UNAIDS. Global AIDS update 2019—Communities at the centre, 2019. http://rstesa.unaids.org/publications/global-publications/2019/item/209-global-aids-update-2019-communities-at-the-centre.
Lingappa JR, Lambdin B, Bukusi EA, Ngure K, Kavuma L, Inambao M, et al. Regional differences in prevalence of HIV-1 discordance in Africa and enrollment of HIV-1 discordant couples into an HIV-1 prevention trial. PLoS ONE. 2008;3(1):e1411.
Kilembe W, Wall KM, Mokgoro M, Mwaanga A, Dissen E, Kamusoko M, et al. Knowledge of HIV serodiscordance, transmission, and prevention among couples in Durban, South Africa. PLoS ONE. 2015;10(4):e0124548.
Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC). The Fifth South African National HIV prevalence, incidence, behaviour and communication survey, 2017: HIV impact assessment summary report. 2018.
Mmbaga EJ, Leyna GH, Ezekiel MJ, Kakoko DC. Fertility desire and intention of people living with HIV/AIDS in Tanzania: A call for restructuring care and treatment services. BMC Public Health. 2013;13:86.
Mindry DL, Crankshaw TL, Maharaj P, Munthree C, Letsoalo T, Milford C, et al. “We have to try and have this child before it is too late”: Missed opportunities in client-provider communication on reproductive intentions of people living with HIV. AIDS Care. 2015;27(1):25–30.
Aepfelbacher JA, Chaudhury CS, Mee T, Purdy JB, Hawkins K, Curl KA, et al. Reproductive and sexual health knowledge, experiences, and milestones in young adults with life-long HIV. AIDS Care. 2020;32(3):354–61.
Thomson KA, Hughes J, Baeten JM, John-Stewart G, Celum C, Cohen CR, et al. Increased risk of female HIV-1 acquisition throughout pregnancy and postpartum: A prospective per-coital act analysis among women with HIV-1 infected partners. J Infect Dis. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiy113.
Gruskin S, Ferguson L, O’Malley J. Ensuring sexual and reproductive health for people living with HIV: An overview of key human rights, policy and health systems issues. Reprod Health Matters. 2007;15(29 Suppl):4–26.
Matthews LT, Mukherjee JS. Strategies for harm reduction among HIV-affected couples who want to conceive. AIDS Behav. 2009;13(Suppl 1):5–11.
Bekker LG, et al. Guideline on safer conception in fertile HIV-infected individuals and couples. South Afr J HIV Med. 2011;12(2):31–44.
Matthews LT, Smit JA, Cu-Uvin S, Cohan D. Antiretrovirals and safer conception for HIV-serodiscordant couples. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2012;7(6):569–78.
Davies N, et al. Guidelines to support HIV-affected individuals and couples to achieve pregnancy safely: Update 2018. South Afr J HIV Med. 2018. https://doi.org/10.4102/sajhivmed.v19i1.915.
Heffron R, Ngure K, Velloza J, Kiptinness C, Quame-Amalgo J, Oluch L, et al. Implementation of a comprehensive safer conception intervention for HIV-serodiscordant couples in Kenya: Uptake, use and effectiveness. J Int AIDS Soc. 2019;22(4):e25261.
Schwartz SR, Bassett J, Mutunga L, Yende N, Mudavanhu M, Phofa R, et al. HIV incidence, pregnancy, and implementation outcomes from the Sakh’umndeni safer conception project in South Africa: A prospective cohort study. Lancet HIV. 2019;6(7):e438-46.
Goggin K, Mindry D, Beyeza-Kashesya J, Finocchario-Kessler S, Wanyenze R, Nabiryo C, et al. “Our hands are tied up”: Current state of safer conception services suggests the need for an integrated care model. Health Care Women Int. 2014;35(7–9):990–1009.
Steiner RJ, Dariotis JK, Anderson JR, Finocchario-Kessler S. Preconception care for people living with HIV: Recommendations for advancing implementation. AIDS (London, England). 2013;27(Suppl 1):S113-9.
Black V, Davies N, Williams BG, Rees HV, Schwartz SR. Establishing conception intentions and safer conception services for eliminating the vertical, and reducing the horizontal, transmission of HIV. BJOG. 2016;123(10):1585–8.
Steiner RJ, Black V, Rees H, Schwartz SR. Low receipt and uptake of safer conception messages in routine HIV care: Findings from a prospective cohort of women living with HIV in South Africa. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2016;72(1):105–13.
West N, Schwartz S, Phofa R, Yende N, Bassett J, Sanne I, et al. “I don’t know if this is right … but this is what I’m offering”: healthcare provider knowledge, practice, and attitudes towards safer conception for HIV-affected couples in the context of Southern African guidelines. AIDS Care. 2016;28(3):390–6.
Joseph Davey D, West S, Umutoni V, Taleghani S, Klausner H, Farley E, et al. A systematic review of the current status of safer conception strategies for HIV affected heterosexual couples in Sub-Saharan Africa. AIDS Behav. 2018;22(9):2916–46.
Nattabi B, Li J, Thompson SC, Orach CG, Earnest J. A systematic review of factors influencing fertility desires and intentions among people living with HIV/AIDS: Implications for policy and service delivery. AIDS Behav. 2009;13(5):949–68.
Wegner MN, et al. Men as Partners in Reproductive Health: From Issues to Action. Intern Perspect Sex Reprod Health. 1998;24(1):38.
Ramirez-Ferrero E, Lusti-Narasimhan M. The role of men as partners and fathers in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and in the promotion of sexual and reproductive health. Reprod Health Matters. 2012;20(39 Suppl):103–9.
RHRU, Population Council, Frontiers in Reproductive Health Program, International FH. Involving men in maternity care in South Africa. USAID HRN-A-00-98-00012-00 and population council subagreement AI199.43A; 2004.
Cooper D, Moodley J, Zweigenthal V, Bekker LG, Shah I, Myer L. Fertility intentions and reproductive health care needs of people living with HIV in Cape Town, South Africa: Implications for integrating reproductive health and HIV care services. AIDS Behav. 2009;13(Suppl 1):38–46.
Osler M, Hilderbrand K, Goemaere E, Ford N, Smith M, Meintjes G, et al. The continuing burden of advanced HIV disease over 10 years of increasing antiretroviral therapy coverage in South Africa. Clin Infect Dis. 2018;66(suppl 2):S118-25.
Mitchell S, Cockcroft A, Lamothe G, Andersson N. Equity in HIV testing: Evidence from a cross-sectional study in ten Southern African countries. BMC Int Health Hum Rights. 2010;10:23.
Camlin CS, Ssemmondo E, Chamie G, El Ayadi AM, Kwarisiima D, Sang N, et al. Men “missing” from population-based HIV testing: Insights from qualitative research. AIDS Care. 2016;28(Suppl 3):67–73.
Dovel K, Yeatman S, Watkins S, Poulin M. Men’s heightened risk of AIDS-related death: The legacy of gendered HIV testing and treatment strategies. AIDS (London, England). 2015;29(10):1123–5.
Mambanga P, Sirwali RN, Tshitangano T. Factors contributing to men’s reluctance to seek HIV counselling and testing at primary health care facilities in Vhembe district of South Africa. Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med. 2016;8(2):e1-7.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Differences between HIV-Infected men and women in antiretroviral therapy outcomes - six African countries, 2004–2012. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2013;62(47):945–52.
Giles ML, Achhra AC, Abraham AG, Haas AD, Gill MJ, Lee MP, et al. Sex-based differences in antiretroviral therapy initiation, switching and treatment interruptions: Global overview from the International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA). J Int AIDS Soc. 2018;21(6):e25149.
Treves-Kagan S, El Ayadi AM, Pettifor A, MacPhail C, Twine R, Maman S, et al. Gender, HIV testing and stigma: The association of HIV testing behaviors and community-level and individual-level stigma in rural South Africa differ for men and women. AIDS Behav. 2017;21(9):2579–88.
Mbizvo MT, Bassett MT. Reproductive health and AIDS prevention in sub-Saharan Africa: The case for increased male participation. Health Policy Plan. 1996;11(1):84–92.
Peacock D, Stemple L, Sawires S, Coates TJ. Men, HIV/AIDS, and human rights. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009;51(Suppl 3):S119-25.
Campbell CA. Male gender roles and sexuality: implications for women’s AIDS risk and prevention. Soc Sci Med. 1995;41(2):197–210.
The International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo Egypt, September 5–13, 1994. Pathways. 1994;8 2:1–2.
Greene M. Involving men in reproductive health: Contributions to development. In: Mehta M, Pulerwitz J, Wulf D, Bankole A, Singh S, editors. Men, Boys and Gender Equality. New York: United Nations Millennium; 2006.
Matthews LT, Moore L, Milford C, Greener R, Mosery FN, Rifkin R, et al. “If I don’t use a condom … I would be stressed in my heart that I’ve done something wrong”: Routine prevention messages preclude safer conception counseling for HIV-infected men and women in South Africa. AIDS Behav. 2015;19(9):1666–75.
Matthews LT, Crankshaw T, Giddy J, Kaida A, Smit JA, Ware NC, et al. Reproductive decision-making and periconception practices among HIV-positive men and women attending HIV services in Durban, South Africa. AIDS Behav. 2013;17(2):461–70.
Matthews LT, Smit JA, Moore L, Milford C, Greener R, Mosery FN, et al. Periconception HIV risk behavior among men and women reporting HIV-serodiscordant partners in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. AIDS Behav. 2015;19(12):2291–303.
Schwartz SR, West N, Phofa R, Yende N, Sanne I, Bassett J, et al. Acceptability and preferences for safer conception HIV prevention strategies: A qualitative study. Int J STD AIDS. 2016;27(11):984–92.
Taylor TN, Mantell JE, Nywagi N, Cishe N, Cooper D. “He lacks his fatherhood”: Safer conception technologies and the biological imperative for fatherhood among recently-diagnosed Xhosa-speaking men living with HIV in South Africa. Cult Health Sex. 2013;15(9):1101–14.
Khidir H, Psaros C, Greener L, O’Neil K, Mathenjwa M, Mosery FN, et al. Developing a safer conception intervention for men living with HIV in South Africa. AIDS Behav. 2017. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-017-1719-4.
Schwartz SR, Bassett J, Holmes CB, Yende N, Phofa R, Sanne I, et al. Client uptake of safer conception strategies: Implementation outcomes from the Sakh’umndeni safer conception clinic in South Africa. J Int AIDS Soc. 2017;20(Suppl 1):21291.
Schwartz S, Davies N, Naidoo N, Pillay D, Makhoba N, Mullick S. Clients’ experiences utilizing a safer conception service for HIV affected individuals: implications for differentiated care service delivery models. Reprod Health. 2019;16(Suppl 1):65.
Peltzer K, Jones D, Weiss SM, Shikwane E. Promoting male involvement to improve PMTCT uptake and reduce antenatal HIV infection: A cluster randomized controlled trial protocol. BMC Public Health. 2011;11:778.
Crankshaw TL, Matthews LT, Giddy J, Kaida A, Ware NC, Smit JA, et al. A conceptual framework for understanding HIV risk behavior in the context of supporting fertility goals among HIV-serodiscordant couples. Reprod Health Matters. 2012;20(39 Suppl):50–60.
Weber S, Zakaras JM, Hilliard S, Cohan D, Dworkin SL. “Is it all right for me to have a baby or not?”: Men living with HIV discuss fertility desires and interactions with providers. J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care. 2017;28(1):118–29.
Nyblade L, Stockton MA, Giger K, Bond V, Ekstrand ML, Lean RM, et al. Stigma in health facilities: Why it matters and how we can change it. BMC Med. 2019;17(1):25.
Wyrod R. Masculinity and the persistence of AIDS stigma. Cult Health Sex. 2011;13(4):443–56.
Mburu G, Ram M, Siu G, Bitira D, Skovdal M, Holland P. Intersectionality of HIV stigma and masculinity in eastern Uganda: implications for involving men in HIV programmes. BMC Public Health. 2014;14:1061.
Dovel K, Dworkin SL, Cornell M, Coates TJ, Yeatman S. Gendered health institutions: Examining the organization of health services and men’s use of HIV testing in Malawi. J Int AIDS Soc. 2020;23(Suppl 2):e25517.
Dovel K, Balakasi K, Gupta S, Mphande M, Robson I, Kalande P, et al editors. ’Missing men’ or missed opportunity? Men’s frequent use of health services in Malawi. San Francisco: AIDS 2020Virtual; 2020.
Matthews LT, Bajunirwe F, Kastner J, Sanyu N, Akatukwasa C, Ng C, et al. “I always worry about what might happen ahead”: Implementing safer conception services in the current environment of reproductive counseling for HIV-affected men and women in Uganda. Biomed Res Int. 2016;2016:4195762.
Matthews LT, Burns BF, Bajunirwe F, Kabakyenga J, Bwana M, Ng C, et al. Beyond HIV-serodiscordance: Partnership communication dynamics that affect engagement in safer conception care. PLoS ONE. 2017;12(9):e0183131.
Fransen-Dos Santos R, Guarinieri M. Men living with HIV in serodiscordant relationships who desire a child/children. J Int AIDS Soc. 2017;20(Suppl 1):34–5.
Thummalachetty N, Mathur S, Mullinax M, DeCosta K, Nakyanjo N, Lutalo T, et al. Contraceptive knowledge, perceptions, and concerns among men in Uganda. BMC Public Health. 2017;17(1):792.
Sharma M, Barnabas RV, Celum C. Community-based strategies to strengthen men’s engagement in the HIV care cascade in sub-Saharan Africa. PLoS Med. 2017;14(4):e1002262.
Kiene SM, Gbenro O, Sileo KM, Lule H, Wanyenze RK. How do we get partners to test for HIV?: predictors of uptake of partner HIV testing following individual outpatient provider initiated HIV testing in rural Uganda. AIDS Behav. 2017;21(8):2497–508.
Fleming PJ, Colvin C, Peacock D, Dworkin SL. What role can gender-transformative programming for men play in increasing men’s HIV testing and engagement in HIV care and treatment in South Africa? Cult Health Sex. 2016;18(11):1251–64.
Weiss SM, Zulu R, Jones DL, Redding CA, Cook R, Chitalu N. The spear and shield intervention to increase the availability and acceptability of voluntary medical male circumcision in Zambia: a cluster randomised controlled trial. Lancet HIV. 2015;2(5):e181-9.
Stender SC, Rozario A. “Khotla Bophelong Bo Botle”: a gathering of men for health. J Int AIDS Soc. 2020;23(Suppl 2):e25511.
Wynn A, Rotheram-Borus MJ, Leibowitz AA, Weichle T, Roux IL, Tomlinson M. Mentor mothers program improved child health outcomes at a relatively low cost in South Africa. Health Aff (Millwood). 2017;36(11):1947–55.
Khidir H, Mosery N, Greener R, Milford C, Bennett K, Kaida A, et al. Sexual relationship power and periconception HIV-risk behavior among HIV-infected men in serodifferent relationships. AIDS Behav. 2020;24(3):881–90.
Bhatia DS, Harrison AD, Kubeka M, Milford C, Kaida A, Bajunirwe F, et al. The role of relationship dynamics and gender inequalities as barriers to HIV-serostatus disclosure: qualitative study among women and men living with HIV in Durban. South Afr Front Public Health. 2017;5:188.
Rispel LC, Cloete A, Metcalf CA. “We keep her status to ourselves”: Experiences of stigma and discrimination among HIV-discordant couples in South Africa. Tanzania Ukraine SAHARA J. 2015;12:10–7.
Forrest JI, Kaida A, Dietrich J, Miller CL, Hogg RS, Gray G. Perceptions of HIV and fertility among adolescents in Soweto, South Africa: Stigma and social barriers continue to hinder progress. AIDS Behav. 2009;13(Suppl 1):55–61.
Myer L, Morroni C, Cooper D. Community attitudes towards sexual activity and childbearing by HIV-positive people in South Africa. AIDS Care. 2006;18(7):772–6.
Chikovore J, Gillespie N, McGrath N, Orne-Gliemann J, Zuma T, Group ATS. Men, masculinity, and engagement with treatment as prevention in KwaZulu-Natal. South Afr AIDS Care. 2016;28(Suppl 3):74–82.
Ministry of Health Lesotho, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), University. IaC. Lesotho population-based HIV impact assessment. New York: Ministry of Health, CDC, ICAP; 2019.
Schwartz SR, Bassett J, Sanne I, Phofa R, Yende N, Van Rie A. Implementation of a safer conception service for HIV-affected couples in South Africa. AIDS. 2014;28(Suppl 3):S277-85.
Nakayiwa S, Abang B, Packel L, Lifshay J, Purcell DW, King R, et al. Desire for children and pregnancy risk behavior among HIV-infected men and women in Uganda. AIDS Behav. 2006;10(4 Suppl):S95-104.
UNAIDS. Fast-track: Ending the AIDS epidemic by 2030. Geneva: UNAIDS; 2014.
Heffron R, Pintye J, Matthews LT, Weber S, Mugo N. PrEP as peri-conception HIV prevention for women and men. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep. 2016;13(3):131–9.
Matthews LT, Jaggernath M, Kriel Y, Smith PM, O’Neil K, Haberer JE, et al. Protocol for a longitudinal study to evaluate the use of tenofovir-based PrEP for safer conception and pregnancy among women in South Africa. BMJ Open. 2019;9(7):e027227.
Adeyeye AO, Stirratt MJ, Burns DN. Engaging men in HIV treatment and prevention. Lancet. 2018;392(10162):2334–5.
Tomlinson M, Rotheram-Borus MJ, Swartz L, Tsai AC. Scaling up mHealth: Where is the evidence? PLoS Med. 2013;10(2):e1001382.
Kallander K, Tibenderana JK, Akpogheneta OJ, Strachan DL, Hill Z, ten Asbroek AH, et al. Mobile health (mHealth) approaches and lessons for increased performance and retention of community health workers in low- and middle-income countries: a review. J Med Internet Res. 2013;15(1):e17.
Fransen-Dos Santos R, Guarinieri M. Men living with HIV in serodiscordant relationships who desire a child/children. J Int AIDS Soc. 2017;20(Suppl 1):21749.