Ahn, J. H., and Y. W. Back. Comparative study of two techniques for ligament balancing in total knee arthroplasty for severe varus knee: medial soft tissue release vs. bony resection of proximal medial tibia. Knee Surg Relat Res 25:13–18, 2013.
Arms, S., J. Boyle, R. Johnson, and M. Pope. Strain measurement in the medial collateral ligament of the human knee: an autopsy study. J. Biomech. 16:491–496, 1983.
Asano, H., T. Muneta, and I. Sekiya. Soft tissue tension in extension in total knee arthroplasty affects postoperative knee extension and stability. Knee Surg. Sports Traumatol. Arthrosc. 16:999–1003, 2008.
Athwal, K. K., H. E. Daou, C. Kittl, A. J. Davies, D. J. Deehan, and A. A. Amis. The superficial medial collateral ligament is the primary medial restraint to knee laxity after cruciate-retaining or posterior-stabilised total knee arthroplasty: effects of implant type and partial release. Knee Surg. Sports Traumatol. Arthrosc. 24:2646–2655, 2016.
Babazadeh, S., J. D. Stoney, K. Lim, and P. F. Choong. The relevance of ligament balancing in total knee arthroplasty: how important is it? A systematic review of the literature. Orthop. Rev. (Pavia) 1:e26, 2009.
Barrack, R. L., T. Schrader, A. J. Bertot, M. W. Wolfe, and L. Myers. Component rotation and anterior knee pain after total knee arthroplasty. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 392:46–55, 2001.
Beall, D. P., J. D. Googe, J. T. Moss, J. Q. Ly, B. J. Greer, A. M. Stapp, and H. D. Martin. Magnetic resonance imaging of the collateral ligaments and the anatomic quadrants of the knee. Radiol. Clin. N. Am. 45:983–1002, 2007.
Becker, R., M. T. Hirschmann, and J. Karlsson. The role of ligament tension and sensomotoric system in total knee arthroplasty. Knee Surg. Sports Traumatol. Arthrosc. 25:1663–1665, 2017.
Bergamini, E., H. Pillet, G. Rochcongar, P. Thoreux, P. Rouch, V. Camomilla, A. Cappozzo, and W. Skalli. Estimation of subject-specific 3d position of the knee ligament attachment sites and ligament length variation during knee flexion. In: 25th Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics. Glasgow (UK), 2015.
Beynnon, B. D., and B. C. Fleming. Anterior cruciate ligament strain in-vivo: a review of previous work. J. Biomech. 31:519–525, 1998.
Christensen, C. P., A. H. Stewart, and C. A. Jacobs. Soft tissue releases affect the femoral component rotation necessary to create a balanced flexion gap during total knee arthroplasty. J. Arthroplasty 28:1528–1532, 2013.
Daines, B. K., and D. A. Dennis. Gap balancing vs. measured resection technique in total knee arthroplasty. Clin. Orthop. Surg. 6:1–8, 2014.
Delp, S. L., F. C. Anderson, A. S. Arnold, P. Loan, A. Habib, C. T. John, E. Guendelman, and D. G. Thelen. OpenSim: open-source software to create and analyze dynamic simulations of movement. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54:1940–1950, 2007.
Fishkin, Z., D. Miller, C. Ritter, and I. Ziv. Changes in human knee ligament stiffness secondary to osteoarthritis. J. Orthop. Res. 20:204–207, 2002.
Fitzpatrick, C. K., C. W. Clary, and P. J. Rullkoetter. The role of patient, surgical, and implant design variation in total knee replacement performance. J. Biomech. 45:2092–2102, 2012.
Fleming, B. C., P. A. Renstrom, B. D. Beynnon, B. Engstrom, G. D. Peura, G. J. Badger, and R. J. Johnson. The effect of weightbearing and external loading on anterior cruciate ligament strain. J. Biomech. 34:163–170, 2001.
Foresti M. In vivo measurement of total knee joint replacement kinematics and kinetics during stair descent. In: D-MAVT. Zurich: ETH Zurich, 2009, p. 77.
Grood, E. S., and W. J. Suntay. A joint coordinate system for the clinical description of three-dimensional motions: application to the knee. J. Biomech. Eng. 105:136–144, 1983.
Hosseini Nasab, S. H., R. List, K. Oberhofer, S. F. Fucentese, J. G. Snedeker, and W. R. Taylor. Loading patterns of the posterior cruciate ligament in the healthy knee: a systematic review. PLoS ONE 11:e0167106, 2016.
Hosseini Nasab, S. H., C. R. Smith, P. Schutz, B. Postolka, R. List, and W. R. Taylor. Elongation patterns of the collateral ligaments after total knee arthroplasty are dominated by the knee flexion angle. Front. Bioeng. Biotechnol. 7:323, 2019.
Indelli, P. F., N. Giori, and W. Maloney. Level of constraint in revision knee arthroplasty. Curr. Rev. Musculoskelet. Med. 8:390–397, 2015.
Jeffcote, B., R. Nicholls, A. Schirm, and M. S. Kuster. The variation in medial and lateral collateral ligament strain and tibiofemoral forces following changes in the flexion and extension gaps in total knee replacement. A laboratory experiment using cadaver knees. J. Bone Joint Surg. Br. 89:1528–1533, 2007.
Kanamori, A., M. Sakane, J. Zeminski, T. W. Rudy, and S. L. Woo. In-situ force in the medial and lateral structures of intact and ACL-deficient knees. J. Orthop. Sci. 5:567–571, 2000.
Kennedy, J. C., R. J. Hawkins, and R. B. Willis. Strain gauge analysis of knee ligaments. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 129:225–229, 1977.
LaPrade, R. F., A. H. Engebretsen, T. V. Ly, S. Johansen, F. A. Wentorf, and L. Engebretsen. The anatomy of the medial part of the knee. J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 89:2000–2010, 2007.
LaPrade, R. F., T. V. Ly, F. A. Wentorf, and L. Engebretsen. The posterolateral attachments of the knee: a qualitative and quantitative morphologic analysis of the fibular collateral ligament, popliteus tendon, popliteofibular ligament, and lateral gastrocnemius tendon. Am. J. Sports Med. 31:854–860, 2003.
Lee, D. S., E. K. Song, J. K. Seon, and S. J. Park. Effect of balanced gap total knee arthroplasty on intraoperative laxities and femoral component rotation. J. Arthroplasty 26:699–704, 2011.
List, R., B. Postolka, P. Schutz, M. Hitz, P. Schwilch, H. Gerber, S. J. Ferguson, and W. R. Taylor. A moving fluoroscope to capture tibiofemoral kinematics during complete cycles of free level and downhill walking as well as stair descent. PLoS ONE 12:e0185952, 2017.
Liu, F., H. R. Gadikota, M. Kozanek, A. Hosseini, B. Yue, T. J. Gill, H. E. Rubash, and G. A. Li. In vivo length patterns of the medial collateral ligament during the stance phase of gait. Knee Surg. Sports Traumatol. Arthrosc. 19:719–727, 2011.
Liu, F., B. Yue, H. R. Gadikota, M. Kozanek, W. Liu, T. J. Gill, H. E. Rubash, and G. Li. Morphology of the medial collateral ligament of the knee. J. Orthop. Surg. Res. 5:69, 2010.
Massin, P. How does total knee replacement technique influence polyethylene wear? Orthop. Traumatol. Surg. Res. 103:S21–S27, 2017.
Matsuda, Y., Y. Ishii, H. Noguchi, and R. Ishii. Varus-valgus balance and range of movement after total knee arthroplasty. J. Bone Joint Surg. Br. 87:804–808, 2005.
Matsumoto, T., H. Muratsu, N. Tsumura, K. Mizuno, M. Kurosaka, and R. Kuroda. Soft tissue balance measurement in posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty with a navigation system. J. Arthroplasty 24:358–364, 2009.
Meister, B. R., S. P. Michael, R. A. Moyer, J. D. Kelly, and C. D. Schneck. Anatomy and kinematics of the lateral collateral ligament of the knee. Am. J. Sports Med. 28:869–878, 2000.
Meloni, M. C., R. W. Hoedemaeker, B. Violante, and C. Mazzola. Soft tissue balancing in total knee arthroplasty. Joints 2:37–40, 2014.
Olcott, C. W., and R. D. Scott. The Ranawat Award. Femoral component rotation during total knee arthroplasty. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 367:39–42, 1999.
Park, K. K., A. Hosseini, T. Y. Tsai, Y. M. Kwon, and G. Li. Elongation of the collateral ligaments after cruciate retaining total knee arthroplasty and the maximum flexion of the knee. J. Biomech. 48:418–424, 2015.
Park, S. E., L. E. DeFrate, J. F. Suggs, T. J. Gill, H. E. Rubash, and G. Li. The change in length of the medial and lateral collateral ligaments during in vivo knee flexion. Knee 12:377–382, 2005.
Pataky, T. C. One-dimensional statistical parametric mapping in Python. Comput. Methods Biomech. Biomed. Eng. 15:295–301, 2012.
Pillet, H., E. Bergamini, G. Rochcongar, V. Camomilla, P. Thoreux, P. Rouch, A. Cappozzo, and W. Skalli. Femur, tibia and fibula bone templates to estimate subject-specific knee ligament attachment site locations. J. Biomech. 49:3523–3528, 2016.
Rachmat, H. H., D. Janssen, W. J. Zevenbergen, G. J. Verkerke, R. L. Diercks, and N. Verdonschot. Generating finite element models of the knee: How accurately can we determine ligament attachment sites from MRI scans? Med. Eng. Phys. 36:701–707, 2014.
Saigo, T., G. Tajima, S. Kikuchi, J. Yan, M. Maruyama, A. Sugawara, and M. Doita. Morphology of the insertions of the superficial medial collateral ligament and posterior oblique ligament using 3-dimensional computed tomography: a cadaveric study. Arthroscopy 33:400–407, 2017.
Schütz, P. Towards improving joint replacement: which characteristics of design and activity govern joint kinematics in total knee arthroplasty? In: HEST. Zürich: ETH Zürich, 2018.
Schutz, P., B. Postolka, H. Gerber, S. J. Ferguson, W. R. Taylor, and R. List. Knee implant kinematics are task-dependent. J. R. Soc. Interface 16:20180678, 2019.
Schutz, P., W. R. Taylor, B. Postolka, S. F. Fucentese, P. P. Koch, M. A. R. Freeman, V. Pinskerova, and R. List. Kinematic evaluation of the GMK sphere implant during gait activities: a dynamic videofluoroscopy study. J. Orthop. Res. 37:2337–2347, 2019.
Sharma, R. K. Mid flexion instability after primary total knee arthroplasty. Br Editor. Soc. Bone Joint Surg. 95:1, 2013.
Song, S. J., R. C. Detch, W. J. Maloney, S. B. Goodman, and J. I. Huddleston, 3rd. Causes of instability after total knee arthroplasty. J. Arthroplasty 29:360–364, 2014.
Taylor, W. R., P. Schutz, G. Bergmann, R. List, B. Postolka, M. Hitz, J. Dymke, P. Damm, G. Duda, H. Gerber, V. Schwachmeyer, S. H. Hosseini Nasab, A. Trepczynski, and I. Kutzner. A comprehensive assessment of the musculoskeletal system: the CAMS-Knee data set. J. Biomech. 65:32–39, 2017.
Wang, C. J., and P. S. Walker. The effects of flexion and rotation on the length patterns of the ligaments of the knee. J. Biomech. 6:587–596, 1973.
Warren, L. A., J. L. Marshall, and F. Girgis. The prime static stabilizer of the medical side of the knee. J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 56:665–674, 1974.
Wijdicks, C. A., M. P. Michalski, M. T. Rasmussen, M. T. Goldsmith, N. I. Kennedy, M. Lind, L. Engebretsen, and R. F. LaPrade. Superficial medial collateral ligament anatomic augmented repair versus anatomic reconstruction: an in vitro biomechanical analysis. Am. J. Sports Med. 41:2858–2866, 2013.