Multilevel Perspectives on Community Intervention: An Example from an Indo-US HIV Prevention Project in Mumbai, India

  • Stephen L. Schensul
  • Niranjan Saggurti
  • Rajendra Singh
  • Ravi K. Verma
  • Bonnie K. Nastasi
  • Papiya Guha Mazumder
Original paper


This paper explores the meaning and applicability of multilevel interventions and the role of ethnography in identifying intervention opportunities and accounting for research design limitations. It utilizes as a case example the data and experiences from a 6-year, NIMH-funded, intervention to prevent HIV/STI among married men in urban poor communities in Mumbai, India. The experiences generated by this project illustrate the need for multilevel interventions to include: (1) ethnographically driven formative research to delineate appropriate levels, stakeholders and collaborators; (2) identification of ways to link interventions to the local culture and community context; (3) the development of a model of intervention that is sufficiently flexible to be consistently applied to different intervention levels using comparable culturally congruent concepts and approaches; (4) mechanisms to involve community residents, community based organizations and community-based institutions; and (5) approaches to data collection that can evaluate the impact of the project on multiple intersecting levels.


HIV/STI prevention India Multi-level Urban poor Culturally-based 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen L. Schensul
    • 1
  • Niranjan Saggurti
    • 2
  • Rajendra Singh
    • 3
  • Ravi K. Verma
    • 4
  • Bonnie K. Nastasi
    • 5
  • Papiya Guha Mazumder
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Community Medicine & Health CareUniversity of Connecticut School of MedicineFarmingtonUSA
  2. 2.Population CouncilNew DelhiIndia
  3. 3.International Center for Research on WomenMumbaiIndia
  4. 4.International Center for Research on WomenNew DelhiIndia
  5. 5.Department of PsychologyTulane UniversityNew OrleansUSA
  6. 6.International Institute for Population SciencesMumbaiIndia

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