Biodiversity and Conservation

, Volume 25, Issue 13, pp 2581–2595 | Cite as

The global amphibian trade flows through Europe: the need for enforcing and improving legislation

  • Mark AuliyaEmail author
  • Jaime García-MorenoEmail author
  • Benedikt R. Schmidt
  • Dirk S. Schmeller
  • Marinus S. Hoogmoed
  • Matthew C. Fisher
  • Frank Pasmans
  • Klaus Henle
  • David Bickford
  • An Martel
Review Paper
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Biodiversity legal instruments and regulations


The global amphibian trade is suspected to have brought several species to the brink of extinction, and has led to the spread of amphibian pathogens. Moreover, international trade is not regulated for ~98 % of species. Here we outline patterns and complexity underlying global amphibian trade, highlighting some loopholes that need to be addressed, focusing on the European Union. In spite of being one of the leading amphibian importers, the EU’s current legislation is insufficient to prevent overharvesting of those species in demand or the introduction and/or spread of amphibian pathogens into captive and wild populations. We suggest steps to improve the policy (implementation and enforcement) framework, including (i) an identifier specifically for amphibians in the World Customs Organisation’s harmonised system, (ii) Parties to CITES should strive to include more species in the CITES appendices, and (iii) restriction or suspension of trade of threatened species, restricted-range species, and species protected in their country of origin. Commercial trade should not put survival of amphibian species further at risk.


Convention on international trade in endangered species of wild fauna and flora Amphibian Conservation Disease European Union Global amphibian trade Wildlife trade legislation 



We are grateful to Amanda Linda Jean Duffus (Gordon State College, Georgia, USA), Kelly Malsh (UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK), and Bruce J. Weissgold, (US Fish and Wildlife Service), for providing data and literature.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark Auliya
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jaime García-Moreno
    • 2
    Email author
  • Benedikt R. Schmidt
    • 3
    • 4
  • Dirk S. Schmeller
    • 1
  • Marinus S. Hoogmoed
    • 5
  • Matthew C. Fisher
    • 6
  • Frank Pasmans
    • 7
  • Klaus Henle
    • 1
  • David Bickford
    • 8
  • An Martel
    • 7
  1. 1.Department of Conservation BiologyUFZ—Helmholtz Centre for Environmental ResearchLeipzigGermany
  2. 2.ESiLiArnhemThe Netherlands
  3. 3.KARCHNeuchâtelSwitzerland
  4. 4.Institut für Evolutionsbiologie und UmweltwissenschaftenUniversität ZürichZürichSwitzerland
  5. 5.Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi/CZOBelémBrazil
  6. 6.Department Infectious Disease Epidemiology, School of Public HealthImperial College LondonLondonUK
  7. 7.Faculty of Veterinary MedicineGhent UniversityMerelbekeBelgium
  8. 8.Department of Biological SciencesNational University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore

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