Skip to main content

Social Support Networks and HIV/STI Risk Behaviors Among Latino Immigrants in a New Receiving Environment

Abstract

The objectives of this study were to: (1) describe the quantity and quality of social support networks of Latino immigrants living in a new receiving environment, and (2) determine the role such networks play in their HIV/STI risk behaviors, including substance use. Double incentivized convenience sampling was used to collect egocentric social support network data on 144 Latino immigrants. Latent class analysis was used for data reduction and to identify items best suited to measure quality and quantity of social support. Moderate and high quantity and quality of social support were protective of HIV/STI sexual risk behavior compared to low quantity and quality of support, after adjustment for gender, years in New Orleans and residing with family. Neither measure of social support was associated with binge drinking. The findings suggest that increased quantity and quality of social support decrease HIV/STI sexual risk behaviors but do not influence binge drinking. Interventions that improve the quantity and quality of social support are needed for Latino immigrants.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Adih W, Hu X, Campsmith M, Espinoza L, Hall H. Estimated lifetime risk for diagnosis of HIV infection among Hispanic/Latinos—37 States and Puerto Rico, 2007. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2010;59(40):1297–301.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Prejean J, Song R, Hernandez A, Ziebell R, Green T, Walker F, et al. Estimated HIV incidence in the United States, 2006-2009. PLoS ONE. 2011;6(8):e17502 PubMed PMID: 21826193. Pubmed Central PMCID: 3149556. Epub 2011/08/10. eng.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  3. Parrado EA, Flippen C. Community attachment, neighborhood context, and sex worker use among Hispanic migrants in Durham, North Carolina, USA. Soc Sci Med. 2010;70(7):1059–69 PubMed PMID: 20122769. Pubmed Central PMCID: 2834816. Epub 2010/02/04. eng.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  4. Pulerwitz J, Izazola-Licea JA, Gortmaker SL. Extrarelational sex among Mexican men and their partners’ risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. Am J Public Health. 2001;91(10):1650–2 PubMed PMID: 11574329. Pubmed Central PMCID: 1446848. Epub 2001/09/28. eng.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  5. Organista K. Towards a structural environmental model of risk for HIV and problem drinking in Latino labor migrants: the case of day laborers. J Ethn Cult Divers Soc Work. 2007;16(1/2):95–125.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Viadro CI, Earp JA. The sexual behavior of married Mexican immigrant men in North Carolina. Soc Sci Med. 2000;50(5):723–35 PubMed PMID: 10658852. Epub 2000/02/05. eng.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Alaniz ML. Migration, acculturation, displacement: migratory workers and “substance abuse”. Subst Use Misuse. 2002;37(8–10):1253–7 PubMed PMID: 12180564. Epub 2002/08/16. eng.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Borges G, Medina-Mora ME, Orozco R, Fleiz C, Cherpitel C, Breslau J. The Mexican migration to the United States and substance use in northern Mexico. Addiction. 2009;104(4):603–11 PubMed PMID: 19215601.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  9. Kissinger P, Kovacs S, Anderson-Smits C, Schmidt N, Salinas O, Hembling J, et al. Patterns and predictors of HIV/STI risk among Latino migrant men in a new receiving community. AIDS Behav. 2012;16(1):199–213 PubMed PMID: 21484281. Epub 2011/04/13. eng.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Althoff MD, Anderson-Smits C, Kovacs S, Salinas O, Hembling J, Schmidt N, et al. Patterns and predictors of multiple sexual partnerships among newly arrived Latino migrant men. AIDS Behav. 2013;17(7):2416–25 PubMed PMID: 22996353. Pubmed Central PMCID: PMC3563772. Epub 2012/09/22. eng.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  11. Fussell E, Diaz L. The New Orleans index at ten: Latinos in metro New Orleans: progress, problems, and potential. New Orleans; 2015.

  12. Valdez A, Cepeda A, Negi NJ, Kaplan C. Fumando la piedra: emerging patterns of crack use among Latino immigrant day laborers in New Orleans. J Immigr Minor Health. 2010;12(5):737–42 PubMed PMID: 19924538. Pubmed Central PMCID: 3001040. Epub 2009/11/20. eng.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  13. Negi NJ. Identifying psychosocial stressors of well-being and factors related to substance use among Latino day laborers. J Immigr Minor Health. 2011;13(4):748–55.

    Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  14. Mills J, Burton N, Schmidt N, Salinas O, Hembling J, Aran A, et al. Sex and drug risk behavior pre-and post-emigration among Latino migrant men in post-Hurricane Katrina New Orleans. J Immigr Minor Health. 2013;15(3):606–13.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  15. Organista KC. Towards a structural-environmental model of risk for HIV and problem drinking in Latino labor migrants: the case of day laborers. J Ethn Cult Divers Soc Work. 2007;16(1–2):95–125.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Finch BK, Catalano RC, Novaco RW, Vega WA. Employment frustration and alcohol abuse/dependence among labor migrants in California. J Immigr Health. 2003;5(4):181–6 PubMed PMID: 14574069.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. Duke MR, Bourdeau B, Hovey JD. Day laborers and occupational stress: testing the Migrant Stress Inventory with a Latino day laborer population. Cult Divers Ethn Minor Psychol. 2010;16(2):116–22 Epub 2010/05/05. eng.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Watson J, Mattera G, Morales R, Kunitz SJ, Lynch R. Alcohol use among migrant laborers in western New York. J Stud Alcohol. 1985;46(5):403–11 PubMed PMID: 4068720. Epub 1985/09/01. eng.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. Watson JM. Alcohol and drug abuse by migrant farmworkers: past research and future priorities. NIDA Res Monogr. 1997;168:443–58 PubMed PMID: 9260176. Epub 1997/01/01. eng.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. Ferlander S. The importance of different forms of social capital for health. Acta Sociol. 2007;50(2):115–28.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Finch BK, Vega WA. Acculturation stress, social support, and self-rated health among Latinos in California. J Immigr Health. 2003;5(3):109–17 PubMed PMID: 14512765.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. Finch BK, Frank R, Vega WA. Acculturation and acculturation stress: a social-epidemiological approach to Mexican migrant farmworkers’ health1. Int Migr Rev. 2004;38(1):236–62.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Salgado H, Castaneda SF, Talavera GA, Lindsay SP. The role of social support and acculturative stress in health-related quality of life among day laborers in Northern San Diego. J Immigr Minor Health. 2012;14(3):379–85 PubMed PMID: 22286606. Epub 2012/01/31. eng.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  24. Mulvaney-Day NE, Alegria M, Sribney W. Social cohesion, social support, and health among Latinos in the United States. Soc Sci Med. 2007;64(2):477–95 PubMed PMID: 17049701. Pubmed Central PMCID: PMC3518460. Epub 2006/10/20. eng.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. Galea S, Vlahov D, Tracy M, Hoover DR, Resnick H, Kilpatrick D. Hispanic ethnicity and post-traumatic stress disorder after a disaster: evidence from a general population survey after September 11, 2001. Ann Epidemiol. 2004;14(8):520–31 PubMed PMID: 15350950. Epub 2004/09/08. eng.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. Vega WA, Kolody B, Valle R, Weir J. Social networks, social support, and their relationship to depression among immigrant mexican women. Hum Org. 1991;50(2):154–62.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. De La Rosa MR, White MS. A review of the role of social support systems in the drug use behavior of Hispanics. J Psychoact Drugs. 2001;33(3):233–40 PubMed PMID: 11718316. Epub 2001/11/23. eng.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Amuedo-Dorantes C, Mundra K. Social networks and their impact on the earnings of Mexican migrants. Demography. 2007;44(4):849–63 PubMed PMID: 18232215. Epub 2008/02/01. eng.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. Munoz-Laboy M, Hirsch JS, Quispe-Lazaro A. Loneliness as a sexual risk factor for male Mexican migrant workers. Am J Public Health. 2009;99(5):802–10 PubMed PMID: 19299684. Pubmed Central PMCID: 2667832. Epub 2009/03/21. eng.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  30. Rudolph AE, Linton S, Dyer TP, Latkin C. Individual, network, and neighborhood correlates of exchange sex among female non-injection drug users in Baltimore, MD (2005-2007). AIDS Behav. 2013;17(2):598–611 PubMed PMID: 22983502. Pubmed Central PMCID: PMC3552090. Epub 2012/09/18. eng.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  31. Latkin CA, Forman V, Knowlton A, Sherman S. Norms, social networks, and HIV-related risk behaviors among urban disadvantaged drug users. Soc Sci Med. 2003;56(3):465–76 PubMed PMID: 12570967. Epub 2003/02/07. eng.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. Miller M, Neaigus A. Sex partner support, drug use and sex risk among HIV-negative non-injecting heroin users. AIDS Care. 2002;14(6):801–13 PubMed PMID: 12511213. Epub 2003/01/04. eng.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. Kissinger P, Althoff M, Burton N, Schmidt N, Hembling J, Salinas O, et al. Prevalence, patterns and predictors of substance use among Latino migrant men in a new receiving community. Drug Alcohol Dep. 2013;133(3):814–24.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. DeJong W. Definitions binge drinking. JAMA. 2003;289(13):1635 author reply 6. PubMed PMID: 12672728.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  35. Mayfield D, McLeod G, Hall P. The CAGE questionnaire: validation of a new alcoholism screening instrument. Am J Psychiatr. 1974;131(10):1121–3 PubMed PMID: 4416585. Epub 1974/10/01. eng.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  36. Ward JB, Haan MN, Garcia ME, Lee A, To TM, Aiello AE. Intergenerational education mobility and depressive symptoms in a population of Mexican origin. Ann Epidemiol. 2016;26(7):461–6 PMCID: 4995110. Epub 2016/06/28. eng.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  37. Sobell LC, Sobell MB. Timeline Follow-Back. In: Litten RZ, Allen JP, editors. Measuring alcohol consumption: psychosocial and biochemical methods. Totowa: Humana Press; 1992. p. 41–72.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  38. Berkman LF, Glass T, Brissette I, Seeman TE. From social integration to health: Durkheim in the new millennium. Soc Sci Med. 2000;51(6):843–57 PubMed PMID: 10972429. Epub 2000/09/06. eng.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  39. Norbeck JS, Lindsey AM, Carrieri VL. The development of an instrument to measure social support. Nurs Res. 1981;30(5):264–9.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  40. Weiss RS. The provisions of social relationships. In: rubin z, editor. Doing unto others. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall; 1974. p. 17–26.

    Google Scholar 

  41. Currarini S, Matheson J, Vega-Redondo F. A simple model of homophily in social networks. Eur Econ Rev. 2016;90:18–39.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Agneessens F, Waege H, Lievens J. Social support typologies: different approaches for reducing social support data: FDV. Dev Soc Sci Methodol. 2002;18:73–94.

    Google Scholar 

  43. Dziak JJ, Bray BC, Wagner AT. LCA_Distal_BCH SAS macro users’ guide (Version 1.1) Penn State: University Park: The Methodology Center; 2017. http://methodology.psu.edu.

  44. LCA Distal BCH SAS software Macro (Version 1.1). Penn State: University Park: The Methodology Center; 2017.

  45. Lanza ST, Collins LM, Lemmon DR, Schafer JL. PROC LCA: A SAS Procedure for Latent Class Analysis. Struct Equ Model. 2007;14(4):671–94 PubMed PMID: 19953201. Pubmed Central PMCID: PMC2785099. Epub 2007/01/01. Eng.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Vandervoort D. Quality of social support in mental and physical health. Curr Psychol. 1999;18(2):205–21.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Holahan CJ, Moos RH. The quality of social support: measures of family and work relationships. Br J Clin Psychol. 1983;22(3):157–62.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Beedie A, Kennedy P. Quality of social support predicts hopelessness and depression post spinal cord injury. J Clin Psychol Med Sett. 2002;9(3):227–34.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. DiMatteo MR. Social support and patient adherence to medical treatment: a meta-analysis. Health Psychol. 2004;23(2):207–18 PubMed PMID: 15008666. Epub 2004/03/11. eng.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to Dr. Alan Neaigus for his feedback on this manuscript. This study was supported by NIDA F30DA033729, NIDA/NCHID R21DA026806 and NIDA R21DA030269, NIDA R25DA026401, and U54 GM104940.

Funding

This research was supported by NIDA R21DA030269 and NIDA/NCHID R21DA026806, PI- Dr. Kissinger, Dr. Althoff was supported by training Grant F30DA033729 and NIDA R25DA026401, and regulatory oversight was provided by U54 GM104940.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Patricia Kissinger.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Electronic Supplementary Material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (DOC 106 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Althoff, M.D., Theall, K., Schmidt, N. et al. Social Support Networks and HIV/STI Risk Behaviors Among Latino Immigrants in a New Receiving Environment. AIDS Behav 21, 3607–3617 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-017-1849-8

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-017-1849-8

Keywords

  • Latino immigrants
  • HIV/STI risk behaviors
  • Substance use
  • Social support
  • Latent class analysis