pokémon GO.” Forbes. https://www.forbes.com/sites/yehongzhu/2016/07/29/how-niantic-is-profiting-off-tracking-where-you-go-while-playing-pokemon-go Accessed Mar. 4, 2019.