Capacity-building initiatives in earthquake engineering have been in place in India in some form for decades. The Government of India, particularly through its Ministries of Human Resource Development and Home Affairs, has been involved in various capacity-building initiatives, as have state governments and the various IITs, colleges, universities and many non-governmental organizations (NGOs). These initiatives can range from professional development programmes, to training of masons, including the development of handbooks and guidelines, to awareness-building workshops to technical short courses. The need for such initiatives has become particularly apparent after recent major earthquakes, where post-earthquake damage surveys illustrate widespread use of unsafe design, detailing and construction practices. These earthquakes make it clear that there is a need for more knowledge for everyone involved all along the chain of the construction process, from the building owner, the architect, the engineer, the contractor, the mason and the municipal official. Hundreds of damaged and collapsed building sites tell the same disturbing story—poor architectural configuration, inadequate structural design, lack of proper detailing and poor construction and inspection practices. The stakeholders are many and include not only those directly involved in design, construction and management, but the community as a whole. An aware and sensitized community is an important cornerstone of a strong earthquake risk reduction program. However, the awareness and concern of a community towards safety must be supported by competent professionals. Hence, it is critically important to undertake capacity-building of professionals engaged in design and construction, particularly structural engineers and architects.
While there are many types of capacity-building initiatives targeted at many different stakeholders, this section will focus on several particularly successful initiatives targeted at professional engineers and architects and at colleges of engineering and architecture. An interesting and happy coincidence actually contributed to this. In the 1980’s a group of young structural engineers trained in earthquake engineering in some leading universities overseas joined the IITs as regular faculty members to teach structural engineering (Jain 2008). They brought to the institutes their research interests in earthquake engineering and the discipline grew.
Continuing education programmes
Early in the 1990s it was apparent that numerous practising structural engineers in the country, notwithstanding excellent education and training in structural engineering, did not understand concepts of earthquake-resistant construction. In October 1992, a 3-day course on “Seismic Design of Reinforced Concrete Buildings” for professional engineers was conducted by the author together with Prof CVR MurtyFootnote 1 as an inaugural programme to kick-start formal activities at the new IIT at GuwahatiFootnote 2 (Fig. 33). Based on feedback from that course, a massive campaign was then launched to train professional engineers in earthquake engineering. Typically, the programmes were (a) of 5-day duration, (b) taught by just two or three instructors (as opposed to a large number of speakers), and (c) self-supporting wherein the entire costs were met from the registration fee charged to the participants. While many academics and postgraduate students participated in these courses, the emphasis was on practising professionals. Therefore, concepts were explained in physical terms without resorting to complex mathematics.
In the initial courses, there was tremendous resistance amongst the professionals to accept concepts of earthquake-resistant design. For instance, an engineer with 20 years of professional practice would usually find it very unsettling to learn that his analysis, design or detailing methods were inadequate. Over the years this resistance reduced, and by the time of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake a significant number of professionals in the country had become familiar with earthquake design. Between 1992 and 2002 about 2000 professional engineers were trained in seismic design courses conducted in different parts of India, Nepal and Bhutan. Collapses of numerous buildings in the Bhuj earthquake significantly reduced the resistance that professionals had towards earthquake design concepts.
Over the years, a large number of other continuing education programmes in earthquake engineering have been organized at the various IITs, including IIT Roorkee which has had a programme for the last 40 years, IIT Kanpur which has had a very active programme in the last two decades, and IIT Gandhinagar which began a series of continuing education programmes in 2011. These programmes have been extremely valuable in taking earthquake engineering concepts to professionals, and significant improvements have taken place in the construction practices in the country as a result of these. For instance, in 1999 it was heartening to see in the small town of Imphal (in highest seismic zone V) several buildings under construction with seismic detailing of reinforcement as a result of the efforts of course participants (Jain and Murty 2003; Jain 2010).
Two workshops at Kanpur
What if a group of select academics and professionals were to meet at one place for three days and have free across-the-table discussions, without a rigid agenda and without having any formal presentations? This simple question over a casual conversation resulted in two brain-storming workshops at IIT Kanpur that later proved very effective towards capacity-building for seismic safety.
The first such workshop on the broad theme of earthquake-resistant construction in a civil engineering curriculum (Murty et al. 1998) was held during 10–12 October 1996 at IIT Kanpur. It was recognized that a typical undergraduate civil engineering curriculum did not include any coverage of earthquake engineering; this was also the case even at the post-graduate level, and only a small fraction of structural engineering students got a chance to study earthquake engineering and design. Hence, most civil engineers were not receiving any formal training in earthquake engineering. The questions that prompted the 1996 workshop give a glimpse of the state of affairs in India at that time (Murty et al. 1998):
Should we continue to let earthquake-resistant constructions be handled by specialists only, or should an average civil engineer responsible for construction be expected to know about appropriate earthquake technology for day-to-day constructions?
Should earthquake-resistant construction be taught as a separate subject in the engineering curriculum, or should the topics related to earthquake engineering be merged with the existing courses?
Should earthquake engineering maintain an identity outside the normal civil engineering industry or become a part of civil engineering industry itself?
How best to achieve the following goal: professional civil engineers should be able to ensure earthquake-resistant constructions without seeking help from “earthquake engineering experts,” particularly for the run-of-the-mill constructions.
The workshop participation was by invitation, and 19 persons from across the country, representing academia, industry, and R&D laboratories, participated in intense discussions over three days. Numerous ideas emerged, clarity was obtained on many issues, and a number of recommendations pertaining to earthquake engineering in general, and the civil engineering curriculum in particular emerged from the workshop.
The second such workshop on “Developing Earthquake Engineering Industry in India: Opportunities & Challenges” was organized at Kanpur during 14–16 October 1998 and included 22 participants from across the country and of diverse backgrounds (Murty et al. 1999). The main question that this meeting addressed was: challenges ahead and opportunities available for developing an earthquake engineering industry wherein earthquake-related services and products can be conveniently available.
Besides generating numerous excellent recommendations and providing clarity to many fuzzy ideas, the workshops enabled a group of enthusiasts to spend time together, know each other, and form a community. These turned out to be preparatory meetings that led to two major initiatives in India discussed below: the establishment of the National Information Centre for Earthquake Engineering (NICEE) at IIT Kanpur in 1999, and the National Programme on Earthquake Engineering Education (NPEEE) conducted during 2003–2007. Thanks to the vision and clarity provided by these workshops, it was possible to leverage the opportunity provided by the 2001 earthquake. The informal network and the community that emerged out of these meetings were critical for the implementation of these new initiatives. Looking back, the investment of time and money on these two meetings could be termed as amongst the best investments made by the author in his professional career.
National information centre of earthquake engineering (NICEE)
One of the key observations from the 1996 workshop at IIT Kanpur was that the gap between the international state-of-the-art and that in India had been widening with time. A major contributor to this situation was the non-availability of books, journals and other technical reports to Indian academics and professionals for various reasons (Jain and Murty 2003). The workshop recommended that a national resource centre be created to enable anyone anywhere in the country to borrow books and reports.
A proposal for creating the National Information Centre of Earthquake Engineering (NICEE) at IIT Kanpur was developed in 1997. It was proposed that the Centre would be funded through interest income from an endowment and other incomes, and that it would operate within the overall financial and administrative framework of IIT Kanpur. The focus of the proposed Centre was on creating a library-oriented resource centre; the following objectives were outlined in the original proposal:
To keep track of availability of new publications and other materials in the area of earthquake engineering.
To create and maintain a decent storehouse of publications and other materials on earthquake engineering.
To disseminate information about availability of the above material at IITK to interested professionals, researchers and academicians, and,
To make available the material to interested persons in a timely manner.
A strong endorsement by Professor N. C. Nigam, the then-President of the Indian Society for Earthquake Technology and Vice Chancellor of the University of Roorkee (now IIT Roorkee) to the proposal was critically helpful to raise funds for the Centre. In the first instance, an endowment of Rs 5 million (~€90,000)Footnote 3 was raised from four organizations: Housing and Urban Development Corporation (HUDCO), Telecom Commission, Railway Board, and Ministry of Agriculture of Government of India. In addition, the Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences (BRNS) provided a recurring grant for 3 years towards the Centre.
After the first grant was received from HUDCO in 1999, a modest level of activities of the Centre started without making a formal announcement. However, the 2001 Bhuj earthquake created an unprecedented urgency and the focus shifted from fund-raising to information dissemination. Within a few days of the earthquake, NICEE web site was launched with IAEE guidelines on non-engineered constructions (IAEE 1986) as a key resource and it was widely accessed by engineers in Gujarat.
Even though housed within IIT Kanpur, NICEE operates as a national resource. A number of colleagues in the country (and outside) provide leadership in various activities of the Centre. The Centre is managed by a National Advisory Committee consisting of representatives from different institutions in the country, industries, and individuals; the Committee meets annually, reviews activities of the Centre and provides guidance and advice.
In its early days, a number of organizations and individuals provided their publications or other resources as a gift, e.g., Multidisciplinary Centre for Earthquake Engineering Research (MCEER) at Buffalo (USA), Earthquake Engineering Research Institute (EERI) in USA, New Zealand National Society for Earthquake Engineering (NZSEE), the late Professor George Housner of the California Institute of Technology Pasadena, and the late Professor N C Nigam in India.
The Centre was conceived so as to minimize its operational costs, by utilizing the infrastructure and the administration of IIT Kanpur. For instance, all books and publications procured by the Centre are placed in and managed by the Central Library of the Institute, and IIT Kanpur handles all administration, accounts and audits in the usual manner.
The Centre currently incurs expenditures of the order of Rs 4 million (~€60,000) per year, which it covers by donations, sponsorships, interest earnings of its endowment, and the sale of publications. To date, about 500 unique donors have made contributions to the Centre, with an average contribution of Rs 15,000 (~€200) and a median contribution of Rs 3000 (~€40). The NICEE publications are priced very nominally and many are distributed free of charge.
With time, the scope of NICEE activities has been enlarged considerably, from the initial intent of a library-oriented Centre, to a Centre that undertakes a number of outreach and capacity-building activities. Some of its important activities are described in the following section.
Table 4 lists the components of the various activities that NICEE has engaged in since 2001.
National programme on earthquake engineering education
Extensive media coverage of the enormous loss of life and damages after the 2001 Bhuj earthquake brought the reality of the earthquake disaster into sharp focus, and as a shocked nation became more receptive than ever before to the devastation of an earthquake disaster, the ground was laid for capacity-building initiatives directed at earthquake safety. The preparatory work through deliberations at the 1996 Workshop at IIT Kanpur described above were effectively leveraged to get an ambitious pan-India project for capacity-building in colleges of engineering and architecture in the area of earthquake engineering. This section describes the National Programme on Earthquake Engineering Education (NPEEE) supported by the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD), Government of India and managed by the seven IITs and the IISc Bangalore during 2003–2007, with IIT Kanpur providing overall leadership.
In view of the enormous disaster, the Prime Minister appointed a senior official as Secretary of Disaster Management in the Cabinet Secretariat to coordinate the situation on behalf of the Government of India. In a meeting with him, the author emphasized that Indian engineering colleges and universities needed to upgrade themselves in the discipline of earthquake engineering. This official took up the matter of training of teachers in earthquake engineering with the Secretary of Higher Education in the MHRD. As a result, in August 2001 the MHRD called a meeting with representatives of premier academic institutions, research institutions, and other ministries and organizations concerned with seismic safety, to discuss the issue at a holistic level. A consensus was reached that there was a need to build capacity in earthquake engineering within academic institutions. A proposal was developed for a National Programme on Earthquake Engineering Education, wherein the seven IITs and the IISc would form a consortium as resource institutions to undertake the task. The proposal was circulated by the MHRD to other concerned Ministries and Departments for their feedback and comments. In August 2002, the Standing Finance Committee of the MHRD cleared the project and the Ministry released the first grant for NPEEE in March 2003. Project activities started immediately thereafter, with a launch workshop held at IIT Delhi on April 5, 2003 (Fig. 34). The project continued to March 2007 and concluded with another workshop at IIT Delhi on January 5, 2007 to look back and review the progress over the 4-year period.
The programme was open to all colleges/polytechnics of engineering or architecture, privately or publicly funded. The programme had a limited focus—training of faculty (of colleges of engineering and architecture, and of polytechnics) and curriculum development. At that time, India had 1000+ institutes teaching civil engineering or architecture at diploma, undergraduate or postgraduate levels. Most of these were not teaching earthquake engineering elements in the curriculum and had varying levels of earthquake engineering expertise within their faculty. While outreach activities such as organizing workshops and development of teaching laboratories were supported, the programme was not meant to support research and development in earthquake engineering. It was felt that supporting research and development might cause a loss of focus, and in any case there were other concerned Ministries of the Government of India to support R&D.
Initially the project was approved for a 3-year duration with a budget of Rs 137 million (about €2.5 million at that time); the duration was later extended to a fourth year, even though champions of the project felt that the project should continue for at least 10–20 years to make a full impact. All eight resource institutes that operated the programme had regular operating expenses fully funded by the same ministry (MHRD); hence, the budget did not include salaries, buildings or any administrative costs.
NPEEE was administered through the National Committee on Earthquake Engineering Education (NCEEE). This Committee was responsible for overall monitoring of NPEEE, and for coordination with other Ministries/Departments and the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE). NPEEE was steered through a Programme Implementation Committee (PIC) and a number of its sub-committees. Amongst the eight resource institutions, IIT Kanpur was designated as the nodal institute for effective implementation and the author was designated as the National Coordinator for NPEEE (see Fig. 35; the launch workshop of NPEEE). The Programme Implementation Committee (PIC) was responsible for (a) ensuring timely and effective implementation, (b) allocation of activities to different resource institutes and ensuring inter-institutional coordination, (c) selection of colleges and trainees for various activities, and (d) all other matters related and incidental to implementation of the programme. This included reviewing (a) the lists of participants, (b) summaries of course evaluations, (c) test question papers and assessment scores, and (d) the materials used in the courses (Jain and Agrawal 2004). The director of one of the resource institutes chaired NPEEE, and its membership consisted of representatives of the eight resource institutions, and one representative each from an engineering college, an architecture college, and a polytechnic. To ensure transparency in its activities and financial operations, a detailed Project Implementation Plan (PIP) was developed very early on, along with a website; both proved to be important tools for effective implementation of the programme. The PIP provided all details of the programme, including a detailed budget and financial norms. A fairly large email list of about 1500 faculty members was developed.
The Programme could be a useful model for capacity-building in earthquake engineering (and in fact in any other discipline) in many developing countries, and hence, some of its core components are described in Table 5 below.
The programme achieved most of its targets, and in some sense, even exceeded the expectations of the proponents. To evaluate the programme, a survey was conducted in December 2005 to which 94 colleges, and 177 teachers responded. The results were quite positive:
NPEEE has been useful in capacity-building of colleges and teachers: Average response 4.62 (out of maximum 5.0) from the colleges, and 4.76 from the teachers.
The Programme has operated well: Average response 4.40 (out of maximum 5.0) from the colleges, and 4.65 from the teachers.
The Programme should continue: Average response 4.84 (out of maximum 5.0) from the colleges, and 4.91 from the teachers.
A good number of colleges started to teach earthquake engineering. The 2005 survey indicated that (a) 69 colleges out of the 94 colleges that responded teach earthquake engineering, and (b) 117 teachers, out of the 177 who responded, indicated that their respective colleges teach earthquake engineering.
The success of the Programme can be attributed largely to transparent administrative mechanisms, non-discriminatory policies with regard to private versus government funded institutes, a feasible and manageable domain of operations, and its human resources that drew upon strongly motivated and committed individuals working as a cohesive team. A very significant amount of capacity was built as a result of the Programme in the incorporation of earthquake engineering in engineering and architectural education that will pay rich dividends in the years ahead.
Interventions towards the architectural profession and education
Architects have a critical role to play in ensuring earthquake resistance in the built environment since they occupy a key position in project conceptualization, planning and implementation, coordinating various professionals from different disciplines. Poor conceptual design and detailing of various elements by the architect will seriously impair the ability of structural and construction engineers to incorporate earthquake resistance in a building. To quote the renowned earthquake engineer, the late Henry J. Degenkolb (1977):
If we have a poor configuration to start with, all the engineer can do is to provide a band-aid – improve a basically poor solution as best as he can. Conversely, if we start off with a good configuration and a reasonable framing system, even a poor engineer can’t harm its ultimate performance too much.
Charleson (1997) refers to a study that confirmed the view that the architectural concept may be more detrimental to the seismic survival of a building than any other design decision. It is therefore imperative that architects understand and appreciate the concepts of earthquake-resistant design.
A number of initiatives have been undertaken in India to bring the architectural community, including professionals, faculty, and students, within the ambit of earthquake safety. As a result, many architectural colleges are also now addressing the subject of the earthquake performance of buildings.
Earthquake-resistant curriculum in architecture colleges
A strategic decision was made in formulating the National Programme on Earthquake Engineering Education (NPEEE) to include the colleges and faculty of architecture on a par with colleges and faculty of civil engineering. This was critically beneficial towards bringing earthquake engineering to the colleges of architecture; a number of curriculum workshops were held to bring earthquake safety into the architectural curricula (e.g., Jain et al. 2004), and a number of faculty members from architectural colleges were trained under the programme. The task of introducing changes in the architectural curriculum is a bit more challenging than doing so with the civil engineering curriculum. The concepts of the earthquake behaviour of buildings need to be innovatively linked to the process of architectural design for the students to develop an appreciation of the same. As a result of this effort, earthquake-resistant architecture has been included in the academic curriculum of a number of undergraduate colleges of architecture in the country.
Resource materials for architects
It was recognized that appropriate resource materials must accompany curriculum changes and innovations suggested under the NPEEE. A number of books and other resource materials were made available; several were developed particularly for this purpose:
IITK-BMTPC Earthquake Tips, described below, were mailed by NICEE to about 10,000 professional architects in India free-of-charge. Subsequently, the Tips were included in the professional directory of the Indian Institute of Architects (IIA) to ensure that every architect member of IIA will have the Tips readily available on his or her bookshelf.
A special project was undertaken by Prof. C. V. R. Murty (of IIT Kanpur) and Prof. Andrew Charleson (of Victoria University of Wellington in New Zealand) under the sponsorship of NPEEE under which they developed ~600 Power Point slides with notes. These are meant to enable teachers within architecture schools to cover the model curriculum for architecture students in 27 lectures. These are distributed both in hard and soft copy format (Murty and Charleson 2006).
NPEEE sponsored a special project by Professor Andrew Charleson wherein he developed an Indian version of RESIST software (that he had originally developed for use by students in New Zealand) for use by architectural students in India. The programme enables a student to get a rough idea of the sizes of frame elements or shear walls needed for a building design project, given the wind and seismic zones in which the building is located. It is a very useful tool to sensitize the students to start thinking of adequate structural sizes while planning the building, and has been distributed to most of the architectural colleges in India.
Ministry of home affairs seminars
A series of seminars throughout the nation were organized in 2004 and 2005 as a joint programme with the Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India and the Continuing Education Programme of the Indian Institute of Architects on “The Role of Architects Towards a Seismically Safe Built Environment”. The concept and the content for the one-day seminar was developed in consultation with faculty at IIT Kanpur. The seminar consisted of lectures by one resource person from a structural engineering background and one from an architectural background. The participants were also provided sufficient reading materials.
The Institute organized 21 one-day seminars across the country, often with Relief Commissioners, Disaster Management Departments and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) state units. Approximately 110–150 architects (professional architects as well as faculty members in architectural schools) attended each of the 21 seminars, and approximately 2700 architects benefitted from this seminar series.
Annual workshop for architectural students at IIT Kanpur
Starting in 2008, an Annual Workshop Series was developed by NICEE to directly reach undergraduate students of architecture so as to achieve intense knowledge transfer and capacity-building of the architects of tomorrow. The workshop consists of sensitizing the students in earthquake-resistant design practices through technical lectures followed by design studios where they are given hands-on guidance in earthquake-resistant design by working on an architectural design project in Time Sketch, a format with which they are familiar. The workshop is conducted by architecture and structural engineering faculty and professionals with expertise in and commitment to an earthquake resilient built environment. The workshop affords the students a unique opportunity to grapple with and strike a balance between the requirements of earthquake-resistant design and a host of design considerations that they normally consider in their architectural design exercises. Nearly three hundred undergraduate students of architecture have participated in seven such workshops since 2008 (Fig. 36). A detailed discussion of this series can be found in Mitra et al. (2013).
NICEE outreach events for architects
NICEE has also engaged with architects and architectural students during their own major events. For instance, NICEE has participated in a number of Conventions of the National Association of Students of Architecture (NASA), wherein presentations are made on different aspects of earthquake-resistant design and on the historical aspects of earthquake-resistant architecture from antiquity to contemporary times. Resource materials have been distributed to the future architects and a quiz has been conducted with cash awards based on the Earthquake Tips, discussed in the next section (Jain 2010). NICEE also participated in the 2008 conference of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation of Architects (SAARCH) in New Delhi.
In early 2002, a project “IITK-BMTPC Earthquake Tips” was undertaken at IIT Kanpur with sponsorship of the Building Materials and Technology Promotion Council (BMTPC), New Delhi (Murty 2005). The 24 Tips, each consisting of two A-4 size pages, provide basics of earthquake-resistant constructions in a simple language so that not only an average civil engineer and architect, but also even an interested citizen, can appreciate the subject (Fig. 37). Topics covered include introduction to earthquakes, concepts of earthquake-resistant design, and aspects of aseismic design and construction of buildings. Every month, one Tip was released for publication to all interested journals, magazines, and newspapers, and placed on the web site of NICEE. A large number of journals of architecture, construction and structural engineering, and many prestigious mainstream newspapers published the Tips. The Tips have been a tremendous success and are very frequently downloaded from the web site of NICEE. Over the years, through voluntary efforts, the Tips have been translated from English into Hindi and Marathi. More recently, the same team has developed an additional set of 8 Tips with sponsorship of BMTPC and these will be released in the near future.
Other capacity-building initiatives
The regular occurrence every 2–3 years of damaging earthquakes since 1988 has also had its impact on how the Government of India deals with disasters. After the 1999 Orissa Supercyclone, with an official death toll in excess of 8000, the Government of India formed a “High Power Committee” to look into the issues of disasters and to make recommendations. After the 2001 Bhuj earthquake, the subject of natural disasters was moved from the Ministry of Agriculture to the Ministry of Home Affairs, and after the 2004 Sumatra earthquake and tsunami, the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) was formed. The Disaster Management Act of 2005 (DM Act 2005) was enacted to develop the institutional and coordination mechanisms for effective disaster management. This Act stipulates that a National Plan on Disaster Management shall be prepared in consultation with the State Governments and expert bodies and organizations in the field of disaster management. The Act also stipulates that every Ministry and Department of the Government of India shall make provisions, in its annual plan budgets, for carrying out activities and programmes set out in the disaster management plans. Subsequent to this, the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) was set up under the Chairmanship of the Prime Minister.
Several years back the Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India initiated two programmes for the training of practising architects and engineers (GoI 2004): the National Programme for Capacity-building of Architects in Earthquake Risk Management (NPCBAERM) and the National Programme for Capacity-building of Engineers in Earthquake Risk Management (NPCBEERM). Under the project, 2-5 State Resource Institutes in each State/Union Territory (UT) were identified to conduct training programmes for engineers and architects in the State public works departments, other government organizations and in the private sector. The project also created resource institutes to assist the urban local bodies in the review and revision of the byelaws to incorporate the Bureau of Indian Standard Codes and also to train municipal engineers in earthquake-resistant construction and retrofitting techniques. The goal was to reach 10,000 engineers and 10,000 practicing architects. Eleven national resource institutions were designated, including seven of the Indian Institutes of Technology.
Different State governments have also instituted some capacity-building initiatives. The State Disaster Management Authorities (SDMA) were set up according to the provisions of the DM Act, 2005. Sensitization and awareness building training programmes are part of the mandate of SDMA’s and some of these organizations have been quite active.
In addition to government initiatives in capacity-building there are also academic institutions and professional associations as well as NGOs engaged in such activities. Some of these initiatives focus specifically on earthquake risk reduction, such as an earthquake risk reduction programme by GeoHazards Society (GHS) targeted at Aizawl City, capital of the state of Mizoram (GeoHazards Society India 2015). Some focus more broadly on structural engineering issues (including earthquake safety) such as the Structural Engineers Forum of India with its 18,000 members (SEFI 2015), and some even more specifically on earthquake engineering issues, such as the journal, newsletter and annual lecture organized by the Indian Society of Earthquake Technology (ISET 2015). Some organizations focus on improving construction practices more generally, such as through mason training programmes and development of construction guidelines; these include NGOs such as People-in-Centre (People in Centre 2015) and National Centre for Peoples’ Action in Disaster Preparedness (NCPDP 2015).
The preceding discussion hopefully gives a flavour of the range of capacity-building initiatives that exist in India, from education and training and continuing education programmes to curriculum development activities, some of which are ongoing while others have been rather short-lived. Some initiatives have had a huge impact while some had limited success despite being conceptualized on a large scale. Capacity-building has to be an ongoing process, with both short and long term targets to achieve sustainable results.